Abstract

We describe a series of experiments on acetonitrile solutions of an inorganic cluster molecule Mo2Ag4S8(PPh3)4 and compare them with data on a suspension of carbon particles in liquid (dilute ink). The optical-limiting behavior is measured by single-picosecond 532-nm pulses and nanosecond-long trains of these picosecond pulses. Nonlinear loss measurements are also performed with pulse trains at 1064 nm. Both materials show reduced transmittance for increasing fluence (energy per unit area). We also perform picosecond time-resolved pump–probe measurements at 532 nm, and we find that the observed pump–probe behavior is identical for the metal-cluster solution and the carbon-black suspension. We believe that the nonlinear mechanisms are the same for the two materials. Our previous studies of carbon-black suspension indicate that the primary nonlinear losses are due to scattering and absorption by microplasmas formed after thermionic emission from heated carbon black augmented by scattering from subsequently created bubbles. The conclusion of a similar limiting mechanism for the two materials is confirmed by time-resolved shadowgraphic images taken on both samples; however, a definitive conclusion concerning the role of microplasmas versus bubbles in either material is still under investigation.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1307, 350 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 894 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. F. Fougeanet and J. C. Fabre, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), 293–298.
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 11, 394 (1967).
  9. F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, 1971).
  10. R. Becker, University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (personal communication, 1997).
  11. R. Goerdert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 285–292.
    [CrossRef]
  12. A. A. Said, A. Dogariu, T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1995), paper CThJ2.
  13. A. Dogariu, T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, and N. Bloembergen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 796 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, and R. Timm, J. Fluid Mech. 206, 299 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  18. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

F. Fougeanet and J. C. Fabre, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), 293–298.
[CrossRef]

R. Goerdert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 285–292.
[CrossRef]

1996 (1)

1995 (2)

1994 (1)

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

1990 (1)

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1307, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (5)

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, and R. Timm, J. Fluid Mech. 206, 299 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1969 (1)

D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674 (1969).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 11, 394 (1967).

Becker, R.

R. Goerdert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 285–292.
[CrossRef]

Bloembergen, N.

Brown, R. A.

M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Clements, A.

R. Goerdert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 285–292.
[CrossRef]

David , Jr., D.

D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 11, 394 (1967).

David Jr., D.

D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Dogariu, A.

Du, H. J.

Fabre, J. C.

F. Fougeanet and J. C. Fabre, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), 293–298.
[CrossRef]

Fougeanet, F.

F. Fougeanet and J. C. Fabre, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), 293–298.
[CrossRef]

Goerdert, R.

R. Goerdert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 285–292.
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

A. Dogariu, T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, and N. Bloembergen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 796 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Honey, R. C.

M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ji, W.

W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 894 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lang, J. P.

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lauterborn, W.

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, and R. Timm, J. Fluid Mech. 206, 299 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mansour, K.

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1307, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Nashold, M.

M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Said, A. A.

Sheik-bahae, M.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shi, S.

W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 894 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Soileau, M. J.

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1307, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tang, S. H.

W. Ji, H. J. Du, S. H. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Timm, R.

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, and R. Timm, J. Fluid Mech. 206, 299 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Van Stryland, E. W.

A. Dogariu, T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, E. W. Van Stryland, and N. Bloembergen, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 796 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, M. J. Soileau, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1100 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1307, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, Opt. Lett. 14, 955 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, and R. Timm, J. Fluid Mech. 206, 299 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Walter, D. P.

M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wei, T. H.

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Whittaker, T.

R. Goerdert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 285–292.
[CrossRef]

Xia, T.

Xin, X. Q.

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 894 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

M. Sheik-bahae, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 760 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 11, 394 (1967).

D. David, Jr., J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Fluid Mech. (1)

A. Vogel, W. Lauterborn, and R. Timm, J. Fluid Mech. 206, 299 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

S. Shi, W. Ji, and X. Q. Xin, J. Phys. Chem. 99, 894 (1995).
[CrossRef]

MRS Symp. Proc. (2)

R. Goerdert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), pp. 285–292.
[CrossRef]

F. Fougeanet and J. C. Fabre, in Materials for Optical Limiting II, R. Pachter, D. J. Hagan, P. Hood, K. Lewis, J. Perry, and R. L. Sutherland, eds., MRS Symp. Proc. 479 (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, Pa., 1997), 293–298.
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (3)

M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, Proc. SPIE 1307, 350 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

A. A. Said, A. Dogariu, T. Xia, D. J. Hagan, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington D.C., 1995), paper CThJ2.

F. Ready, Effects of High-Power Laser Radiation (Academic, New York, 1971).

R. Becker, University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio 45469 (personal communication, 1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy output for CS2 and CBS as a function of input peak power for 14-ns (FWHM), 532-nm pulses focused to w0 =3.5 μm for input powers of (a) 1 to 12 kW and (b) 1 to 1000 W (from Ref. 3 with permission).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Optical limiting in Mo2Ag4S8(PPh3)4 in acetonitrile, 96% internal linear transmittance, with 9-ns (FWHM) pulses at 532 nm (circles for 1-mm cell, squares for 5-mm cell).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Structure of the inorganic metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8(PPh3)4. Each Ag is attached to a PPh3 ion (not shown).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Limiting in Mo2Ag4S8(PPh3)4 with a 45-ns pulse train of 30-ps (FWHM) pulses at 532 nm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pump–probe experimental setup.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized transmittance of the probe as a function of time delay for a pump energy of 50 μJ in TBP (squares) and in the metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8(PPh3)4 (circles).

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Normalized probe transmittance as a function of time delay for the inorganic metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8(PPh3)4, for pumping energies of 14 (open circles), 50 (squares), 100 (triangles), and 200 μJ (filled circles).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Normalized probe transmittance as a function of time delay for the inorganic cluster Mo2Ag4S8(PPh3)4 in a 1-mm cell (triangles), CBS in a 1-mm cell (circles) and CBS in a 5-mm cell (squares).

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