Abstract

We demonstrate a technique for tunable single-mode operation of high-power laser-diode arrays. A spatially filtered part of the far field from a gain-guided GaAlAs laser-diode array is directed to a diffractive grating and is coupled to a phase-conjugating self-pumped barium titanate crystal. The interaction among the grating, the dynamic gratings in the photorefractive crystal, and the spatial filter forces the laser-diode array with poor spatial and temporal coherence to oscillate in a single spatial and single longitudinal mode. At a drive current of two times the threshold, the array operates in a single-lobed far-field pattern that is only 1.5 times the diffraction limit. The bandwidth of the enhanced output beam is measured to be less than 0.03 nm, and the coherence length of the output is increased 45 times, to at least 16 mm. Once single-mode operation has been obtained, one can continuously tune the frequency over a range of 5 nm around a center wavelength of 811 nm by tilting the grating. More than 50% of the radiated energy of the free-running laser is coupled out of the system. The significantly enhanced coherence properties of the output may lead to a number of new or improved applications in areas such as second-harmonic generation, coupling into single-mode fiber, and pumping of solid-state lasers.

[Optical Society of America ]

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  1. G. L. Abbas , S. Yang , and V. W. S. Chan , Injection behavior of high-power broad-area diode lasers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 12 , 605 ( 1987
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. L. Goldberg and M. K. Chun , Injection locking characteristics of a 1W broad stripe laser diode , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 53 , 1900 ( 1988
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. MacCormack , J. Feinberg , and M. H. Garrett , Injection locking a laser-diode array with a phase-conjugate beam , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 120 ( 1994
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. L. Goldberg , H. F. Taylor , J. F. Weller , and D. R. Scrifres , Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 46 , 236 ( 1985
    [CrossRef]
  5. L. Goldberg and J. F. Weller , Single lobe operation of a 40-element laser array in an external ring laser cavity , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 51 , 871 ( 1987
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. Hemmati , Single longitudinal mode operation of semiconductor laser arrays with etalon feedback , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 51 , 224 ( 1987
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. C. Fey-den Boer , K. A. H. van Leeuween , H. C. W. Beijerinck , C. Fort , and F. S. Pavone , Grating feedback in a 810 nm broad-area diode laser , Appl. Phys. B APBOEM 63 , 117 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Li , C. Wu , M. B. Snipes , and J. G. McInerney , Widely tunable, high power external cavity semiconductor lasers , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 1634 , 532 ( 1992
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire , Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 32 , 996 ( 1996
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. J. Chang-Hasnain , A. Dienes , J. R. Whinnery , W. Streifer , and D. R. Scifres , Characteristics of the off-centered apertured mirror external cavity laser array , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 54 , 484 ( 1989
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Segev , Y. Ophir , B. Fischer , and G. Eisenstein , Mode locking and frequency tuning of a laser diode array in an extended cavity with a photorefractive phase conjugate mirror , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 57 , 2523 ( 1990
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Lobel , P. M. Petersen , and P. M. Johansen , Suppressing self-induced frequency scanning of a phase conjugate diode laser array using counterbalance dispersion , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 72 , 1263 ( 1998
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv , Self-induced frequency scanning and distributed Bragg reflection in semiconductor lasers with phase-conjugate feedback , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 11 , 455 ( 1986
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. W. B. Whitten and J. M. Ramsey , Self-scanning of a dye laser due to feedback from a BaTiO 3 phase-conjugate reflector , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 9 , 44 ( 1984
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. S. MacCormack and J. Feinberg , High-brightness output from a laser diode array coupled a phase-conjugating mirror , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 18 , 211 ( 1993
    [CrossRef]
  16. S. Sternklar , S. Weiss , M. Segev , and B. Fischer , Beam coupling and locking of lasers using photorefractive four-wave mixing , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 11 , 528 ( 1986
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. J. Feinberg , Continuous-wave self-pumped phase conjugator with wide field of view , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 8 , 480 ( 1983
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. J. Feinberg , Self-pumped, continuous-wave phase conjugator using internal reflection , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 7 , 486 ( 1982
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. J. M. Verdiell , H. Rajbenbach , and J. P. Huignard , Array modes of multiple-stripe diode lasers: a broad-area mode coupling approach , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 66 , 1466 ( 1989
    [CrossRef]
  20. R. J. Lang , A. G. Larsson , and J. C. Cody , Lateral modes of broad area semiconductor lasers: theory and experiment , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 27 , 312 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]

Beijerinck, H. C. W

A. C. Fey-den Boer , K. A. H. van Leeuween , H. C. W. Beijerinck , C. Fort , and F. S. Pavone , Grating feedback in a 810 nm broad-area diode laser , Appl. Phys. B APBOEM 63 , 117 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

Chun, M. K

L. Goldberg and M. K. Chun , Injection locking characteristics of a 1W broad stripe laser diode , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 53 , 1900 ( 1988
[CrossRef]

Cody, J. C

R. J. Lang , A. G. Larsson , and J. C. Cody , Lateral modes of broad area semiconductor lasers: theory and experiment , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 27 , 312 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Fey-den Boer, A. C

A. C. Fey-den Boer , K. A. H. van Leeuween , H. C. W. Beijerinck , C. Fort , and F. S. Pavone , Grating feedback in a 810 nm broad-area diode laser , Appl. Phys. B APBOEM 63 , 117 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E. M

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire , Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 32 , 996 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A. G

R. J. Lang , A. G. Larsson , and J. C. Cody , Lateral modes of broad area semiconductor lasers: theory and experiment , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 27 , 312 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Pavone, F. S

A. C. Fey-den Boer , K. A. H. van Leeuween , H. C. W. Beijerinck , C. Fort , and F. S. Pavone , Grating feedback in a 810 nm broad-area diode laser , Appl. Phys. B APBOEM 63 , 117 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

Pillai, R. M. R

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire , Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 32 , 996 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

Scrifres, D. R

L. Goldberg , H. F. Taylor , J. F. Weller , and D. R. Scrifres , Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 46 , 236 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

Snipes, M. B

Y. Li , C. Wu , M. B. Snipes , and J. G. McInerney , Widely tunable, high power external cavity semiconductor lasers , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 1634 , 532 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

van Leeuween, K. A. H

A. C. Fey-den Boer , K. A. H. van Leeuween , H. C. W. Beijerinck , C. Fort , and F. S. Pavone , Grating feedback in a 810 nm broad-area diode laser , Appl. Phys. B APBOEM 63 , 117 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

Weller, J. F

L. Goldberg , H. F. Taylor , J. F. Weller , and D. R. Scrifres , Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 46 , 236 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

Other (20)

G. L. Abbas , S. Yang , and V. W. S. Chan , Injection behavior of high-power broad-area diode lasers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 12 , 605 ( 1987
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Goldberg and M. K. Chun , Injection locking characteristics of a 1W broad stripe laser diode , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 53 , 1900 ( 1988
[CrossRef]

S. MacCormack , J. Feinberg , and M. H. Garrett , Injection locking a laser-diode array with a phase-conjugate beam , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 120 ( 1994
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. Goldberg , H. F. Taylor , J. F. Weller , and D. R. Scrifres , Injection locking of coupled-stripe diode laser arrays , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 46 , 236 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

L. Goldberg and J. F. Weller , Single lobe operation of a 40-element laser array in an external ring laser cavity , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 51 , 871 ( 1987
[CrossRef]

H. Hemmati , Single longitudinal mode operation of semiconductor laser arrays with etalon feedback , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 51 , 224 ( 1987
[CrossRef]

A. C. Fey-den Boer , K. A. H. van Leeuween , H. C. W. Beijerinck , C. Fort , and F. S. Pavone , Grating feedback in a 810 nm broad-area diode laser , Appl. Phys. B APBOEM 63 , 117 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

Y. Li , C. Wu , M. B. Snipes , and J. G. McInerney , Widely tunable, high power external cavity semiconductor lasers , Proc. SPIE PSISDG 1634 , 532 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

R. M. R. Pillai and E. M. Garmire , Paraxial-misalignment insensitive external-cavity semiconductor-laser array emitting near-diffraction limited single-lobed beam , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 32 , 996 ( 1996
[CrossRef]

C. J. Chang-Hasnain , A. Dienes , J. R. Whinnery , W. Streifer , and D. R. Scifres , Characteristics of the off-centered apertured mirror external cavity laser array , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 54 , 484 ( 1989
[CrossRef]

M. Segev , Y. Ophir , B. Fischer , and G. Eisenstein , Mode locking and frequency tuning of a laser diode array in an extended cavity with a photorefractive phase conjugate mirror , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 57 , 2523 ( 1990
[CrossRef]

M. Lobel , P. M. Petersen , and P. M. Johansen , Suppressing self-induced frequency scanning of a phase conjugate diode laser array using counterbalance dispersion , Appl. Phys. Lett. APPLAB 72 , 1263 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv , Self-induced frequency scanning and distributed Bragg reflection in semiconductor lasers with phase-conjugate feedback , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 11 , 455 ( 1986
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. B. Whitten and J. M. Ramsey , Self-scanning of a dye laser due to feedback from a BaTiO 3 phase-conjugate reflector , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 9 , 44 ( 1984
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. MacCormack and J. Feinberg , High-brightness output from a laser diode array coupled a phase-conjugating mirror , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 18 , 211 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

S. Sternklar , S. Weiss , M. Segev , and B. Fischer , Beam coupling and locking of lasers using photorefractive four-wave mixing , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 11 , 528 ( 1986
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg , Continuous-wave self-pumped phase conjugator with wide field of view , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 8 , 480 ( 1983
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Feinberg , Self-pumped, continuous-wave phase conjugator using internal reflection , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 7 , 486 ( 1982
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. M. Verdiell , H. Rajbenbach , and J. P. Huignard , Array modes of multiple-stripe diode lasers: a broad-area mode coupling approach , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 66 , 1466 ( 1989
[CrossRef]

R. J. Lang , A. G. Larsson , and J. C. Cody , Lateral modes of broad area semiconductor lasers: theory and experiment , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 27 , 312 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup. A gain-guided GaAlAs diode array is coupled to a PCM. L1, collimating lens (Thorlab, Newton, N.J., model C230TM-B): N.A., 0.55; f1=4.5 mm. L2, plano-convex cylindrical lens; f2=60 mm. L3, spherical singlet lens; f3=100 mm. BS, beam splitter (2° wedge). WP, λ/2 wave plate (zero-order) at 815 nm. G, 1200 lines/mm ruled grating with blaze angle of 26.4 deg (750 nm). SF, spatial filter (two razorblades mounted on translation stages). P, indication of polarization. The components in the dashed box shall be rotated 90 deg around the optical axis of the array.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical spectrum at I=0.55 A (2×Ith). (a) With the array running freely, (b) with feedback applied. Angle of incidence θ at the grating, 19.73 deg; bandwidth (FWHM), 0.03 nm. (c) Same as (b), but θ=19.60 deg; (d) same as (c), but θ=19.47 deg; (e) same as (d), but θ=19.30 deg.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured far field from array (measured in the plane of the junction, all curves on the same scale). (a) With the array running freely at I=0.55 A (2×Ith); (b) with feedback applied at I=0.55 A (2×Ith); (c) same as (b), but drive current I=0.83 A (3×Ith).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Coherence degree versus the path difference of the arms in a standard Michelson interferometer.

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