Abstract

Single-gate boxcar-integrator time-domain photothermal radiometry (PTR) is proposed as a noncontact remote technique with a high signal-to-noise ratio that can evaluate the optical quality of the surface in a solid-state laser-gain medium such as Ti:sapphire. It was found that immediately after the boxcar-averaged laser-pulse cutoff, the PTR signal is dominated by the laser metastable-level transition lifetime. A PTR theoretical model was formulated to account for this effect and to deconvolute its contribution to the signal from surface absorption of the laser radiation. With the theoretical model, the surface contribution to experimental boxcar PTR signals was deconvoluted and the surface quality was quantified in terms of the surface nonradiative energy generation rate, as the percentage of the input optical power that is converted to heat.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992).
  2. J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, M. Kokta, and D. Peressini, “Improved Ti:sapphire laser performance with new high figure of merit crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2612–2616 (1994).
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  7. W. P. Leung and A. C. Tam, “Techniques of flash radiometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 153–161 (1984).
  8. R. D. Tom, E. P. O’Hara, and D. Benin, “A generalized model of photothermal radiometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5392–5400 (1982).
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  12. J. Vanniasinkam, M. Munidasa, A. Othonos, M. Kokta, and A. Mandelis, “Diagnostics of nonradiative defects in the bulk and surface of brewster-cut Ti:sapphire laser materials using photothermal radiometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2301–2310 (1997).
  13. B. F. Gachter and J. A. Koningstein, “Zero phonon transitions and interacting Jahn-Teller phonon energies from the fluorescence spectrum of Ti:sapphire,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003–2006 (1974).
  14. J. Vanniasinkam, A. Mandelis, S. Buddhudu, and M. Kokta, “Photopyroelectric deconvolution of bulk and surface optical absorption and nonradiative energy conversion efficiency spectra in Ti:sapphire crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8090–8097 (1994).
  15. A. Mandelis, J. Vanniasinkam, S. Buddhudu, A. Othonos, and M. Kokta, “Absolute nonradiative energy-conversion-efficiency spectra in Ti:sapphire crystals measured by noncontact quadrature photopyroelectric spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 6808–6821 (1993).
  16. P. A. Schultz and S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).

1997 (1)

J. Vanniasinkam, M. Munidasa, A. Othonos, M. Kokta, and A. Mandelis, “Diagnostics of nonradiative defects in the bulk and surface of brewster-cut Ti:sapphire laser materials using photothermal radiometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2301–2310 (1997).

1996 (1)

A. Mandelis and J. Vanniasinkam, “Theory of nonradiative decay dynamics in solid-state laser media via laser photothermal diagnostics,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6107–6119 (1996).

1994 (3)

A. Mandelis, “Signal-to-noise ratio in lock-in amplifier synchronous detection: a generalized communications systems approach with applications to frequency, time, and hybrid (rate window) photothermal measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3309–3323 (1994).

J. Vanniasinkam, A. Mandelis, S. Buddhudu, and M. Kokta, “Photopyroelectric deconvolution of bulk and surface optical absorption and nonradiative energy conversion efficiency spectra in Ti:sapphire crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8090–8097 (1994).

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, M. Kokta, and D. Peressini, “Improved Ti:sapphire laser performance with new high figure of merit crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2612–2616 (1994).

1993 (1)

A. Mandelis, J. Vanniasinkam, S. Buddhudu, A. Othonos, and M. Kokta, “Absolute nonradiative energy-conversion-efficiency spectra in Ti:sapphire crystals measured by noncontact quadrature photopyroelectric spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 6808–6821 (1993).

1991 (1)

P. A. Schultz and S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).

1985 (2)

P. E. Nordal and S. O. Kanstad, “New developments in photothermal radiometry,” Infrared Phys. 25, 295–304 (1985).

A. C. Tam, “Pulsed photothermal radiometry for noncontact spectroscopy, material testing and inspection measurements,” Infrared Phys. 25, 305–313 (1985).

1984 (1)

W. P. Leung and A. C. Tam, “Techniques of flash radiometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 153–161 (1984).

1982 (1)

R. D. Tom, E. P. O’Hara, and D. Benin, “A generalized model of photothermal radiometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5392–5400 (1982).

1981 (2)

R. Santos and L. C. M. Miranda, “Theory of the photothermal radiometry with solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4194–4198 (1981).

W. Lowdermilk and D. Milam, “Laser-induced surface and coating damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1888–1903 (1981).

1974 (1)

B. F. Gachter and J. A. Koningstein, “Zero phonon transitions and interacting Jahn-Teller phonon energies from the fluorescence spectrum of Ti:sapphire,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003–2006 (1974).

1973 (1)

Appl. Opt. (1)

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. F. Pinto, L. Esterowitz, G. H. Rosenblatt, M. Kokta, and D. Peressini, “Improved Ti:sapphire laser performance with new high figure of merit crystals,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 2612–2616 (1994).

P. A. Schultz and S. R. Henion, “Liquid-nitrogen-cooled Ti:sapphire laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 1039–1047 (1991).

J. Vanniasinkam, M. Munidasa, A. Othonos, M. Kokta, and A. Mandelis, “Diagnostics of nonradiative defects in the bulk and surface of brewster-cut Ti:sapphire laser materials using photothermal radiometry,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 33, 2301–2310 (1997).

W. Lowdermilk and D. Milam, “Laser-induced surface and coating damage,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 17, 1888–1903 (1981).

Infrared Phys. (2)

P. E. Nordal and S. O. Kanstad, “New developments in photothermal radiometry,” Infrared Phys. 25, 295–304 (1985).

A. C. Tam, “Pulsed photothermal radiometry for noncontact spectroscopy, material testing and inspection measurements,” Infrared Phys. 25, 305–313 (1985).

J. Appl. Phys. (5)

W. P. Leung and A. C. Tam, “Techniques of flash radiometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 153–161 (1984).

R. D. Tom, E. P. O’Hara, and D. Benin, “A generalized model of photothermal radiometry,” J. Appl. Phys. 53, 5392–5400 (1982).

R. Santos and L. C. M. Miranda, “Theory of the photothermal radiometry with solids,” J. Appl. Phys. 52, 4194–4198 (1981).

A. Mandelis and J. Vanniasinkam, “Theory of nonradiative decay dynamics in solid-state laser media via laser photothermal diagnostics,” J. Appl. Phys. 80, 6107–6119 (1996).

J. Vanniasinkam, A. Mandelis, S. Buddhudu, and M. Kokta, “Photopyroelectric deconvolution of bulk and surface optical absorption and nonradiative energy conversion efficiency spectra in Ti:sapphire crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 75, 8090–8097 (1994).

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. F. Gachter and J. A. Koningstein, “Zero phonon transitions and interacting Jahn-Teller phonon energies from the fluorescence spectrum of Ti:sapphire,” J. Chem. Phys. 60, 2003–2006 (1974).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

A. Mandelis, J. Vanniasinkam, S. Buddhudu, A. Othonos, and M. Kokta, “Absolute nonradiative energy-conversion-efficiency spectra in Ti:sapphire crystals measured by noncontact quadrature photopyroelectric spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 6808–6821 (1993).

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Mandelis, “Signal-to-noise ratio in lock-in amplifier synchronous detection: a generalized communications systems approach with applications to frequency, time, and hybrid (rate window) photothermal measurements,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 3309–3323 (1994).

Other (1)

W. Koechner, Solid State Laser Engineering, 3rd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1992).

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