Abstract

Surface-localized electromagnetic fields can induce strong reorientation of liquid crystals (LC’s), thus making it possible to observe a whole new class of opto-electronic phenomena. We show the feasibility of reorientation of a LC by a spatially inhomogeneous electric field localized on a photorefractive substrate. The modulation of the space-charge density in the plane of the photorefractive substrate generates a component of the electric field, which is normal to the LC layer. The drift of ions enforced by that field can result in a surface-charge modulation pattern that can become permanent owing to adsorption of ions at the boundaries of the LC cell. The obtained results present large fundamental and practical interest for the visualization of surface-localized electric fields and the development of new principles of optical information processing and storage.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).
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    [CrossRef]
  4. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994).
  5. E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875 (1994).
  6. I. C. Khoo and H. Li. Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  8. I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. I. C. Khoo, B. D. Guenther, M. V. Wood, P. Chen, and M.-Y. Shih, “Coherent beam amplification with a photorefractive liquid crystal,” Opt. Lett. 22, 1229 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. N. V. Tabiryan and C. Umeton, “Thermo-diffusive photorefractive phenomena in liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstad, Germany, 1997), p. 38.
  15. B. Ya. Zel’dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, “Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals,” JETP Lett. 36, 179 (1982).
  16. L. S. Aslanyan, N. V. Tabiryan, and Yu. S. Chilingaryan, “Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals,”Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) 19, 33 (1984).
  17. N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue), Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  18. N. V. Tabiryan, “Light-induced Freedericks transition in turbid layers of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 58, 697 (1985).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  22. H. J. Coles and R. Simoni, “High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays,” Polymer 26, 1801 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  23. G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic gratings formation in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1997), p. 55.
  24. S. B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A. B. Padias, and H. K. Hell, “Dual grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 68 (1994).
  25. H. J. Eichler, G. Heppke, R. Macdonald, and H. Schmid, “Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 159 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  27. A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Yu. A. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, “Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 566 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  29. F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, “Dye-doped liquid crystals as high-resolution recording media,” Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

1996 (3)

B. Y. Zhang, R. Burzynski, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, “Photorefractive polymers and composites,” Adv. Mater. 8, 111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

I. C. Khoo, “Holographic grating formation in dye- and fullerene C60-doped nematic liquid-crystal film,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2137 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Yariv, S. Orlov, G. Rakuljic, and V. Leyva, “Holographic fixing, readout, and storage dynamics in photorefractive materials,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1334 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Yu. A. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, “Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

S. B. Kippelen, N. Peyghambarian, S. R. Lyon, A. B. Padias, and H. K. Hell, “Dual grating formation through photorefractivity and photoisomerization in azo-dye-doped polymers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 68 (1994).

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875 (1994).

I. C. Khoo and H. Li. Y. Liang, “Observation of orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1723 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

H. J. Eichler, G. Heppke, R. Macdonald, and H. Schmid, “Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue), Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

N. V. Tabiryan, “Light-induced Freedericks transition in turbid layers of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 58, 697 (1985).

H. J. Coles and R. Simoni, “High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays,” Polymer 26, 1801 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

L. S. Aslanyan, N. V. Tabiryan, and Yu. S. Chilingaryan, “Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals,”Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) 19, 33 (1984).

1982 (1)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, “Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals,” JETP Lett. 36, 179 (1982).

Aslanyan, L. S.

L. S. Aslanyan, N. V. Tabiryan, and Yu. S. Chilingaryan, “Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals,”Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) 19, 33 (1984).

Brady, D. J.

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burzynski, R.

B. Y. Zhang, R. Burzynski, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, “Photorefractive polymers and composites,” Adv. Mater. 8, 111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Casstevens, M. K.

B. Y. Zhang, R. Burzynski, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, “Photorefractive polymers and composites,” Adv. Mater. 8, 111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A. G.

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chen, P.

Chilingaryan, Yu. S.

L. S. Aslanyan, N. V. Tabiryan, and Yu. S. Chilingaryan, “Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals,”Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) 19, 33 (1984).

Cipparrone, G.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic gratings formation in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1997), p. 55.

Coles, H. J.

H. J. Coles and R. Simoni, “High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays,” Polymer 26, 1801 (1985).
[CrossRef]

de Gennes, P. G.

P. G. de Gennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975).

Eichler, H. J.

H. J. Eichler, G. Heppke, R. Macdonald, and H. Schmid, “Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Francescangeli, O.

Ghosal, S.

B. Y. Zhang, R. Burzynski, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, “Photorefractive polymers and composites,” Adv. Mater. 8, 111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Gibbons, W. M.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Golemme, A.

Gradshteyn, I. S.

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, 5th ed. (Academic, Boston, 1994).

Guenther, B. D.

Hell, H. K.

Heppke, G.

H. J. Eichler, G. Heppke, R. Macdonald, and H. Schmid, “Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Khoo, I. C.

Khyzhnyak, A.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Yu. A. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, “Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

Kippelen, S. B.

Leyva, V.

Liang, H. Li. Y.

Lucchetti, L.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic gratings formation in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1997), p. 55.

Lyon, S. R.

Macdonald, R.

H. J. Eichler, G. Heppke, R. Macdonald, and H. Schmid, “Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mazzulla, A.

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic gratings formation in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1997), p. 55.

Orlov, S.

Padias, A. B.

Peyghambarian, N.

Rakuljic, G.

Reshetnyak, V.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Yu. A. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, “Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Reznikov, Y.

Reznikov, Yu. A.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Yu. A. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, “Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rudenko, E. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875 (1994).

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

Ryzhik, I. M.

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, 5th ed. (Academic, Boston, 1994).

Saleh, B. E. A.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Schmid, H.

H. J. Eichler, G. Heppke, R. Macdonald, and H. Schmid, “Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shannon, P. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shih, M.-Y.

Simoni, F.

F. Simoni, O. Francescangeli, Y. Reznikov, and S. Slussarenko, “Dye-doped liquid crystals as high-resolution recording media,” Opt. Lett. 22, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic gratings formation in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1997), p. 55.

Simoni, R.

H. J. Coles and R. Simoni, “High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays,” Polymer 26, 1801 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Slussarenko, S.

Sukhov, A. V.

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875 (1994).

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue), Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.-T.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Svec, W. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Swetlin, B. J.

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tabiryan, N. V.

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue), Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, “Light-induced Freedericks transition in turbid layers of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 58, 697 (1985).

L. S. Aslanyan, N. V. Tabiryan, and Yu. S. Chilingaryan, “Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals,”Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) 19, 33 (1984).

B. Ya. Zel’dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, “Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals,” JETP Lett. 36, 179 (1982).

N. V. Tabiryan and C. Umeton, “Thermo-diffusive photorefractive phenomena in liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstad, Germany, 1997), p. 38.

Teich, M. C.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

Umeton, C.

N. V. Tabiryan and C. Umeton, “Thermo-diffusive photorefractive phenomena in liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstad, Germany, 1997), p. 38.

Volodin, B. L.

Voloshchenko, D.

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Yu. A. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, “Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wasielewski, M. R.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wood, M. V.

Yariv, A.

Yoon, B. A.

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue), Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

B. Ya. Zel’dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, “Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals,” JETP Lett. 36, 179 (1982).

Zhang, B. Y.

B. Y. Zhang, R. Burzynski, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, “Photorefractive polymers and composites,” Adv. Mater. 8, 111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (2)

B. Y. Zhang, R. Burzynski, S. Ghosal, and M. K. Casstevens, “Photorefractive polymers and composites,” Adv. Mater. 8, 111 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractive liquid crystals,” Adv. Mater. 8, 535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

A. G. Chen and D. J. Brady, “Surface-stabilized holography in an azo-dye doped nematic liquid crystal,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2920 (1993).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

I. C. Khoo, “Orientational photorefractive effects in nematic liquid crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 32, 525 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, W. A. Svec, and M. R. Wasielewski, “Photorefractivity in nematic liquid crystals containing electron donor–acceptor molecules that undergo intramolecular charge separation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 119, 3358 (1997).
[CrossRef]

JETP (1)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Optically induced spatial charge separation in a nematic and the resultant orientational nonlinearity,” JETP 78, 875 (1994).

JETP Lett. (2)

E. V. Rudenko and A. V. Sukhov, “Photoinduced electrical conductivity and photorefraction in a nematic liquid crystal,” JETP Lett. 59, 142 (1994).

B. Ya. Zel’dovich and N. V. Tabiryan, “Orientational effect of a surface light wave on liquid crystals,” JETP Lett. 36, 179 (1982).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 (1)

D. Voloshchenko, A. Khyzhnyak, Yu. A. Reznikov, and V. Reshetnyak, “Control of an easy-axis on nematic-polymer interface by light action to nematic bulk,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., Part 1 34, 566 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

H. J. Eichler, G. Heppke, R. Macdonald, and H. Schmid, “Storage of erasable laser induced holographic gratings in low molar mass cholesteric liquid crystals,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 223, 159 (1992).
[CrossRef]

N. V. Tabiryan, B. Ya. Zel’dovich, and A. V. Sukhov, The Orientational Optical Nonlinearity of Liquid Crystals (Special Issue), Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 136 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

W. M. Gibbons, P. J. Shannon, S.-T. Sun, and B. J. Swetlin, “Surface-mediated alignment of nematic liquid crystals with polarized laser light,” Nature (London) 351, 49 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

N. V. Tabiryan, “Light-induced Freedericks transition in turbid layers of nematic liquid crystals,” Opt. Spectrosc. 58, 697 (1985).

Polymer (1)

H. J. Coles and R. Simoni, “High resolution laser-addressed liquid crystal polymer storage displays,” Polymer 26, 1801 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

G. P. Wiederrecht, B. A. Yoon, and M. R. Wasielewski, “High photorefractive gain in nematic liquid crystals doped with electron donor and acceptor molecules,” Science 270, 1794 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) (1)

L. S. Aslanyan, N. V. Tabiryan, and Yu. S. Chilingaryan, “Nonlinear self-action of plasmons in liquid crystals,”Sov. J. Contemp. Phys. (Armenian Academy of Sciences) 19, 33 (1984).

Other (6)

G. Cipparrone, A. Mazzulla, L. Lucchetti, and F. Simoni, “Holographic gratings formation in dye-doped polymer dispersed liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstadt, Germany, 1997), p. 55.

B. E. A. Saleh and M. C. Teich, Fundamentals of Photonics (Wiley, New York, 1991).

P. Guenter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., Photorefractive Materials and Their Applications (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1988 and 1989), Vols. 1 and 2.

P. G. de Gennes, The Physics of Liquid Crystals (Clarendon, Oxford, 1975).

I. S. Gradshteyn and I. M. Ryzhik, Table of Integrals, Series, and Products, 5th ed. (Academic, Boston, 1994).

N. V. Tabiryan and C. Umeton, “Thermo-diffusive photorefractive phenomena in liquid crystals,” in Book of Abstracts of the Seventh International Topical Meeting on Optics of Liquid Crystals OLC’97, September 8–12, 1997, Heppenheim, Germany (Technical University of Darmstadt, Darmstad, Germany, 1997), p. 38.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

The principal scheme of an experimental situation. A photorefractive crystal of a thickness d serves as one of the substrates for a liquid-crystal (LC) layer of the thickness L. The z axis of a Cartesian coordinate system is directed along the normal to the cell boundaries. The space-charge density in the photorefractive substrate is modulated along the x axis by interfering light beams, which leads to an electric field that, though attenuating in the LC, can reorient the LC. θ is the peak reorientation angle achieved at the center of the LC cell.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

The increase of the threshold electric field for nematic-LC (NLC) reorientation as a function of attenuation. The thick curve presents the numerical solution of the problem, and the thin line is its fit with ES/EF1+0.7αL.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

The profile of the director reorientation amplitude for different values of qL: The strongly asymmetric curve corresponds to qL=10; the symmetric curve corresponds to qL=1.

Equations (32)

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2θx2+2θz2=-Δ4πK[(Ex2-Ez2)sin θ cos θ+ExEz cos 2θ],
Ex=0,Ez=Ez0 exp(-αz),
d2θdz2=Δ8πK Ez02 exp(-2αz)sin 2θ.
d2θdζ2+1ζ dθdζ+θ=0
ζ=Ez0EF π exp(-αz)αL,
EF=1L 4π3KΔ1/2
θ(ζ)=c1J0(ζ)+c2Y0(ζ),
J0παL ESEFY0π exp(-αL)αL ESEF
=J0π exp(-αL)αL ESEFY0παL ESEF.
ESEF(1+0.5αL).
Ex=Ex0 sin qx,Ez=Ez0 exp(-αz).
2θqx2+2θqz2=-Δ4πK Ex0Ez0 exp(-αz)sin qx.
θq=-ΔEx0Ez04πK(α2-q2)×sinh qzsinh qL [exp(-qL)-exp(-αL)]+exp(-αz)-exp(-qz)sin qx.
θq=0-1α2 zL [1-exp(-αL)]+exp(-αz)-1.
θq=ΔEx0Ez04πKq2 h(qL, z)sin qx,
h(qL, z)=12 qz exp(-qz)-qL exp(-qL) sinh qzsinh qL.
ρ=ρm cos qx.
Exx+Ezz=4π ρm cos qx,
Ezx=Exz,
2Exx2+2Exz2=-4π qρm sin qx.
Ex=Em(z)sin qx,
ExLC=E0 exp(-qz)sin qx,
EzLC=E0 exp(-qz)cos qx,
E0=4πρmq×exp(qd)(LC+)+exp(-qd)(LC-)-2LCexp(qd)(LC+)2-exp(-qd)(LC-)2.
E02πρmdLC
E02πρmq [1-exp(-qd)].
E0=2πσmLC,
θq=BEPEF2 h(qL, z)sin qx,
EP=2π3(qL)3 ρmL [1-exp(-qd)].
σmenμEzt,
E02πσmLCqLEF,
tkBTLC2π2e2nD EfEz qL.

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