Abstract

We present results of experiments to determine the spectral and angular dependence of nonlinear scattering by water microdroplets of radii ranging from 1 to 32 μm illuminated by ultrashort laser pulses. The main process observed is third-harmonic generation (THG). Moreover, in contrast with linear Mie scattering, the angular pattern of the THG is remarkably stable over the size range 8–32 μm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. J. L. Cheung, J. M. Hartings, and R. K. Chang, “Nonlinear optics of microdroplets illuminated by picosecond laser pulses,” in Handbook of Optical Properties, R. E. Hummel and P. Wissmann, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), Vol. II, Chap. 9, pp. 233–260.
  2. J.-Z. Zhang, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, “Photon lifetime within a droplet: temporal determination of elastic and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 270–272 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  3. N. Dubreuil, J. C. Knight, D. K. Leventhal, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, and V. Lefèvre, “Eroded monomode optical fiber for whispering-gallery mode excitation in fused-silica microspheres,” Opt. Lett. 20, 813–815 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  4. J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Mapping whispering-gallery modes in microspheres with a near-field probe,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1515–1517 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  5. D. Q. Chowdhury, S. C. Hill, and P. W. Barber, “Time dependence of internal intensity of a dielectric sphere on and near resonance,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 9, 1364–1373 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  6. S.-X. Qian and R. K. Chang, “Multiorder Stokes emission from micrometer-size droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  7. H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Cw nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440–2443 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  8. J. B. Snow, S.-X. Quan, and R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  9. R. Thurn and W. Kiefer, “Structural resonances observed in the Raman spectra of optically levitated liquid droplets,” Appl. Opt. 24, 1515–1519 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, and R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, “Third-order optical sum-frequency generation in micrometer-sized liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 402–404 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. S. C. Hill, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, “Third-order optical sum-frequency generation in droplets: model with numerical third-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 16–33 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  14. D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, W. P. Acker, and S. C. Hill, “Third-order optical sum-frequency generation in droplets: experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 34–45 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  15. J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  16. J. P. Dewitz, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, “Theory for nonlinear Mie-scattering from spherical metal clusters,” Z. Phys. D 37, 75 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  17. D. H. Auston, “Picosecond nonlinear optics,” in Ultrashort Laser Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Chap. 4.
  18. M. D. Duncan, R. Mahon, L. L. Tankersley, and J. Reintjes, “Transient stimulated Raman amplification in hydrogen,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 37–52 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  19. G. Hilfer and C. R. Menyuk, “Stimulated Raman scattering in the transient limit,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 739–749 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  20. M. Suzuki, K. Midorikawa, and H. Tashiro, “Measurements of the temporal and spatial profiles of fully converted beams in stimulated Raman scattering,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1000–1002 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  21. C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).
  22. L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).
  23. J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “A new transient SRS aerosol analysis method and application to a nonlinear femtosecond lidar,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

1997 (2)

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

1996 (2)

J. P. Dewitz, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, “Theory for nonlinear Mie-scattering from spherical metal clusters,” Z. Phys. D 37, 75 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Cw nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440–2443 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

1990 (1)

1989 (1)

1988 (2)

1986 (1)

S.-X. Qian and R. K. Chang, “Multiorder Stokes emission from micrometer-size droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1985 (2)

1984 (1)

Acker, W. P.

Auston, D. H.

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond nonlinear optics,” in Ultrashort Laser Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Chap. 4.

Barber, P. W.

Bennemann, K. H.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. P. Dewitz, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, “Theory for nonlinear Mie-scattering from spherical metal clusters,” Z. Phys. D 37, 75 (1996).
[Crossref]

Bohren, C. F.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Boutou, V.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

Campillo, A. J.

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Cw nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440–2443 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chang, R. K.

S. C. Hill, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, “Third-order optical sum-frequency generation in droplets: model with numerical third-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 16–33 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. H. Leach, R. K. Chang, W. P. Acker, and S. C. Hill, “Third-order optical sum-frequency generation in droplets: experimental results,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 34–45 (1993).
[Crossref]

W. P. Acker, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, “Third-order optical sum-frequency generation in micrometer-sized liquid droplets,” Opt. Lett. 14, 402–404 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J.-Z. Zhang, D. H. Leach, and R. K. Chang, “Photon lifetime within a droplet: temporal determination of elastic and stimulated Raman scattering,” Opt. Lett. 13, 270–272 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S.-X. Qian and R. K. Chang, “Multiorder Stokes emission from micrometer-size droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. B. Snow, S.-X. Quan, and R. K. Chang, “Stimulated Raman scattering from individual water and ethanol droplets at morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 10, 37–39 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-M. Tzeng, K. F. Wall, M. B. Long, and R. K. Chang, “Laser emission from individual droplets at wavelengths corresponding to morphology-dependent resonances,” Opt. Lett. 9, 499–501 (1984).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. Cheung, J. M. Hartings, and R. K. Chang, “Nonlinear optics of microdroplets illuminated by picosecond laser pulses,” in Handbook of Optical Properties, R. E. Hummel and P. Wissmann, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), Vol. II, Chap. 9, pp. 233–260.

Cheung, J. L.

J. L. Cheung, J. M. Hartings, and R. K. Chang, “Nonlinear optics of microdroplets illuminated by picosecond laser pulses,” in Handbook of Optical Properties, R. E. Hummel and P. Wissmann, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), Vol. II, Chap. 9, pp. 233–260.

Chowdhury, D. Q.

Dewitz, J. P.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. P. Dewitz, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, “Theory for nonlinear Mie-scattering from spherical metal clusters,” Z. Phys. D 37, 75 (1996).
[Crossref]

Dubreuil, N.

Duncan, M. D.

Hare, J.

Haroche, S.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Mapping whispering-gallery modes in microspheres with a near-field probe,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1515–1517 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Hartings, J. M.

J. L. Cheung, J. M. Hartings, and R. K. Chang, “Nonlinear optics of microdroplets illuminated by picosecond laser pulses,” in Handbook of Optical Properties, R. E. Hummel and P. Wissmann, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), Vol. II, Chap. 9, pp. 233–260.

Hilfer, G.

Hill, S. C.

Hübner, W.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. P. Dewitz, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, “Theory for nonlinear Mie-scattering from spherical metal clusters,” Z. Phys. D 37, 75 (1996).
[Crossref]

Huffman, D. R.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

Kasparian, J.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “A new transient SRS aerosol analysis method and application to a nonlinear femtosecond lidar,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Kiefer, W.

Knight, J. C.

Krämer, B.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leach, D. H.

Lefèvre, V.

Lefèvre-Seguin, V.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. C. Knight, N. Dubreuil, V. Sandoghdar, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Mapping whispering-gallery modes in microspheres with a near-field probe,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1515–1517 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Leisner, T.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

Leventhal, D. K.

Lin, H.-B.

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Cw nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440–2443 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, M. B.

Mahon, R.

Menyuk, C. R.

Midorikawa, K.

Niedermeier, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Nikolov, S.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Qian, S.-X.

S.-X. Qian and R. K. Chang, “Multiorder Stokes emission from micrometer-size droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Quan, S.-X.

Raimond, J. M.

Raimond, J.-M.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rairoux, P.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Reintjes, J.

Ronneberger, F.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Sandoghdar, V.

Sauerbrey, R.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Schillinger, H.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Snow, J. B.

Stein, B.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Suzuki, M.

Tankersley, L. L.

Tashiro, H.

Thurn, R.

Treussart, F.

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tzeng, H.-M.

Vajda, S.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

Vezin, B.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wall, K. F.

Wedekind, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Werner, C.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Wille, H.

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Wolf, J.-P.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “A new transient SRS aerosol analysis method and application to a nonlinear femtosecond lidar,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

Wöste, L.

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Zhang, J.-Z.

Appl. Opt. (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (5)

Laser Optoelektron. (1)

L. Wöste, C. Wedekind, H. Wille, P. Rairoux, B. Stein, S. Nikolov, C. Werner, S. Niedermeier, F. Ronneberger, H. Schillinger, and R. Sauerbrey, “Femtosecond atmospheric lamp,” Laser Optoelektron. 5, 14–17 (1997).

Opt. Lett. (6)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

V. Sandoghdar, F. Treussart, J. Hare, V. Lefèvre-Seguin, J.-M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, “Very low threshold whispering-gallery-mode microsphere laser,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R1777–R1780 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

S.-X. Qian and R. K. Chang, “Multiorder Stokes emission from micrometer-size droplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 926–929 (1986).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H.-B. Lin and A. J. Campillo, “Cw nonlinear optics in droplet microcavities displaying enhanced gain,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2440–2443 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Kasparian, B. Krämer, J. P. Dewitz, S. Vajda, P. Rairoux, B. Vezin, V. Boutou, T. Leisner, W. Hübner, J.-P. Wolf, L. Wöste, and K. H. Bennemann, “Angular dependence of third harmonic generation from microdroplets,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 2952–2955 (1997).
[Crossref]

Z. Phys. D (1)

J. P. Dewitz, W. Hübner, and K. H. Bennemann, “Theory for nonlinear Mie-scattering from spherical metal clusters,” Z. Phys. D 37, 75 (1996).
[Crossref]

Other (4)

D. H. Auston, “Picosecond nonlinear optics,” in Ultrashort Laser Pulses, S. L. Shapiro, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1977), Chap. 4.

C. F. Bohren and D. R. Huffman, Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles (Wiley, New York, 1983).

J. L. Cheung, J. M. Hartings, and R. K. Chang, “Nonlinear optics of microdroplets illuminated by picosecond laser pulses,” in Handbook of Optical Properties, R. E. Hummel and P. Wissmann, eds. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1997), Vol. II, Chap. 9, pp. 233–260.

J. Kasparian and J.-P. Wolf, “A new transient SRS aerosol analysis method and application to a nonlinear femtosecond lidar,” Opt. Commun. (to be published).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for nonlinear scattering measurements of microdroplets: z, polarization direction of the laser; ϕ, angle between the scattering plane and the yz plane; θ, scattering (polar) angle toward the xz plane. PMT, photomultiplier tube.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Wavelength dependence of the intensity emitted at 32° by a water droplet with a radius of 25 μm (ka194). The incident laser power is 1.7×1013 W cm-2, and the captured solid angle is 1.8×10-2 sr. Inset, third-harmonic peak at lower laser fluence (1013 W cm-2).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Angular distribution of the THG from water microdroplets with radius a10.5 μm (ka81) in both azimuthal planes (ϕ=0 and ϕ=90°) with the same scale.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Comparison of the standard Mie pattern at the wavelength corresponding to the THG and nonlinear Mie computations with the experimental results for water microdroplets with radius a10.5 μm (ka81).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular pattern of the THG from water microdroplets with radii ranging from 9.4 to 32 μm (ka72250) in the ϕ=0 plane in the near-forward direction.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Angular pattern of the THG from water microdroplets with radii ranging from 8.1 to 26 μm (ka63200) in the ϕ=90° plane in the near-backward direction.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Angular pattern of the THG from a cloud of water microdroplets with a radius distribution centered at a1 μm (ka7.8) in the near-forward direction.

Equations (2)

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dPTHGdΩ=σ(3)Ip3,
Δν=1λ n2 dIdt,

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