Abstract

Mutually pumped phase conjugators with picosecond pulse trains are experimentally demonstrated in rhodium-doped barium titanate. Stable phase-conjugate reflectivities are obtained when the counterpropagating pulses do not meet in the crystal. In contrast, when the pulses do meet in the crystal the reflectivities become unstable and unequal in value in two directions. This behavior is caused by the interference between two counterpropagating pulses. In addition, the reflectivities for the picosecond pulses are found to be half of those for continuous waves. The reasons for the small reflectivities of the pulses are discussed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]

1997 (3)

H. Okamura, K. Takeuchi, T. Tanaka, and K. Kuroda, “Grating formation with very short pulses in photorefractive materials: weak excitation limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2650 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, and J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Nakamura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Stabilization of an externally-pumped phase conjugator by the control of mean phases of incident beams,” Opt. Commun. 135, 337 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

H. Wang, N. Yoshikawa, S. Yoshikado, and T. Aruga, “Mutually pumped phase conjugator with a rainbow configuration in BaTiO3:Ce crystal using nanosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 21, 561 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. Ishii and Y. Tomita, “Dynamics of space-charge fields created in photorefractive barium titanate by single picosecond pulses: a computer simulation,” Opt. Commun. 126, 95 (1996).
[Crossref]

1995 (3)

M. J. Damzen, N. P. Barry, and M. Buttinger, “High-intensity effects in self-pumped photorefractive phase conjugation using nanosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2051 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, “Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[Crossref]

S.-C. De La Cruz, S. MacCormack, J. Feinberg, Q. B. He, H.-K. Liu, and P. Yeh, “Effect of beam coherence on mutually pumped phase conjugators,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1363 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (1)

1993 (3)

A. A. Zozulya, “Fanning and photorefractive self-pumped four-wave mixing geometries,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 538 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shimura, S. A. Boothroyd, J. Chrostowski, and P. Myslinski, “Investigation of grating dynamics using a phase conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 101, 124 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shimura, M. Tamura, and K. Kuroda, “Injection locking and mode switching of a diode laser with a double phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1645 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

T. Omatsu, K. Kuroda, T. Shimura, K. Chihara, M. Itoh, and I. Ogura, “Measurement of spatial coherence of a copper vapour laser beam using a reversal shear interferometer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S477 (1991).
[Crossref]

L. H. Acioli, M. Ulman, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Kong, B. S. Chen, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Femtosecond temporal encoding in barium titanate,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1984 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (4)

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

B. Fischer, S. Weiss, and S. Sternklar, “Spatial light modulation and filtering effects in photorefractive wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 483 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherence length operation, and mode-locked pumping in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (2)

R. K. Jain and K. Stenersen, “Picosecond pulse operation of a dye laser containing a phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 9, 546 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. While, and A. Yariv, “Theory and application of four-wave mixing in photorefractive media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[Crossref]

1983 (1)

G. C. Valley, “Short-pulse grating formation in photorefractive materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637 (1983).
[Crossref]

1982 (1)

1967 (1)

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[Crossref]

1960 (1)

Acioli, L. H.

Aruga, T.

Barry, N.

Barry, N. P.

M. J. Damzen, N. P. Barry, and M. Buttinger, “High-intensity effects in self-pumped photorefractive phase conjugation using nanosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2051 (1995).
[Crossref]

Boothroyd, S. A.

T. Shimura, S. A. Boothroyd, J. Chrostowski, and P. Myslinski, “Investigation of grating dynamics using a phase conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 101, 124 (1993).
[Crossref]

Buttinger, M.

M. J. Damzen, N. P. Barry, and M. Buttinger, “High-intensity effects in self-pumped photorefractive phase conjugation using nanosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2051 (1995).
[Crossref]

Chang, J. Y.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, and J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chang, T. Y.

T. Y. Chang, “Spatial-mode cleanup of a pulsed laser beam through mutually pumped phase conjugation with a cw reference,” Opt. Lett. 45, 1342 (1990).
[Crossref]

Chen, B. S.

Chen, J.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, and J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Chihara, K.

T. Omatsu, K. Kuroda, T. Shimura, K. Chihara, M. Itoh, and I. Ogura, “Measurement of spatial coherence of a copper vapour laser beam using a reversal shear interferometer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S477 (1991).
[Crossref]

Chrostowski, J.

T. Shimura, S. A. Boothroyd, J. Chrostowski, and P. Myslinski, “Investigation of grating dynamics using a phase conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 101, 124 (1993).
[Crossref]

Clark, W. W.

Cremer, C.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, “Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[Crossref]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

L. H. Acioli, M. Ulman, E. P. Ippen, J. G. Fujimoto, H. Kong, B. S. Chen, and M. Cronin-Golomb, “Femtosecond temporal encoding in barium titanate,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1984 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherence length operation, and mode-locked pumping in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. While, and A. Yariv, “Theory and application of four-wave mixing in photorefractive media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[Crossref]

Damzen, M. J.

M. J. Damzen, N. P. Barry, and M. Buttinger, “High-intensity effects in self-pumped photorefractive phase conjugation using nanosecond pulses,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 2051 (1995).
[Crossref]

N. Barry, L. Duffault, R. Troth, T. Tamos-Garcia, and M. J. Damzen, “Comparison between continuous-wave and pulsed photorefraction in barium titanate,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1758 (1994).
[Crossref]

De La Cruz, S.-C.

Dominic, V.

Duffault, L.

Ewbank, M. D.

Feinberg, J.

Fischer, B.

S. Weiss, M. Segev, S. Sternklar, and B. Fischer, “Photorefractive dynamic optical interconnets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3422 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fischer, S. Weiss, and S. Sternklar, “Spatial light modulation and filtering effects in photorefractive wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 483 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fisher, B.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. While, and A. Yariv, “Theory and application of four-wave mixing in photorefractive media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[Crossref]

Fujimoto, J. G.

Giordmaine, J. A.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[Crossref]

Gower, M.

M. Gower and D. Proch, Optical Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1996).

Günter, P.

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

Hänninen, P. E.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, “Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[Crossref]

He, Q. B.

Hell, S. W.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, “Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[Crossref]

Huignard, J.-P.

P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications II (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

Ippen, E. P.

Ishii, H.

H. Ishii and Y. Tomita, “Dynamics of space-charge fields created in photorefractive barium titanate by single picosecond pulses: a computer simulation,” Opt. Commun. 126, 95 (1996).
[Crossref]

Itoh, M.

T. Omatsu, K. Kuroda, T. Shimura, K. Chihara, M. Itoh, and I. Ogura, “Measurement of spatial coherence of a copper vapour laser beam using a reversal shear interferometer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S477 (1991).
[Crossref]

Jain, R. K.

Kong, H.

Kuroda, K.

H. Okamura, K. Takeuchi, T. Tanaka, and K. Kuroda, “Grating formation with very short pulses in photorefractive materials: weak excitation limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2650 (1997).
[Crossref]

A. Nakamura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Stabilization of an externally-pumped phase conjugator by the control of mean phases of incident beams,” Opt. Commun. 135, 337 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Shimura, M. Tamura, and K. Kuroda, “Injection locking and mode switching of a diode laser with a double phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1645 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Omatsu, K. Kuroda, T. Shimura, K. Chihara, M. Itoh, and I. Ogura, “Measurement of spatial coherence of a copper vapour laser beam using a reversal shear interferometer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S477 (1991).
[Crossref]

Liu, H.-K.

MacCormack, S.

Miller, M. J.

Monson, B.

Mott, A. G.

Murty, M. V. R. K.

Myslinski, P.

T. Shimura, S. A. Boothroyd, J. Chrostowski, and P. Myslinski, “Investigation of grating dynamics using a phase conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 101, 124 (1993).
[Crossref]

Nakamura, A.

A. Nakamura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Stabilization of an externally-pumped phase conjugator by the control of mean phases of incident beams,” Opt. Commun. 135, 337 (1997).
[Crossref]

Neurgaonkar, R.

Neurgaonkar, R. R.

Ogura, I.

T. Omatsu, K. Kuroda, T. Shimura, K. Chihara, M. Itoh, and I. Ogura, “Measurement of spatial coherence of a copper vapour laser beam using a reversal shear interferometer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S477 (1991).
[Crossref]

Okamura, H.

Omatsu, T.

T. Omatsu, K. Kuroda, T. Shimura, K. Chihara, M. Itoh, and I. Ogura, “Measurement of spatial coherence of a copper vapour laser beam using a reversal shear interferometer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S477 (1991).
[Crossref]

Pan, E. Y.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, and J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Paslaski, J.

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherence length operation, and mode-locked pumping in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131 (1985).
[Crossref]

Proch, D.

M. Gower and D. Proch, Optical Phase Conjugation (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994).

Rentzepis, P. M.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[Crossref]

Salamo, G. J.

Salo, J.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, “Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[Crossref]

Segev, M.

Shapiro, S. L.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[Crossref]

Sharp, E. J.

Shimura, T.

A. Nakamura, T. Shimura, and K. Kuroda, “Stabilization of an externally-pumped phase conjugator by the control of mean phases of incident beams,” Opt. Commun. 135, 337 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Shimura, S. A. Boothroyd, J. Chrostowski, and P. Myslinski, “Investigation of grating dynamics using a phase conjugate mirror,” Opt. Commun. 101, 124 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Shimura, M. Tamura, and K. Kuroda, “Injection locking and mode switching of a diode laser with a double phase-conjugate mirror,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1645 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

T. Omatsu, K. Kuroda, T. Shimura, K. Chihara, M. Itoh, and I. Ogura, “Measurement of spatial coherence of a copper vapour laser beam using a reversal shear interferometer,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 23, S477 (1991).
[Crossref]

Soini, E.

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, “Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[Crossref]

Solymar, L.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1996).

Stenersen, K.

Sternklar, S.

S. Weiss, M. Segev, S. Sternklar, and B. Fischer, “Photorefractive dynamic optical interconnets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3422 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fischer, S. Weiss, and S. Sternklar, “Spatial light modulation and filtering effects in photorefractive wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 483 (1987).
[Crossref]

Takeuchi, K.

Tamos-Garcia, T.

Tamura, M.

Tanaka, T.

Tomita, Y.

H. Ishii and Y. Tomita, “Dynamics of space-charge fields created in photorefractive barium titanate by single picosecond pulses: a computer simulation,” Opt. Commun. 126, 95 (1996).
[Crossref]

Troth, R.

Ulman, M.

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, “Short-pulse grating formation in photorefractive materials,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1637 (1983).
[Crossref]

Wang, H.

Wang, P. J.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, and J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Webb, D. J.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford U. Press, New York, 1996).

Wecht, K. W.

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[Crossref]

Weiss, S.

S. Weiss, M. Segev, S. Sternklar, and B. Fischer, “Photorefractive dynamic optical interconnets,” Appl. Opt. 27, 3422 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Fischer, S. Weiss, and S. Sternklar, “Spatial light modulation and filtering effects in photorefractive wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 483 (1987).
[Crossref]

While, J. O.

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. While, and A. Yariv, “Theory and application of four-wave mixing in photorefractive media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[Crossref]

Wood, G. L.

Yao, X. S.

Yariv, A.

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherence length operation, and mode-locked pumping in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131 (1985).
[Crossref]

M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fisher, J. O. While, and A. Yariv, “Theory and application of four-wave mixing in photorefractive media,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-20, 12 (1984).
[Crossref]

Yau, H. F.

H. F. Yau, P. J. Wang, E. Y. Pan, J. Chen, and J. Y. Chang, “Self-pumped phase conjugation with picosecond and femtosecond pulses using BaTiO3,” Opt. Commun. 135, 331 (1997).
[Crossref]

Yeh, P.

Yoshikado, S.

Yoshikawa, N.

Zozulya, A. A.

A. A. Zozulya, “Fanning and photorefractive self-pumped four-wave mixing geometries,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 538 (1993).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

M. Cronin-Golomb, J. Paslaski, and A. Yariv, “Vibration resistance, short coherence length operation, and mode-locked pumping in passive phase conjugate mirrors,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 47, 1131 (1985).
[Crossref]

B. Fischer, S. Weiss, and S. Sternklar, “Spatial light modulation and filtering effects in photorefractive wave mixing,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 483 (1987).
[Crossref]

J. A. Giordmaine, P. M. Rentzepis, S. L. Shapiro, and K. W. Wecht, “Two-photon excitation of fluorescence by picosecond light pulses,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 216 (1967).
[Crossref]

P. E. Hänninen, S. W. Hell, J. Salo, E. Soini, and C. Cremer, “Two-photon excitation 4Pi confocal microscope: enhanced axial resolution microscope for biological research,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 1698 (1995).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (3)

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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[Crossref]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setups of (a) the bridge phase conjugator and (b) the bird-wing phase conjugator: BS, beam splitter; M’s, mirrors; D’s, photodetectors; HWP, half-wave plate; RS, resettable stage; PZT, piezoelectric transducer; NDF, neutral-density filter; other abbreviations defined in text. (c) Top-view photograph of the typical beam path in the bridge conjugator for pulse operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured reflectivity versus path-length difference between two input pulses (a) in the bridge conjugator and (b) in the bird-wing conjugator: reflectivities, R1=I1*/I1 and R2=I2*/I2. The path-length difference corresponds to the delay of input pulse 2 from input pulse 1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measured reflectivity versus path-length difference plotted in a small range near zero (a) in the bridge conjugator and (b) in the bird-wing conjugator.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured reflectivity versus path-length difference when the two input pulses are mutually incoherent (a) in the bridge conjugator and (b) in the bird-wing conjugator.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Gratings that contribute to the phase-conjugate signals (a) in the bridge conjugator and (b) in the bird-wing conjugator. The shared transmission grating diffracts each input beam into the phase conjugate wave of the other beam, whereas the 2k grating diffracts each input beam into its own phase-conjugate wave. 2k gratings are formed only where the counterpropagating pulses meet.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured reflectivity versus input power in the bridge conjugator (a) for pulse operation and (b) for cw operation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Photographs of the projected patterns of the fanning beams when a single beam is input (a) for pulse operation and (b) for cw operation. (c) Arrangement of the input beam, the crystal, and the projected screen.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Simple model illustrating how the temporal coherence affects beam fanning and the phase-conjugate reflectivities: θ, propagating direction of the diffracted beam; w, beam diameter; lc, temporal coherence; L, interaction length of the diffracted light. If the temporal coherence of the beam is low, the grating modulation will be low and L will be short.

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