Abstract

The spectra of the 2s2p lithium transitions were studied in an atomic-lithium vapor–argon-gas mixture by a Doppler-free saturation amplitude modulation spectroscopy technique that employs a tunable diode laser. Lamb-dip and crossover signals were highly resolved. The experimental Doppler-free spectra were used in conjunction with a density matrix method to yield parameters of spectroscopic interest. These parameters include line broadening and relaxation rates that are due to collisions between isotopic species and argon atoms. In addition, Doppler-limited spectra were used to determine density, concentration, and temperature of the lithium isotopes.

[Optical Society of America ]

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  1. A. Dinklage , T. Lokajczyk , H. J. Kunze , B. Schweer , and I. E. Olivares , In situ density measurements for a thermal lithium beam employing diode lasers , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 69 , 321 322 ( 1998
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. Brust , D. Veza , and K. Niemax , Collisional excitationtransfer between lithium isotopes , Z. Phys. D ZDACE2 32 , 305 309 ( 1995
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. G. Boshier , D. Berkeland , E. A. Hinds , and V. Sandoghar , External-cavity frequency-stabilization of visible and infrared semiconductor lasers for high resolution spectroscopy , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 85 , 355 359 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  4. M. Weidemuller , C. Gabbanini , J. Hare , M. Gross , and S. Haroche , A beam of laser-cooled lithium Rydberg atoms for precision microwave spectroscopy , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 101 , 342 346 ( 1993
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. N. Atutov , E. Mariotti , M. Meucci , P. Bicchi , C. Marielli , and L. Moi , A 670 nm external-cavity single mode diode laser continuously tunable over 18 GHz range , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 83 87 ( 1994
    [CrossRef]
  6. J. Chen , J. G. Story , J. J. Tollet , and R. G. Hulet , Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 69 , 1344 1346 ( 1992
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. C. J. Sansonetti , B. Richou , R. Engelman , Jr. , and L. J. Radziemski , Measurements of the resonance lines of 6 Li and 7 Li by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 52 , 2682 2688 ( 1995
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. G. Shimkaveg , W. W. Quivers , Jr. , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , Direct measurement of velocity-changing collision cross section by laser optical pumping , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 48 , 1409 1418 ( 1993
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. C. Wieman and L. Hollberg , Using diode lasers for atomic physics , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 62 , 1 20 ( 1991
    [CrossRef]
  10. J. Franzke , A. Schnell , and K. Niemax , Spectroscopic properties of commercial laser diodes , Spectrochim. Acta Rev. SARVEC 15 , 379 95 ( 1993
  11. W. Happer , Optical pumping , Rev. Mod. Phys. RMPHAT 44 , 169 249 ( 1972
    [CrossRef]
  12. H. J. Andra , Precision experiments using fast beam laser interaction , Nucl. Instrum. Methods NIMRD9 202 , 123 137 ( 1982
    [CrossRef]
  13. E. Arimondo , M. Inguscio , and P. Violino , Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms , Rev. Mod. Phys. RMPHAT 49 , 31 75 ( 1977
    [CrossRef]
  14. J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore , Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 16 , 277 282 ( 1977
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. G. Payne , L. Deng , and N. Thonnard , Applications of resonance ionization mass spectrometry , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 65 , 2433 2459 ( 1994
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. S. Hurst , M. G. Payne , S. D. Kramer , and J. P. Young , Resonance ionization spectroscopy and one atom detection , Rev. Mod. Phys. RMPHAT 51 , 767 819 ( 1979
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. G. Pappas , M. M. Burns , D. D. Hinshelwood , M. S. Feld , and D. E. Murnik , Saturation spectroscopy with optical pumping in atomic barium , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 21 , 1955 1968 ( 1980
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. E. Gibble and A. Gallagher , Measurements of velocity-changing collision kernels , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 43 , 1366 1380 ( 1991
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. R. M. Herman , Noble-gas-induced rubidium spin disorientation , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 136 , 1576 1582 ( 1964
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Holstein , Imprisonment of resonance radiation in gases , Phys. Rev. PHRVAO 72 , 1212 1233 ( 1947
    [CrossRef]
  21. D. W. Marquardt , An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters , J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. JSIMAV 11 , 431 435 ( 1963
    [CrossRef]
  22. C. R. Vidal , Spectroscopic observations of subsonic and sonic vapor inside an open-ended heat pipe , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 44 , 2225 2232 ( 1973
    [CrossRef]
  23. C. R. Vidal and J. Cooper , Heat-pipe oven: a new, well-defined metal vapor device for spectroscopic measurements , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 40 , 3370 3374 ( 1969
    [CrossRef]

Ackerhalt, J. R

J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore , Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 16 , 277 282 ( 1977
[CrossRef]

Atutov, S. N

S. N. Atutov , E. Mariotti , M. Meucci , P. Bicchi , C. Marielli , and L. Moi , A 670 nm external-cavity single mode diode laser continuously tunable over 18 GHz range , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 83 87 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

Berkeland, D

M. G. Boshier , D. Berkeland , E. A. Hinds , and V. Sandoghar , External-cavity frequency-stabilization of visible and infrared semiconductor lasers for high resolution spectroscopy , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 85 , 355 359 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

Bicchi, P

S. N. Atutov , E. Mariotti , M. Meucci , P. Bicchi , C. Marielli , and L. Moi , A 670 nm external-cavity single mode diode laser continuously tunable over 18 GHz range , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 83 87 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

Brust, J

J. Brust , D. Veza , and K. Niemax , Collisional excitationtransfer between lithium isotopes , Z. Phys. D ZDACE2 32 , 305 309 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Dinklage, A

A. Dinklage , T. Lokajczyk , H. J. Kunze , B. Schweer , and I. E. Olivares , In situ density measurements for a thermal lithium beam employing diode lasers , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 69 , 321 322 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

Engelman, R

C. J. Sansonetti , B. Richou , R. Engelman , Jr. , and L. J. Radziemski , Measurements of the resonance lines of 6 Li and 7 Li by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 52 , 2682 2688 ( 1995
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Franzke, J

J. Franzke , A. Schnell , and K. Niemax , Spectroscopic properties of commercial laser diodes , Spectrochim. Acta Rev. SARVEC 15 , 379 95 ( 1993

Hinshelwood, D. D

P. G. Pappas , M. M. Burns , D. D. Hinshelwood , M. S. Feld , and D. E. Murnik , Saturation spectroscopy with optical pumping in atomic barium , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 21 , 1955 1968 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

Holstein, T

T. Holstein , Imprisonment of resonance radiation in gases , Phys. Rev. PHRVAO 72 , 1212 1233 ( 1947
[CrossRef]

Kunze, H. J

A. Dinklage , T. Lokajczyk , H. J. Kunze , B. Schweer , and I. E. Olivares , In situ density measurements for a thermal lithium beam employing diode lasers , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 69 , 321 322 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

Lokajczyk, T

A. Dinklage , T. Lokajczyk , H. J. Kunze , B. Schweer , and I. E. Olivares , In situ density measurements for a thermal lithium beam employing diode lasers , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 69 , 321 322 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

Marielli, C

S. N. Atutov , E. Mariotti , M. Meucci , P. Bicchi , C. Marielli , and L. Moi , A 670 nm external-cavity single mode diode laser continuously tunable over 18 GHz range , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 83 87 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

Mariotti, E

S. N. Atutov , E. Mariotti , M. Meucci , P. Bicchi , C. Marielli , and L. Moi , A 670 nm external-cavity single mode diode laser continuously tunable over 18 GHz range , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 83 87 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

Marquardt, D. W

D. W. Marquardt , An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters , J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. JSIMAV 11 , 431 435 ( 1963
[CrossRef]

Meucci, M

S. N. Atutov , E. Mariotti , M. Meucci , P. Bicchi , C. Marielli , and L. Moi , A 670 nm external-cavity single mode diode laser continuously tunable over 18 GHz range , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 83 87 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

Murnik, D. E

P. G. Pappas , M. M. Burns , D. D. Hinshelwood , M. S. Feld , and D. E. Murnik , Saturation spectroscopy with optical pumping in atomic barium , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 21 , 1955 1968 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

Niemax, K

J. Brust , D. Veza , and K. Niemax , Collisional excitationtransfer between lithium isotopes , Z. Phys. D ZDACE2 32 , 305 309 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Olivares, I. E

A. Dinklage , T. Lokajczyk , H. J. Kunze , B. Schweer , and I. E. Olivares , In situ density measurements for a thermal lithium beam employing diode lasers , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 69 , 321 322 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

Pappas, P. G

P. G. Pappas , M. M. Burns , D. D. Hinshelwood , M. S. Feld , and D. E. Murnik , Saturation spectroscopy with optical pumping in atomic barium , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 21 , 1955 1968 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

Quivers, W. W

G. Shimkaveg , W. W. Quivers , Jr. , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , Direct measurement of velocity-changing collision cross section by laser optical pumping , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 48 , 1409 1418 ( 1993
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schnell, A

J. Franzke , A. Schnell , and K. Niemax , Spectroscopic properties of commercial laser diodes , Spectrochim. Acta Rev. SARVEC 15 , 379 95 ( 1993

Schweer, B

A. Dinklage , T. Lokajczyk , H. J. Kunze , B. Schweer , and I. E. Olivares , In situ density measurements for a thermal lithium beam employing diode lasers , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 69 , 321 322 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

Story, J. G

J. Chen , J. G. Story , J. J. Tollet , and R. G. Hulet , Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 69 , 1344 1346 ( 1992
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Thonnard, N

M. G. Payne , L. Deng , and N. Thonnard , Applications of resonance ionization mass spectrometry , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 65 , 2433 2459 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

Tollet, J. J

J. Chen , J. G. Story , J. J. Tollet , and R. G. Hulet , Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 69 , 1344 1346 ( 1992
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Veza, D

J. Brust , D. Veza , and K. Niemax , Collisional excitationtransfer between lithium isotopes , Z. Phys. D ZDACE2 32 , 305 309 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

Other (23)

A. Dinklage , T. Lokajczyk , H. J. Kunze , B. Schweer , and I. E. Olivares , In situ density measurements for a thermal lithium beam employing diode lasers , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 69 , 321 322 ( 1998
[CrossRef]

J. Brust , D. Veza , and K. Niemax , Collisional excitationtransfer between lithium isotopes , Z. Phys. D ZDACE2 32 , 305 309 ( 1995
[CrossRef]

M. G. Boshier , D. Berkeland , E. A. Hinds , and V. Sandoghar , External-cavity frequency-stabilization of visible and infrared semiconductor lasers for high resolution spectroscopy , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 85 , 355 359 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

M. Weidemuller , C. Gabbanini , J. Hare , M. Gross , and S. Haroche , A beam of laser-cooled lithium Rydberg atoms for precision microwave spectroscopy , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 101 , 342 346 ( 1993
[CrossRef]

S. N. Atutov , E. Mariotti , M. Meucci , P. Bicchi , C. Marielli , and L. Moi , A 670 nm external-cavity single mode diode laser continuously tunable over 18 GHz range , Opt. Commun. OPCOB8 107 , 83 87 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

J. Chen , J. G. Story , J. J. Tollet , and R. G. Hulet , Adiabatic cooling of atoms by an intense standing wave , Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 69 , 1344 1346 ( 1992
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. J. Sansonetti , B. Richou , R. Engelman , Jr. , and L. J. Radziemski , Measurements of the resonance lines of 6 Li and 7 Li by Doppler-free frequency modulation spectroscopy , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 52 , 2682 2688 ( 1995
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Shimkaveg , W. W. Quivers , Jr. , R. R. Dasari , and M. S. Feld , Direct measurement of velocity-changing collision cross section by laser optical pumping , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 48 , 1409 1418 ( 1993
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Wieman and L. Hollberg , Using diode lasers for atomic physics , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 62 , 1 20 ( 1991
[CrossRef]

J. Franzke , A. Schnell , and K. Niemax , Spectroscopic properties of commercial laser diodes , Spectrochim. Acta Rev. SARVEC 15 , 379 95 ( 1993

W. Happer , Optical pumping , Rev. Mod. Phys. RMPHAT 44 , 169 249 ( 1972
[CrossRef]

H. J. Andra , Precision experiments using fast beam laser interaction , Nucl. Instrum. Methods NIMRD9 202 , 123 137 ( 1982
[CrossRef]

E. Arimondo , M. Inguscio , and P. Violino , Experimental determinations of the hyperfine structure in the alkali atoms , Rev. Mod. Phys. RMPHAT 49 , 31 75 ( 1977
[CrossRef]

J. R. Ackerhalt and B. W. Shore , Rate equations versus Bloch equations in multiphoton ionization , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 16 , 277 282 ( 1977
[CrossRef]

M. G. Payne , L. Deng , and N. Thonnard , Applications of resonance ionization mass spectrometry , Rev. Sci. Instrum. RSINAK 65 , 2433 2459 ( 1994
[CrossRef]

G. S. Hurst , M. G. Payne , S. D. Kramer , and J. P. Young , Resonance ionization spectroscopy and one atom detection , Rev. Mod. Phys. RMPHAT 51 , 767 819 ( 1979
[CrossRef]

P. G. Pappas , M. M. Burns , D. D. Hinshelwood , M. S. Feld , and D. E. Murnik , Saturation spectroscopy with optical pumping in atomic barium , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 21 , 1955 1968 ( 1980
[CrossRef]

K. E. Gibble and A. Gallagher , Measurements of velocity-changing collision kernels , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 43 , 1366 1380 ( 1991
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. M. Herman , Noble-gas-induced rubidium spin disorientation , Phys. Rev. A PLRAAN 136 , 1576 1582 ( 1964
[CrossRef]

T. Holstein , Imprisonment of resonance radiation in gases , Phys. Rev. PHRVAO 72 , 1212 1233 ( 1947
[CrossRef]

D. W. Marquardt , An algorithm for least-squares estimation of nonlinear parameters , J. Soc. Ind. Appl. Math. JSIMAV 11 , 431 435 ( 1963
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vidal , Spectroscopic observations of subsonic and sonic vapor inside an open-ended heat pipe , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 44 , 2225 2232 ( 1973
[CrossRef]

C. R. Vidal and J. Cooper , Heat-pipe oven: a new, well-defined metal vapor device for spectroscopic measurements , J. Appl. Phys. JAPIAU 40 , 3370 3374 ( 1969
[CrossRef]

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Values of Nifq=|i|Dq|f|2/D2 for each transition of Li. N labels the five Zeeman multiplets discussed in the text (note that N=2 is shown twice). Thicker horizontal lines, ground states (J=1/2); thinner horizontal lines, excited states (J=3/2); dotted lines, transitions with q=-1; vertical lines, transitions with q=0; dashed lines, transitions with q=1.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Doppler-free experimental setup: dso, digital storage oscilloscope.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

(a) Doppler-limited Li lines. Experimental and least-squares fits for 7Li only and for the sum of 6Li and 7Li. n(7Li)=1.9×109 cm-3, n(6Li)=4.6×1010 cm-3, T=408 °C, 7Li(4.1%). (b) Optically thick Doppler-limited Li lines. Experimental and least-squares fits for 7Li only and for the sum of 6Li and 7Li. n(7Li)=2.5×1010 cm-3, n(6Li)=4.3×1011cm-3, T=549 °C.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Vapor-pressure curves for 6Li and 7Li. The solid curve was obtained from the literature.29 Circles, experimental data: T and n were obtained from fitting of the Doppler-limited absorption spectra and P from the ideal gas law.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

(a) Doppler-free spectrum at low Ar pressure: PAr=0.018 Torr, Ip=21 W/m2, nLi=5×109 cm-3, T=375 °C. Result of the fitting: Γ=5.9×107 s-1, γvc=4.5×106 s-1. (b) Doppler-free spectrum at high Ar pressure. PAr=4.46 Torr, Ip=79 W/m2, nLi=5×109 cm-3, T=375 °C. Result of the fitting: Γ=1.5×108 s-1, γvc=2.5×107 s-1.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Γ versus Ar pressure obtained from fitting of the Doppler-free spectra and extrapolating to Ip=0.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

γvc versus Ar pressure obtained from fitting of the Doppler-free spectra and extrapolating to Ip=0.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Comparison of experimental and theoretical transmittance curves versus laser intensity (calculated starting from the Doppler-free spectra). P=0.01 Torr: Γ=5.4×107 s-1, γvc=2.9×106 s-1. P=0.35 Torr: Γ=6.3×107 s-1, γvc=1.0×107 s-1. P=0.93 Torr: Γ=7.8×107 s-1, γvc=1.5×107 s-1. P=2.85 Torr: Γ=1.1×108 s-1, γvc=2.2×107 s-1.

Equations (27)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

|i|Dq|f|2=|αiJiIFimi|Dq|αfJfIFfmf|2=C(FiFfmi, -mf; 1q)2(2Fi+1)×(2Ff+1)W(JiI1Ff;FiJf)2δSi,Sf×(2Ji+1)(2Jf+1)×W(LiSi1Jf; JiLf)2D2,
afi=4ω3Ke3c3 q|i|Dq|f|2,
γ=τ-1=Af=iafi=4ω3Ke3c3(2Lf+1) D2.
|Ωif|2=8πIKec2 |i|D0|f|2,
ρ˙ii=fWif(ρff-ρii)+(γT+γvc)(ρii0-ρii)+fafiρff,
ρ˙ff=iWif(ρii-ρff)+(γT+γvc)(ρff0-ρff)-γρff,
Wif=½|Ωif|2Γ(δif-kv)2+Γ2,
γT=v/d,
ρ˙11=W13(ρ33-ρ11)+W14(½ρ44-ρ11)+γ(89ρ33+59ρ44)+(γT+γvc)(-ρ11),
ρ˙22=W25(ρ55-ρ22)+W24(ρ44-ρ22)+W23(ρ33-½ρ22)+γ(19ρ33+49ρ44+ρ55)+(γT+γvc)(-ρ22),
ρ˙33=W13(ρ11-ρ33)+W23(½ρ22-ρ33)-γρ33-(γT+γvc)ρ33,
ρ˙44=W24(ρ22-ρ44)+W14(ρ11-½ρ44)-γρ44-(γT+γvc)ρ44;
1=ρ11+ρ22+ρ33+ρ44+ρ55.
dI=hνifnifWif(ρff-ρii)dx=-hνifnγρedx,
F(v)=m2πkBT1/2 exp-mv22kB T,
dId0-dId=hνifnifWif+(ρff+-ρii+)dx-hνifnifWif+(ρff--ρii-)dx,
ρ˙g=Wgeggge ρe-ρg+γρe,
dI=-σIndx,
σ=hνγI ρehνγI F(δ/k)ρe(δ=0)dv.
kν=σn=gegg nτ λ2ln 24π3/2 1ΔνD 11+S0 ×exp-4 ln 2ΔνD2 (ν-ν0)2,
ΔνD=8kBT ln 2mλ21/2
S0=12 1+ggge 1γΓ λ3I2πchτ gegg
Iν=I0 exp(-kνx),
kνdν=λ028π gegg nτ.
dΓ/dP=2.5×107s-1/Torr.
d(Δν)/dP=dΓ/dP/π=8.0MHz/Torr
dγvc/dP=3.2×107s-1/Torr=3.3×105s-1/Pa.

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