Abstract

We characterize the phase noises (or timing jitter) of argon-ion-laser-pumped femtosecond Ti:sapphire lasers with intracavity dye saturable absorbers or saturable Bragg reflectors (SBR’s). The significance of the finite lifetime of the absorbers is identified for what is the first time to our knowledge. We show that timing fluctuations of the mode-locked lasers can be suppressed significantly by optimization of intracavity gain bandwidth and group-velocity dispersion. A new active stabilization technique, based on the optoelectronic phase locked loop, is also demonstrated. The rms timing jitter (100–500 Hz) of the femtosecond passively mode-locked Ti:sapphire/dye and Ti:sapphire/SBR lasers operating at an average power of 200 mW is reduced to 650 and 290 fs (500 Hz), respectively.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (1)

M. Aoyama and Koichi Yamakawa, Opt. Commun. 140, 255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Crocker, F. D. Betz, J. Levy, and D. D. Awschalom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Keller, K. J. Weigarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Shieh, H. M. Twu, and Ci-Ling Pan, Opt. Lett. 21, 1058 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (2)

F. X. Kärtner and U. Keller, Opt. Lett. 20, 16 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, J. M. Shieh, and Ci-Ling Pan, Opt. Commun. 114, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

D. E. Spence, W. E. Sleat, J. M. Evans, W. Sibbertt, and J. D. Kafka, Opt. Commun. 101, 286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (3)

1991 (2)

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. E. Spence, J. M. Evans, W. E. Sleat, and W. Sibbertt, Opt. Lett. 16, 762 (1991).

1989 (1)

M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

D. Von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 39, 291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

D. Von der Linde, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 39, 291 (1986).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

G. T. Harvey, M. S. Heutmaker, P. R. Smith, M. C. Nuss, U. Keller, and J. A. Valdmanis, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 295 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. J. W. Rodwell, D. M. Bloom, and K. J. Weingarten, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (2)

U. Keller, K. J. Weigarten, F. X. Kärtner, D. Kopf, B. Braun, I. D. Jung, R. Fluck, C. Hönninger, N. Matuschek, and J. Aus der Au, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 435 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Tsuda, W. H. Knox, S. T. Cundiff, W. Y. Jan, and J. E. Cunningham, IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 454 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. (1)

H. H. Wu, C. S. Chang, and C. L. Pan, IEEE Microwave Guid. Wave Lett. 2, 11 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. P. Yanovsky, A. Korytin, F. W. Wise, A. Cassanho, and H. P. Jenssen, IEEE Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 2, 465 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (3)

D. E. Spence, W. E. Sleat, J. M. Evans, W. Sibbertt, and J. D. Kafka, Opt. Commun. 101, 286 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Aoyama and Koichi Yamakawa, Opt. Commun. 140, 255 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Ganikhanov, J. M. Shieh, and Ci-Ling Pan, Opt. Commun. 114, 289 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (7)

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

S. A. Crocker, F. D. Betz, J. Levy, and D. D. Awschalom, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 67, 2068 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

H. A. Haus and A. Mecozzi, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 983 (1993); errata, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 1996 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Configurations of Ti:sapphire/SBR and Ti:sapphire/dye lasers. P1, P2, SF10 prisms; SSBR, strained SBR; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Timing jitter of the free-running lasers as a function of gain bandwidth. The right-hand axis is for the Ti:sapphire/dye laser. The left-hand axis is for the Ti:sapphire/SBR laser.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Timing jitter of the free-running lasers as a function of intracavity dispersion. Open squares, data points for constant bandwidth; solid triangles, data points for constant time–bandwidth products.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Single-sideband phase-noise spectral density for the femtosecond Ti:sapphire/dye laser with and without active stabilization. The dotted-dashed line shows 1/f4 dependence.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Single-sideband phase-noise spectral density for the femtosecond Ti:sapphire/SBR laser with and without active stabilization. The dotted-dashed line shows 1/f4 dependence.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Schematic diagram of the experimental setup for active timing stabilization. BPF, band-pass filter; LPF, low-pass filter; PID, proportional, integrating, differential; PZT, piezoelectric transducer.

Equations (4)

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dp=4 sin(/2)[1-n2 sin2(/2)]1/2 dndλ ΔλLp,
Sp(f)=Ω024D2TR2 Dp(2πf)2[(2πf)2+τp-2]+Dt(2πf )2,
τp=3TRΩg2τ24g,
Dp=23ω0τ2 θ 2gTR hν,Dt=π2τ23ω0 θ 2gTR hν.

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