Abstract

A semiconductor photoinduced electromotive-force detector is used to measure the square of the electric-field correlation of nominal 100-fs laser pulses. For transform-limited pulses, this measurement gives the intensity correlation and thus directly gives the pulse width. The photoinduced electromotive-force technique using semi-insulating GaAs:Cr performs detection that is linear in intensity, making it possible to characterize weak femtosecond pulses with an average power of microwatts.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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1997 (4)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

1990 (2)

M. P. Petrov, I. A. Sokolov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2216 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. Trebino, C. Hayden, A. M. Johnson, W. M. Simpson, and A. M. Levine, Opt. Lett. 15, 1079 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (1)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

1985 (1)

1967 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16 (1967).
[Crossref]

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16 (1967).
[Crossref]

Baltuska, A.

Bernstein, A.

Brubaker, R. M.

Chiao, M. P.

G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, M. P. Chiao, P. V. Mitchell, J. W. Wagner, and F. M. Davidson, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1997), Vol. 16, p. 579.

Davidson, F. M.

F. M. Davidson, C. C. Wang, C. T. Field, and S. Trivedi, Opt. Lett. 19, 478 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, M. P. Chiao, P. V. Mitchell, J. W. Wagner, and F. M. Davidson, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1997), Vol. 16, p. 579.

Diels, J.-C.

J.-C. Diels, J. J. Fontaine, I. C. McMichael, and F. Simoni, Appl. Opt. 24, 1270 (1985).
[Crossref]

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulses Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

Dunning, G. J.

G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, M. P. Chiao, P. V. Mitchell, J. W. Wagner, and F. M. Davidson, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1997), Vol. 16, p. 579.

Field, C. T.

Fontaine, J. J.

Harmon, E. S.

Hayden, C.

Johnson, A. M.

Lester, L. F.

Levine, A. M.

McGowan, C.

McMichael, I. C.

Melloch, M. R.

Mitchell, P. V.

G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, M. P. Chiao, P. V. Mitchell, J. W. Wagner, and F. M. Davidson, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1997), Vol. 16, p. 579.

Mogi, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[Crossref]

Naganuma, K.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[Crossref]

Nolte, D. D.

Padgett, M.

Pepper, D. M.

G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, M. P. Chiao, P. V. Mitchell, J. W. Wagner, and F. M. Davidson, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1997), Vol. 16, p. 579.

Petrov, M. P.

M. P. Petrov, I. A. Sokolov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2216 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

Pshenichnikov, M. S.

Reid, D. T.

Rudolph, W.

W. Rudolph, M. Sheik-Bahae, A. Bernstein, and L. F. Lester, Opt. Lett. 22, 313 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulses Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

Sheik-Bahae, M.

Sibbett, W.

Simoni, F.

Simpson, W. M.

Sleat, W. E.

Sokolov, I. A.

I. A. Sokolov and S. I. Stepanov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1483 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. P. Petrov, I. A. Sokolov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2216 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, S. I.

I. A. Sokolov and S. I. Stepanov, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1483 (1993).
[Crossref]

M. P. Petrov, I. A. Sokolov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2216 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

Trebino, R.

Trivedi, S.

Trofimov, G. S.

M. P. Petrov, I. A. Sokolov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2216 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

Wagner, J. W.

G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, M. P. Chiao, P. V. Mitchell, J. W. Wagner, and F. M. Davidson, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1997), Vol. 16, p. 579.

Wang, C. C.

Wang, Q. N.

Wei, Z.

Wiersma, D. A.

Yamada, H.

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. A. Armstrong, Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 16 (1967).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

K. Naganuma, K. Mogi, and H. Yamada, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 1225 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. P. Petrov, I. A. Sokolov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, J. Appl. Phys. 68, 2216 (1990).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (6)

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (1)

M. P. Petrov, S. I. Stepanov, and G. S. Trofimov, Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 12, 379 (1986).

Other (2)

J.-C. Diels and W. Rudolph, Ultrashort Laser Pulses Phenomena: Fundamentals, Techniques, and Applications on a Femtosecond Time Scale (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1996).

G. J. Dunning, D. M. Pepper, M. P. Chiao, P. V. Mitchell, J. W. Wagner, and F. M. Davidson, in Review of Progress in Quantitative Nondestructive Evaluation, D. O. Thompson and D. E. Chimenti, eds. (Plenum, New York, 1997), Vol. 16, p. 579.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the experimental setup showing the non-steady-state photo-EMF technique to characterize femtosecond pulses. BS, beam splitter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Electric-field autocorrelation of the reference laser pulse. The FWHM of the envelope of the interferometric trace was found to be 184 fs, resulting in a pulse width of 92 fs for the reference pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electric-field cross correlation between the signal pulse transmitted through the EO modulator and the reference pulse. The FWHM of the envelope is tS,R=314 fs, leading to a broadened pulse width of 202 fs for the signal pulse.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Typical photo-EMF trace, which produces the square of the electric-field cross correlation of the femtosecond pulses directly without requiring data analysis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Intensity dependence of the photo-EMF (PEMF) signal, showing the linearity with intensity over almost 4 orders of magnitude, detectable at incident powers of microwatts. Also shown is the extracted FWHM, which remains constant across this intensity regime.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Photo-EMF (PEMF) signal as a function of the square of the nominal intensity modulation m02.

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(t, τ)=ES(t)+ER(t-τ)=ESfS(t)exp(-iωLt+ikSr)+ERfR(t-τ)exp[-iωL(t-τ)+ikRr],
I(t, τ)=IS|fS(t)|2+IR|fR(t-τ)|2+ISIRfS(t)fR*(t-τ)exp(-iωLτ)exp(iKx)+c.c.,
I(τ)=-I(t, τ)dt=I0{1+½m0gS,R(τ)exp[i(Kx-ωLτ)]+c.c.}=I0{1+½m(τ)exp[i(Kx-ωLτ)]+c.c.},
m(τ)=m0gS,R(τ),
gS,R(τ)=-fS(t)fR*(t-τ)dt.
gS,R(τ)=exp-2 ln 2 τ2tS2+tR2.
m(t, τ)=m(τ)exp(iΔ cos ωt).
jω=m(τ)2Δ2 σ01+K2LD2 ED -iω/ω01+iω/ω0,
ω0=1τM(1+K2LD2)
tS,R=tS2+tR2.

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