Abstract

We demonstrate spatial filtering by using the azo-chromophore-based nonlinear optical effect of self-beam polarization modulation and optical threshold processing. The real-time image-processing scheme is described by use of an optical configuration composed of an action-beam–probe-beam system, Fourier-transform operation, and an azo-chromophore-doped film as a spatial filter. As Disperse Red 1 dye (DR1) doped in an N-poly(vinylcarbazole) (PVK) film with N-ethylcarbazole (ECZ) of low glass-transition temperature exhibits self-polarization rotation after thin-film transmission, a linearly polarized probe beam in the film is observed, even through a crossed analyzer. In addition, this film permits optical threshold processing by introducing an action beam with different intensity and wavelength from those of the probe beam with object information. Changing the action-beam intensity results in a decrease or an increase in the transmitted probe-beam power through the analyzer. When a DR1–PVK–ECZ film is placed at the Fourier plane on the probe-beam path, the filter functions can be modulated in real time by manipulation of the intensity ratio between the action beam and the spatial-frequency components at the film plane. The spatial frequencies of an original input image can be manipulated as they pass through the film. These effects are responsible for the photoisomerization of DR1 molecules in the low-glass-transition-temperature polymer matrix.

[Optical Society of America ]

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. T. Todorov , L. Nikolova , N. Tomova , and V. Dragostinova , Photoinduced anisotropy in rigid dye solutions for transient polarization holography , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 QE-22 , 1262 1267 ( 1986
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  4. J. J. A. Couture , Polarization holographic characterization of organic azo dyes/PVA films for real time applications , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 30 , 2858 2866 ( 1991
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. V. P. Pham , T. Galstyan , A. Granger , and R. A. Lessard , Novel azo dye-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JJAPA5 36 , 429 438 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  6. Sandalphon , B. Kippelen , N. Peyghambarian , S. R. Lyon , A. B. Padias , and H. K. Hall , Jr. , Dual-grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 68 70 ( 1994
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    [CrossRef]
  8. S. V. O Leary , Real-time image processing by degenerate four-wave mixing in polarization sensitive dye-impregnated polymer films , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 104 , 245 250 ( 1994
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. S. Mailhot , P. Galarneau , R. A. Lessard , and M. Denaries-Roberge , Degenerate four-wave mixing in organic azo dyes chrysoidin and benzopurpurin 4B , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 27 , 3418 3421 ( 1988
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. E. Mohajerani , E. Whale , and G. R. Mitchell , Polarization sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 92 , 403 410 ( 1992
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. S. H. Barley , A. Gilbert , and G. R. Mitchell , Photoinduced reversible refractive-index changes in tailored siloxane-based polymers , J. Mater. Chem. JMACEP 1 , 481 482 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  14. A. Yacoubian and T. M. Aye , Enhanced optical modulation using azo-dye polymers , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 32 , 3073 3080 ( 1993
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. R. Thoma , N. Hampp , and C. Brauchle , and D. Oesterhelt Bacteriorhodopsin films as spatial light modulators for nonlinear-optical filtering , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 16 , 651 653 ( 1991
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. J. D. Downie , Nonlinear coherent optical image processing using logarithmic transmittance of bacteriorhodopsin films , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 34 , 5210 5217 ( 1995
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. T. Takeda , K. Nakagawa , and H. Fujiwara , A spatial light modulator using a methyl-red doped polyvinyl alcohol film , Nonlinear Opt. NOPDEP 7 , 295 301 ( 1994
  19. B. Fleck and L. Wenke , The intensity transfer function of a photoanisotropic wavelength-to-wavelength converter , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 137 , 207 213 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Huang and K. H. Wagner , Photoanisotropic incoherent-to-coherent optical conversion , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 32 , 1888 1900 ( 1993
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. H. Takei and N. Shimizu , Spatial light modulation based on photoinduced change in the complex refractive index of bacteriorhodopsin , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 35 , 1848 1854 ( 1996
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. T. Okamoto , I. Yamaguchi , S. A. Boothroyd , and J. Chrostowski , Novelty filter that uses a bacteriorhodopsin film , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 36 , 508 511 ( 1997
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. J. Kato , I. Yamaguchi , and H. Tanaka , Nonlinear spatial filtering with a dye-doped liquid-crystal cell , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 21 , 767 769 ( 1996
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  24. C. Egami , Y. Suzuki , T. Uemori , O. Sugihara , and N. Okamoto , Self-adaptive spatial filtering by use of azo chromophores doped in low glass-transition-temperature polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 1424 1426 ( 1997
    [CrossRef]
  25. T. F. Heinz , C. K. Chen , D. Ricard , and V. R. Shen , Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 48 , 478 481 ( 1982
    [CrossRef]
  26. G. Marowsky and A. Gierulski , Interferometric enhancement of surface-generated second-harmonic radiation , Appl. Phys. B APPCDL 34 , 69 72 ( 1984
    [CrossRef]
  27. C. Jones and S. Day , Shedding light on alignment , Nature NATUAS 351 , 15 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. B. Kippelen , N. Peyghambarian , S. R. Lyon , A. B. Padias , and H. K. Hall , Jr. , Dual-grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 68 70 ( 1994

Aye, T. M

Barley, S. H

S. H. Barley , A. Gilbert , and G. R. Mitchell , Photoinduced reversible refractive-index changes in tailored siloxane-based polymers , J. Mater. Chem. JMACEP 1 , 481 482 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Couture, J. J. A

Day, S

C. Jones and S. Day , Shedding light on alignment , Nature NATUAS 351 , 15 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Denaries-Roberge, M

Galarneau, P

Gilbert, A

S. H. Barley , A. Gilbert , and G. R. Mitchell , Photoinduced reversible refractive-index changes in tailored siloxane-based polymers , J. Mater. Chem. JMACEP 1 , 481 482 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Jones, C

C. Jones and S. Day , Shedding light on alignment , Nature NATUAS 351 , 15 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Mailhot, S

Mohajerani, E

E. Mohajerani , E. Whale , and G. R. Mitchell , Polarization sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 92 , 403 410 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

Pham, V. P

V. P. Pham , T. Galstyan , A. Granger , and R. A. Lessard , Novel azo dye-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JJAPA5 36 , 429 438 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

Shen, V. R

T. F. Heinz , C. K. Chen , D. Ricard , and V. R. Shen , Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 48 , 478 481 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

Stoyanova, K

Uemori, T

Wenke, L

B. Fleck and L. Wenke , The intensity transfer function of a photoanisotropic wavelength-to-wavelength converter , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 137 , 207 213 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

Whale, E

E. Mohajerani , E. Whale , and G. R. Mitchell , Polarization sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 92 , 403 410 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

Yacoubian, A

Other

S. Calixto and R. A. Lessard , Holographic recording and reconstruction of polarized light with dyed plastic , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 23 , 4313 4318 ( 1984
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Todorov , L. Nikolova , N. Tomova , and V. Dragostinova , Photoinduced anisotropy in rigid dye solutions for transient polarization holography , IEEE J. Quantum Electron. IEJQA7 QE-22 , 1262 1267 ( 1986
[CrossRef]

T. Todorov , L. Nikolova , K. Stoyanova , and N. Tomova , Polarization holography. 3. Some applications of polarization holographic recording , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 24 , 785 788 ( 1985
[CrossRef]

J. J. A. Couture , Polarization holographic characterization of organic azo dyes/PVA films for real time applications , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 30 , 2858 2866 ( 1991
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

V. P. Pham , T. Galstyan , A. Granger , and R. A. Lessard , Novel azo dye-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) films as optical data storage media , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JJAPA5 36 , 429 438 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon , B. Kippelen , N. Peyghambarian , S. R. Lyon , A. B. Padias , and H. K. Hall , Jr. , Dual-grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 68 70 ( 1994

C. Egami , K. Nakagawa , and H. Fujiwara , Phase conjugation in methyl-orange-doped PVA films by photoinduced anisotropy , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JJAPA5 29 , 1544 1546 ( 1990
[CrossRef]

S. V. O Leary , Real-time image processing by degenerate four-wave mixing in polarization sensitive dye-impregnated polymer films , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 104 , 245 250 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

L. Nikolova , T. Todorov , N. Tomova , and V. Dragostinova , Polarization-preserving wavefront reversal by four-wave mixing in photoanisotropic materials , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 27 , 1598 1602 ( 1988
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Mailhot , P. Galarneau , R. A. Lessard , and M. Denaries-Roberge , Degenerate four-wave mixing in organic azo dyes chrysoidin and benzopurpurin 4B , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 27 , 3418 3421 ( 1988
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Mohajerani , E. Whale , and G. R. Mitchell , Polarization sensitive optical phase conjugation in novel polymer films , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 92 , 403 410 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

C. Egami , K. Nakagawa , and H. Fujiwara , Efficient optical phase conjugation in methyl-orange-doped polyvinyl alcohol film , Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. JJAPA5 31 , 2937 2940 ( 1992
[CrossRef]

S. H. Barley , A. Gilbert , and G. R. Mitchell , Photoinduced reversible refractive-index changes in tailored siloxane-based polymers , J. Mater. Chem. JMACEP 1 , 481 482 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

A. Yacoubian and T. M. Aye , Enhanced optical modulation using azo-dye polymers , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 32 , 3073 3080 ( 1993
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Thoma , N. Hampp , and C. Brauchle , and D. Oesterhelt Bacteriorhodopsin films as spatial light modulators for nonlinear-optical filtering , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 16 , 651 653 ( 1991
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. D. Downie , Nonlinear coherent optical image processing using logarithmic transmittance of bacteriorhodopsin films , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 34 , 5210 5217 ( 1995
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Joseph , F. J. Aranda , D. V. G. L. N. Rao , J. A. Akkara , and M. Nakashima , Optical Fourier processing using photoinduced dichroism in a bacteriorhodopsin film , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 21 , 1499 1501 ( 1996
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Takeda , K. Nakagawa , and H. Fujiwara , A spatial light modulator using a methyl-red doped polyvinyl alcohol film , Nonlinear Opt. NOPDEP 7 , 295 301 ( 1994

B. Fleck and L. Wenke , The intensity transfer function of a photoanisotropic wavelength-to-wavelength converter , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 137 , 207 213 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

T. Huang and K. H. Wagner , Photoanisotropic incoherent-to-coherent optical conversion , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 32 , 1888 1900 ( 1993
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Takei and N. Shimizu , Spatial light modulation based on photoinduced change in the complex refractive index of bacteriorhodopsin , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 35 , 1848 1854 ( 1996
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Okamoto , I. Yamaguchi , S. A. Boothroyd , and J. Chrostowski , Novelty filter that uses a bacteriorhodopsin film , Appl. Opt. APOPAI 36 , 508 511 ( 1997
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Kato , I. Yamaguchi , and H. Tanaka , Nonlinear spatial filtering with a dye-doped liquid-crystal cell , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 21 , 767 769 ( 1996
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Egami , Y. Suzuki , T. Uemori , O. Sugihara , and N. Okamoto , Self-adaptive spatial filtering by use of azo chromophores doped in low glass-transition-temperature polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 22 , 1424 1426 ( 1997
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz , C. K. Chen , D. Ricard , and V. R. Shen , Spectroscopy of molecular monolayers by resonant second-harmonic generation , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 48 , 478 481 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

G. Marowsky and A. Gierulski , Interferometric enhancement of surface-generated second-harmonic radiation , Appl. Phys. B APPCDL 34 , 69 72 ( 1984
[CrossRef]

C. Jones and S. Day , Shedding light on alignment , Nature NATUAS 351 , 15 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

S. B. Kippelen , N. Peyghambarian , S. R. Lyon , A. B. Padias , and H. K. Hall , Jr. , Dual-grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers , Opt. Lett. OPLEDP 19 , 68 70 ( 1994

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Figures (9)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structures of polymer composites, showing self-polarization modulation and the optical threshold effect. NLO; nonlinear optical.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Absorbance spectra of the trans and cis isomers of DR1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Variation of a d33 component with the ratios of plasticizer to polymer.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

External electric-field dependence of the second-harmonic (SH) intensity for the sample with 70 wt. % dopants.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Evaluation of the polarization transmission at 632.8 nm when the film is exposed to the probe beam. α is the angle between the polarization of the probe beam and that of the measuring beam.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of probe-beam intensity on the transmitted power from the crossed-polarizer–analyzer.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Temporal profiles of transmitted probe-beam power recorded for various intensity ratios between the action beam and the probe beam when the action beam is switching on and off.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Optical setup using the 4f system for the directional spatial-filtering operation. The polarizer and the analyzer are orthogonal.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) An original image and (b) a high-pass-filtered image after optical threshold processing in the Fourier plane.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Dependence of ECZ Dopant Weight on Order Parameter

Equations (2)

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ϕ=12 (3cos2 θp-1)=1-AnA0
σ=σ(A2 cos2 θ+B2 sin2 θ cos2 ϕ)+σ[A2 sin2 θ+B2(1-sin2 θ cos2 ϕ)],

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