Abstract

The time dependence of the spatial coherence of the combined spectral lines at 23.2 and 23.6 nm from the Ge xxiii collisionally pumped soft-x-ray laser with a double-slab target is examined within a single nanosecond pulse by use of Young’s interference fringes and a streak camera. High source intensity is linked with low spatial coherence and vice versa. Calculations of the source intensity, size, and position have also been made; these calculations refer to a single-slab source. Comparison between the observed and calculated intensities, and of the source sizes both calculated and derived from the Young’s fringes by interpretation with a Gaussian model of source emission, show good agreement in general trends.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997

1996

G. F. Cairns, S. B. Healy, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and E. Robertson, “A time-resolved spectroscopy study of the resonance-line emission in the Ge XXIII XUV laser,” J. Phys. B 29, 4839–4854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Plowes, G. J. Pert, S. B. Healey, and D. T. Toft, “Beam modeling for x-ray lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(3) 219–228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft-x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. B. Healey, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pump;ed laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

J. E. Trebes, “Spatial coherence of soft x-ray lasers,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 265–268 (1992).

1991

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

1990

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1987

Amendt, P.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuma, H.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Baldis, H. A.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Barbee, T. W.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbee Jr., T. W.

Boehly, T.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brown, S.

Browne, M. T.

Burge, R. E.

Cairns, G. F.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, S. B. Healy, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and E. Robertson, “A time-resolved spectroscopy study of the resonance-line emission in the Ge XXIII XUV laser,” J. Phys. B 29, 4839–4854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healey, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pump;ed laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Carillon, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, M. R.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cauble, R.

Ceglio, N.

Celliers, P.

Chaker, M.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Chandler, E. A.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambous, P.

Chen, H. Z.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.

Craxton, R. S.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft-x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daido, H.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Demir, A.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Djaoui, A.

Dunn, J.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Dwivedi, L.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Eder, D.

Elton, R. C.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft-x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Enright, G. D.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Epstein, R.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feit, M. D.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fields, L. D. J.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Hadithi, Y. Al.

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hawryluk, A.

Healey, S. B.

J. A. Plowes, G. J. Pert, S. B. Healey, and D. T. Toft, “Beam modeling for x-ray lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(3) 219–228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healey, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pump;ed laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Healy, S. B.

G. F. Cairns, S. B. Healy, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and E. Robertson, “A time-resolved spectroscopy study of the resonance-line emission in the Ge XXIII XUV laser,” J. Phys. B 29, 4839–4854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Herman, P. R.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Holden, P. B.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaegle, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanabe, T.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Kato, Y.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Keane, C.

Key, M. H.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kidd, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kieffer, J. C.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Kingston, A. E.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, J. A.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodama, R.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Krishnan, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

La Fontaine, B.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Lamb, M. J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, T. N.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft-x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lewis, C. L. S.

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, X. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Spatial coherence of x-ray laser emission from neonlike germanium after prepulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2742–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, S. B. Healy, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and E. Robertson, “A time-resolved spectroscopy study of the resonance-line emission in the Ge XXIII XUV laser,” J. Phys. B 29, 4839–4854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healey, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pump;ed laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Libby, S. B.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lightbody, M. T. M.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Matthews, M. Rosen, S. Brown, N. Ceglio, D. Eder, A. Hawryluk, C. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, D. Nilsen, J. Scofield, and J. Trebes, “X-ray laser research at the Lawrence-Livermore National Laboratory NOVA laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 575–587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

MacGowan, B. J.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Matthews, M. Rosen, S. Brown, N. Ceglio, D. Eder, A. Hawryluk, C. Keane, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, S. Maxon, D. Nilsen, J. Scofield, and J. Trebes, “X-ray laser research at the Lawrence-Livermore National Laboratory NOVA laser facility,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 575–587 (1987).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

MacPhee, A. G.

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, X. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Spatial coherence of x-ray laser emission from neonlike germanium after prepulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2742–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D.

Matthews, D. L.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Maxon, S.

McClean, E. A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

McLean, E. A.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft-x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Miura, E.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Moreno, J. C.

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft-x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murai, K.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Nakai, S.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Neely, D.

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, X. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Spatial coherence of x-ray laser emission from neonlike germanium after prepulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2742–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Niibi, M.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Nilsen, D.

Nilsen, J.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norreys, P.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nugent, K. A.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O’Neill, D.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, D. M.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osterheid, A. L.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pepin, H.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Pert, G. J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Plowes, G. J. Pert, S. B. Healey, and D. T. Toft, “Beam modeling for x-ray lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(3) 219–228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, S. B. Healy, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and E. Robertson, “A time-resolved spectroscopy study of the resonance-line emission in the Ge XXIII XUV laser,” J. Phys. B 29, 4839–4854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healey, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pump;ed laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Plowes, J. A.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. A. Plowes, G. J. Pert, S. B. Healey, and D. T. Toft, “Beam modeling for x-ray lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(3) 219–228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. B. Healey, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pump;ed laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pretzler, G.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramsden, S. A.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Raucourt, J. P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, E.

G. F. Cairns, S. B. Healy, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and E. Robertson, “A time-resolved spectroscopy study of the resonance-line emission in the Ge XXIII XUV laser,” J. Phys. B 29, 4839–4854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rogoyski, A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M.

Russotto, M.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scofield, J.

Scofield, J. H.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimkaveg, G.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraga, H.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Slark, G. E.

Stone, G. F.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strauss, M.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takabe, H.

Takagi, M.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Tallents, G. J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Toft, D. T.

J. A. Plowes, G. J. Pert, S. B. Healey, and D. T. Toft, “Beam modeling for x-ray lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(3) 219–228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J.

Trebes, J. E.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, “Spatial coherence of soft x-ray lasers,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 265–268 (1992).

Tsukamoto, N.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Uhomoibhi, J.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Uhomoibhi, J. O.

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, D. M.

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Walling, R. S.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wan, A. S.

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft-x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Weber, F.

Yaakobi, B.

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamanaka, M.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Yuan, G.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, and A. Djaoui, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of a neonlike germanium soft-x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhang, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron.

S. B. Healey, G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and J. A. Plowes, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pump;ed laser considering the effect of prepulses,” IEEE J. Sel. Top. Quantum Electron. 1, 949–957 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser.

J. E. Trebes, “Spatial coherence of soft x-ray lasers,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 265–268 (1992).

G. D. Enright, H. A. Baldis, J. Dunn, B. La Fontaine, D. M. Villeneuve, J. C. Kieffer, H. Pepin, M. Chaker, and P. R. Herman, “X-ray gain measurements in a collisionally excited Ge plasma,” in X-Ray Lasers 1990, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 116, 343–347 (1991).

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O’Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-pass amplification in Ge soft-x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Bristol, UK, Inst. Phys. Conf. Ser. 125, 9–16 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. B

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, S. B. Healy, C. L. S. Lewis, G. J. Pert, and E. Robertson, “A time-resolved spectroscopy study of the resonance-line emission in the Ge XXIII XUV laser,” J. Phys. B 29, 4839–4854 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun.

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al. Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplified double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, and E. A. McClean, “Characterization of soft-x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (Bellingham)

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. H. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Opt. Quantum Electron.

J. A. Plowes, G. J. Pert, S. B. Healey, and D. T. Toft, “Beam modeling for x-ray lasers,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 28(3) 219–228 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russotto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, L. D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neonlike titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

T. N. Lee, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft-x-ray lasing in neonlike germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft-x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other

M. S. Schulz, H. Daido, K. Murai, Y. Kato, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, S. Nakai, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, K. Shinohara, I. Kodama, T. Honda, D. Neely, and G. Slark, “Soft-x-ray holography using an x-ray laser at 23.2/23.6 nm and 19.6 nm,” in Shortwavelength V: Physics with Intense Laser Pulses, P. B. Corkum and M. D. Perry, eds., Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 226–230.

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative temporal profile of the driver pulse intensity used in the present simulations and taken from Ref. 20 to simulate targets irradiated at average intensity of 1.6×1013 W/cm2.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of the optical system for time-dependent studies of laser coherence.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental (solid curve) and calculated (dashed curve) temporal variations of 23.2- and 23.6-nm XRL intensity from a Ge target irradiated by a single 700-ps pulse at 1.6×1013 W/cm2. The time origin of the experimental data was fixed by normalizing the two curves at an elapsed time of 875 ps in the simulation.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Temporal changes of interference fringe visibility through a single XRL pulse. The visibility values adjacent to the pattern centers are plotted for both sides of the interference pattern, and the average visibility values are also shown. The continuous curve shows the fitting of a single Gaussian curve to the points.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model relationships between the visibility of interference fringes in the far field and the FWHM values for a Gaussian-shaped source for offset distances of -2σ (dashed curve), -3σ (dot–dash curve), and -4σ (triangles).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal variation of source FWHM throughout a single XRL pulse derived from experimental visibilities and a Gaussian model. The points are connected by a spline curve. A more physical curve is also shown following the fitting of a single Gaussian distribution to the experimental points. Also shown is the temporal behavior of the source FWHM calculated with the plasma model.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculations from the plasma model of the source intensity distributions in the vertical plane for 23.2-nm radiation after elapsed times of 400 (200) 1000 ps.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Results from the plasma model of the variation with time through a single XRL pulse of the separation between the center of the source and the plane of the target.

Equations (2)

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V(x)=Imax-IminImax+Imin
I(x)=I0 exp(-x2/2σ2),-σx3σ.

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