Abstract

Time-resolved imagery is presented showing the changes that occur in the focal volume of dilute liquid–particle suspensions following the arrival of single, Q-switched, frequency-doubled, Nd:YAG laser pulses. Data are presented for a carbon particle suspension consisting of used (carbonized) 10W-15 motor oil and for a suspension of the inorganic metallic cluster molecule Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4. The images in conjunction with the accompanying limiting data show that the reduction in transmission, observed as the input pulse energy is increased, results from scattering from bubbles augmented by plasma absorption. The imaging technique involves converting a portion of the laser pulse to probe pulses that are then delayed through varying lengths of optical fiber. The focal volume is probed perpendicular to the incident beam at various times from 12 ns to 2.9 μs after the arrival of the pulse in the test cell. Light emitted from the cell as a result of incandescence or a hot plasma is also imaged. Nonlinear loss, time-resolved pump–probe and picosecond limiting experiments, performed at the University of Central Florida’s Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers (CREOL), are described in the companion paper in this issue entitled “Nonlinear optical properties of the inorganic metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. Brown, K. Nashold, D. Walter, and R. Honey, paper presented at Seventh DoD Conference on DEW and Survivability, Vulnerability, and Effects, U.S. Department of Defense Monterey, Calif., 9–12 May, 1989.
  2. K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Materials for Optical Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  4. K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Session on Electro-Optical Materials for Switches, Coatings, Sensor Optics, and Detectors, M. Hartmann, M. J. Solieau, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE1307, 350–362 (1990);K. Mansour, Characterization of Optical Nonlinearities in Carbon Black Suspension in Liquids, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Florida, Orlando, 1990).
    [Crossref]
  5. C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  6. K. M. Nashold, paper presented at the Second DoD Workshop on Visible/NIR Optical Limiters, U.S. Department of Defense, Wright–Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio, 15–17 February, 1994.
  7. R. J. Becker, paper presented at the Second DoD Workshop on Visible/NIR Optical Limiters, U.S. Department of Defense, Wright–Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio, 15–17 February, 1994.
  8. K. M. Nashold and D. Powell Walter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1228–1237 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  9. K. M. Nashold, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996), pp. 169–178.
  10. D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  12. T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. X. Hammer, G. D. Noojin, C. E. Clary, R. J. Thomas, C. A. Toth, B. Rockwell, and W. P. Roach, Appl. Opt. 36, 1684–1693 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).
  15. K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
    [PubMed]
  16. F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capon, and J. Mellerio, Appl. Opt. 27, 3661–3674 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  17. C. F. Wood, D. H. Leach, J. Z. Zhang, R. K. Chang, and P. W. Barber, Appl. Opt. 27, 2279–2286 (1988).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE1031, 545–550 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  19. J. Z. Zhang, J. K. Lam, C. F. Wood, B. T. Chu, and R. K. Chang, Appl. Opt. 26, 4731–4737 (1987).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
    [Crossref]
  21. P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
    [Crossref]
  22. D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography , Proc. SPIE491, 950–957 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  23. C. E. Bell and B. S. Maccabee, Appl. Opt. 13, 605–609 (1974).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  24. S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  25. W. Merzkirch, Flow Visualization (Academic, Orlando, Fla.1987), Chap. 3.
  26. R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, (1996).
  27. G. W. Weyl, Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990).
  28. R. J. Becker, “Interpretation of carbon suspension cell limiting data,” Final Report to McDonnell Douglas Corp. on Contract Y1W083 April 2, 1992 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1992).
  29. R. J. Becker, “Mechanisms for limiting on MAC 1 experiments,” Air Force Suspension Limiter Workshop (Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, October16, 1992).
  30. P. Menna and A. D’Alessio, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).
  31. H. Bockhorn, F. Fetting, G. Wannemacher, and H. W. Wenz, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).
  32. S. G. Jennings and R. G. Pinnick, Atmos. Environ. 14, 1123–1129 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  33. T. P. Ackerman and O. B. Toon, Appl. Opt. 20, 3661–3668 (1981).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. G. Jennings, R. G. Pinnock, and H. J. Auvermann, Appl. Opt. 17, 3922–3929 (1978).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  35. C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  36. J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
    [Crossref]
  37. S. C. Brown, Basic Data of Plasma Physics (Wiley, New York, 1959).
  38. R. Becker, D. Smits, H. Puterbaugh, and C. Dodsworth, “Optical power limiter model enhancement,” Final Report to Lawrence Associates, February, 1995 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1995).
  39. R. Becker, D. Smits, and H. Puterbaugh, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).
  40. R. J. Becker and P. Lee, “Liquid optical power limiter computer model,” Final Report to McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., September, 1993 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1993).
  41. K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, and K. Stalder, “Optical limiter development,” Final Report for NADC on Contract N62269-87-C-0262, May 31, 1990 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1990).
  42. A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473–4479 (1977);A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, and J. F. Verdiek, Final Report to EPA, (United Technologies, Hartford, Conn., 1977), pp. 1–175.
    [Crossref]
  43. A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.
  44. I. H. Hutchinson, Principles of Plasma Diagnostics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990).
  45. C. D. David and H. Weichel, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674–3678 (1969).
    [Crossref]
  46. W. B. Kunkel, Plasma Physics in Theory and Application (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).
  47. M. A. Beik, “Free electron density in laser-induced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wyoming, Laramie, 1990).
  48. P. Shah, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser-induced plasma spectra formed on a graphite surface and in gases,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Mexico State University, Los Cruces, 1989).
  49. P. A. Sturrock, Plasma Physics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK1994).
  50. S. Ichimaru, Basic Principles of Plasma Physics (Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1994).
  51. Yu. P. Raizer, Laser-Induced Discharge Phenomena (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1977).
  52. S. Brown, Introduction to Electrical Discharges in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966).
  53. L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Interscience, New York, 1962).
  54. G. Bekefi, Radiation Processes in Plasmas (Wiley, New York, 1996), Chap. 3.
  55. W. Heitler, The Quantum Theory of Radiation (Dover, New York, 1984), p. 246.
  56. D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511–521 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  57. J. W. Daily, Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 61–83.
  58. W. Demtroder, Chemical Analysis, P. J. Elving, J. D. Winefordner, and I. M. Koltoff, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1979).
  59. S. L. Murov, Handbook of Photochemistry (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973).
  60. N. J. Turro, Modern Molecular Photochemistry (Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1978).
  61. The Sadtler Handbook of Ultraviolet Spectra (Sadtler Research Laboratories, Philadelphia, 1979).
  62. W. Ji, H. Du, S. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  63. L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1983).
  64. C. H. Johansson and P. A. Persson, Detonics of High Explosives (Academic, New York, 1971).
  65. R. H. Cole, Underwater Explosions (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1948).
  66. H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics (Dover, New York, 1945), Chap. 5.
  67. C. E. Brennon, Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1995), Chap. 2.
  68. Van P. Carey, Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1992), Chap. 6.
  69. L. E. Scriven, Chem. Eng. Sci. 10, 1–13 (1959).
    [Crossref]
  70. G. S. H. Lock, Latent Heat Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1994).
  71. M. S. Plesset and S. A. Zwick, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 493–500 (1954).
    [Crossref]
  72. H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).
  73. M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, 1969).
  74. J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  75. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1965), Chap. 13.
  76. H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (1)

H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[Crossref]

1992 (1)

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
[Crossref]

1981 (2)

1980 (1)

S. G. Jennings and R. G. Pinnick, Atmos. Environ. 14, 1123–1129 (1980).
[Crossref]

1978 (1)

1977 (1)

A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473–4479 (1977);A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, and J. F. Verdiek, Final Report to EPA, (United Technologies, Hartford, Conn., 1977), pp. 1–175.
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
[Crossref]

1974 (2)

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[Crossref]

C. E. Bell and B. S. Maccabee, Appl. Opt. 13, 605–609 (1974).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1969 (1)

C. D. David and H. Weichel, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674–3678 (1969).
[Crossref]

1959 (1)

L. E. Scriven, Chem. Eng. Sci. 10, 1–13 (1959).
[Crossref]

1954 (1)

M. S. Plesset and S. A. Zwick, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 493–500 (1954).
[Crossref]

Aaron, J. M.

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[Crossref]

Ackerman, T. P.

Alloncle, P.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE1031, 545–550 (1989).
[Crossref]

Asiyo-Vogel, M. N.

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

Autric, M.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE1031, 545–550 (1989).
[Crossref]

Auvermann, H. J.

Barber, P. W.

Becker, R.

R. Becker, D. Smits, H. Puterbaugh, and C. Dodsworth, “Optical power limiter model enhancement,” Final Report to Lawrence Associates, February, 1995 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1995).

R. Becker, D. Smits, and H. Puterbaugh, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, (1996).

Becker, R. J.

R. J. Becker, “Interpretation of carbon suspension cell limiting data,” Final Report to McDonnell Douglas Corp. on Contract Y1W083 April 2, 1992 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1992).

R. J. Becker, “Mechanisms for limiting on MAC 1 experiments,” Air Force Suspension Limiter Workshop (Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, October16, 1992).

R. J. Becker and P. Lee, “Liquid optical power limiter computer model,” Final Report to McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., September, 1993 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1993).

R. J. Becker, paper presented at the Second DoD Workshop on Visible/NIR Optical Limiters, U.S. Department of Defense, Wright–Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio, 15–17 February, 1994.

Beik, M. A.

M. A. Beik, “Free electron density in laser-induced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wyoming, Laramie, 1990).

Bekefi, G.

G. Bekefi, Radiation Processes in Plasmas (Wiley, New York, 1996), Chap. 3.

Bell, C. E.

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

Bockhorn, H.

H. Bockhorn, F. Fetting, G. Wannemacher, and H. W. Wenz, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

Born, M.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1965), Chap. 13.

Bournot, Ph.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE1031, 545–550 (1989).
[Crossref]

Brennon, C. E.

C. E. Brennon, Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1995), Chap. 2.

Brown, R.

R. Brown, K. Nashold, D. Walter, and R. Honey, paper presented at Seventh DoD Conference on DEW and Survivability, Vulnerability, and Effects, U.S. Department of Defense Monterey, Calif., 9–12 May, 1989.

Brown, R. A.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, and K. Stalder, “Optical limiter development,” Final Report for NADC on Contract N62269-87-C-0262, May 31, 1990 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1990).

Brown, S.

S. Brown, Introduction to Electrical Discharges in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966).

Brown, S. C.

S. C. Brown, Basic Data of Plasma Physics (Wiley, New York, 1959).

Capon, M. R. C.

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capon, and J. Mellerio, Appl. Opt. 27, 3661–3674 (1988).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carey, Van P.

Van P. Carey, Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1992), Chap. 6.

Chang, R. K.

Chu, B. T.

Clary, C. E.

Clements, A.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, (1996).

Cole, R. H.

R. H. Cole, Underwater Explosions (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1948).

Compton, R. N.

A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.

Crosley, D. R.

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511–521 (1981).
[Crossref]

D’Alessio, A.

P. Menna and A. D’Alessio, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

Daily, J. W.

J. W. Daily, Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 61–83.

David, C. D.

C. D. David and H. Weichel, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674–3678 (1969).
[Crossref]

Demtroder, W.

W. Demtroder, Chemical Analysis, P. J. Elving, J. D. Winefordner, and I. M. Koltoff, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1979).

Docchio, F.

Dodsworth, C.

R. Becker, D. Smits, H. Puterbaugh, and C. Dodsworth, “Optical power limiter model enhancement,” Final Report to Lawrence Associates, February, 1995 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1995).

Dogariu, A.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Du, H.

Dufresne, D.

P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography , Proc. SPIE491, 950–957 (1984).
[Crossref]

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE1031, 545–550 (1989).
[Crossref]

Eckbreth, A. C.

A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473–4479 (1977);A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, and J. F. Verdiek, Final Report to EPA, (United Technologies, Hartford, Conn., 1977), pp. 1–175.
[Crossref]

Euliss, G. W.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Fetting, F.

H. Bockhorn, F. Fetting, G. Wannemacher, and H. W. Wenz, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

Giovanneschi, P.

P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography , Proc. SPIE491, 950–957 (1984).
[Crossref]

Giovanneschi, P. T.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE1031, 545–550 (1989).
[Crossref]

Goedert, R.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, (1996).

Grey Morgan, C.

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
[Crossref]

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[Crossref]

Grohegan, D. P.

A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.

Hagan, D. J.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Hammer, D. X.

Haufler, R. E.

A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.

Heitler, W.

W. Heitler, The Quantum Theory of Radiation (Dover, New York, 1984), p. 246.

Hentschel, W.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Hettich, R. L.

A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.

Holzfuss, J.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Honey, R.

R. Brown, K. Nashold, D. Walter, and R. Honey, paper presented at Seventh DoD Conference on DEW and Survivability, Vulnerability, and Effects, U.S. Department of Defense Monterey, Calif., 9–12 May, 1989.

Honey, R. C.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, and K. Stalder, “Optical limiter development,” Final Report for NADC on Contract N62269-87-C-0262, May 31, 1990 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1990).

Hutchinson, I. H.

I. H. Hutchinson, Principles of Plasma Diagnostics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990).

Ichimaru, S.

S. Ichimaru, Basic Principles of Plasma Physics (Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1994).

Ireland, C. L. M.

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[Crossref]

Jackson, J. D.

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Jennings, S. G.

Ji, W.

W. Ji, H. Du, S. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[Crossref]

Johansson, C. H.

C. H. Johansson and P. A. Persson, Detonics of High Explosives (Academic, New York, 1971).

Jungnickel, K.

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

Kerker, M.

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, 1969).

Kunkel, W. B.

W. B. Kunkel, Plasma Physics in Theory and Application (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

Lam, J. K.

Lamb, H.

H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics (Dover, New York, 1945), Chap. 5.

Landau, L. D.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1983).

Lang, J. P.

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lauterborn, W.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Lawson, C. M.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Leach, D. H.

Lee, H. S.

H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

Lee, P.

R. J. Becker and P. Lee, “Liquid optical power limiter computer model,” Final Report to McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., September, 1993 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1993).

Lifshitz, E. M.

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1983).

Lock, G. S. H.

G. S. H. Lock, Latent Heat Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1994).

Maccabee, B. S.

Mansour, K.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Materials for Optical Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Session on Electro-Optical Materials for Switches, Coatings, Sensor Optics, and Detectors, M. Hartmann, M. J. Solieau, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE1307, 350–362 (1990);K. Mansour, Characterization of Optical Nonlinearities in Carbon Black Suspension in Liquids, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Florida, Orlando, 1990).
[Crossref]

Mellerio, J.

Menna, P.

P. Menna and A. D’Alessio, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

Merte, H.

H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

Merzkirch, W.

W. Merzkirch, Flow Visualization (Academic, Orlando, Fla.1987), Chap. 3.

Michael, R. R.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Murov, S. L.

S. L. Murov, Handbook of Photochemistry (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973).

Nashold, K.

R. Brown, K. Nashold, D. Walter, and R. Honey, paper presented at Seventh DoD Conference on DEW and Survivability, Vulnerability, and Effects, U.S. Department of Defense Monterey, Calif., 9–12 May, 1989.

Nashold, K. M.

K. M. Nashold and D. Powell Walter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1228–1237 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. M. Nashold, paper presented at the Second DoD Workshop on Visible/NIR Optical Limiters, U.S. Department of Defense, Wright–Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio, 15–17 February, 1994.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. M. Nashold, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996), pp. 169–178.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, and K. Stalder, “Optical limiter development,” Final Report for NADC on Contract N62269-87-C-0262, May 31, 1990 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1990).

Noojin, G. D.

Persson, P. A.

C. H. Johansson and P. A. Persson, Detonics of High Explosives (Academic, New York, 1971).

Pinnick, R. G.

S. G. Jennings and R. G. Pinnick, Atmos. Environ. 14, 1123–1129 (1980).
[Crossref]

Pinnock, R. G.

Plesset, M. S.

M. S. Plesset and S. A. Zwick, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 493–500 (1954).
[Crossref]

Powell Walter, D.

Puech, F.

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography , Proc. SPIE491, 950–957 (1984).
[Crossref]

Puretzky, A. A.

A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.

Puterbaugh, H.

R. Becker, D. Smits, and H. Puterbaugh, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).

R. Becker, D. Smits, H. Puterbaugh, and C. Dodsworth, “Optical power limiter model enhancement,” Final Report to Lawrence Associates, February, 1995 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1995).

Raizer, Yu. P.

Yu. P. Raizer, Laser-Induced Discharge Phenomena (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1977).

Regondi, P.

Rein, S.

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

Roach, W. P.

Rockwell, B.

Said, A. A.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Scriven, L. E.

L. E. Scriven, Chem. Eng. Sci. 10, 1–13 (1959).
[Crossref]

Shah, P.

P. Shah, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser-induced plasma spectra formed on a graphite surface and in gases,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Mexico State University, Los Cruces, 1989).

Shi, S.

W. Ji, H. Du, S. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
[Crossref]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[Crossref]

Smits, D.

R. Becker, D. Smits, and H. Puterbaugh, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).

R. Becker, D. Smits, H. Puterbaugh, and C. Dodsworth, “Optical power limiter model enhancement,” Final Report to Lawrence Associates, February, 1995 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1995).

Soileau, M. J.

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Materials for Optical Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Session on Electro-Optical Materials for Switches, Coatings, Sensor Optics, and Detectors, M. Hartmann, M. J. Solieau, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE1307, 350–362 (1990);K. Mansour, Characterization of Optical Nonlinearities in Carbon Black Suspension in Liquids, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Florida, Orlando, 1990).
[Crossref]

Spitzer, L.

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Interscience, New York, 1962).

Stalder, K.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, and K. Stalder, “Optical limiter development,” Final Report for NADC on Contract N62269-87-C-0262, May 31, 1990 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1990).

Sturrock, P. A.

P. A. Sturrock, Plasma Physics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK1994).

Tang, S.

Tang, S. H.

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[Crossref]

Thomas, R. J.

Toon, O. B.

Toth, C. A.

Turro, N. J.

N. J. Turro, Modern Molecular Photochemistry (Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1978).

van de Hulst, H. C.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

Van Stryland, E. W.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Session on Electro-Optical Materials for Switches, Coatings, Sensor Optics, and Detectors, M. Hartmann, M. J. Solieau, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE1307, 350–362 (1990);K. Mansour, Characterization of Optical Nonlinearities in Carbon Black Suspension in Liquids, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Florida, Orlando, 1990).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Materials for Optical Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91 (1989).
[Crossref]

Vogel, A.

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Walter, D.

R. Brown, K. Nashold, D. Walter, and R. Honey, paper presented at Seventh DoD Conference on DEW and Survivability, Vulnerability, and Effects, U.S. Department of Defense Monterey, Calif., 9–12 May, 1989.

Walter, D. P.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, and K. Stalder, “Optical limiter development,” Final Report for NADC on Contract N62269-87-C-0262, May 31, 1990 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1990).

Wannemacher, G.

H. Bockhorn, F. Fetting, G. Wannemacher, and H. W. Wenz, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

Wei, T. H.

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[Crossref]

Weichel, H.

C. D. David and H. Weichel, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674–3678 (1969).
[Crossref]

Wenz, H. W.

H. Bockhorn, F. Fetting, G. Wannemacher, and H. W. Wenz, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

Weyl, G. W.

G. W. Weyl, Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990).

Whittaker, T.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, (1996).

Wolf, E.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1965), Chap. 13.

Wood, C. F.

Xia, T.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[Crossref]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

Xin, X. Q.

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[Crossref]

Zhang, J. Z.

Zheng, X.-Y.

A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.

Zwick, S. A.

M. S. Plesset and S. A. Zwick, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 493–500 (1954).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (7)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[Crossref]

Atmos. Environ. (1)

S. G. Jennings and R. G. Pinnick, Atmos. Environ. 14, 1123–1129 (1980).
[Crossref]

Chem. Eng. Sci. (1)

L. E. Scriven, Chem. Eng. Sci. 10, 1–13 (1959).
[Crossref]

Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer (1)

H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. (1)

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[Crossref]

Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. (1)

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[Crossref]

J. Appl. Phys. (4)

C. D. David and H. Weichel, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674–3678 (1969).
[Crossref]

P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
[Crossref]

A. C. Eckbreth, J. Appl. Phys. 48, 4473–4479 (1977);A. C. Eckbreth, P. A. Bonczyk, and J. F. Verdiek, Final Report to EPA, (United Technologies, Hartford, Conn., 1977), pp. 1–175.
[Crossref]

M. S. Plesset and S. A. Zwick, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 493–500 (1954).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

J. Phys. D (1)

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[Crossref]

Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk (1)

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[Crossref]

Ophthalmologe (1)

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

Opt. Eng. (1)

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511–521 (1981).
[Crossref]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (1)

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
[Crossref]

Other (50)

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography , Proc. SPIE491, 950–957 (1984).
[Crossref]

J. W. Daily, Laser Probes for Combustion Chemistry, D. R. Crosley, ed. (American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., 1980), pp. 61–83.

W. Demtroder, Chemical Analysis, P. J. Elving, J. D. Winefordner, and I. M. Koltoff, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1979).

S. L. Murov, Handbook of Photochemistry (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1973).

N. J. Turro, Modern Molecular Photochemistry (Benjamin Cummings, Menlo Park, Calif., 1978).

The Sadtler Handbook of Ultraviolet Spectra (Sadtler Research Laboratories, Philadelphia, 1979).

L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, Electrodynamics of Continuous Media (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1983).

C. H. Johansson and P. A. Persson, Detonics of High Explosives (Academic, New York, 1971).

R. H. Cole, Underwater Explosions (Princeton U. Press, Princeton, N.J., 1948).

H. Lamb, Hydrodynamics (Dover, New York, 1945), Chap. 5.

C. E. Brennon, Cavitation and Bubble Dynamics (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1995), Chap. 2.

Van P. Carey, Liquid-Vapor Phase-Change Phenomena (Hemisphere, Washington, D.C., 1992), Chap. 6.

H. C. van de Hulst, Light Scattering by Small Particles (Dover, New York, 1981).

M. Kerker, The Scattering of Light (Academic, New York, 1969).

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, UK, 1965), Chap. 13.

A. A. Puretzky, D. P. Grohegan, R. E. Haufler, R. L. Hettich, X.-Y. Zheng, and R. N. Compton, Laser Ablation: Mechanisms and Applications II, J. C. Miller and D. B. Geohegan, eds. (AIP Press, New York, 1993), pp. 365–374.

I. H. Hutchinson, Principles of Plasma Diagnostics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK, 1990).

G. S. H. Lock, Latent Heat Transfer (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, UK, 1994).

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE1031, 545–550 (1989).
[Crossref]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, 142–148 (1996).
[Crossref]

S. C. Brown, Basic Data of Plasma Physics (Wiley, New York, 1959).

R. Becker, D. Smits, H. Puterbaugh, and C. Dodsworth, “Optical power limiter model enhancement,” Final Report to Lawrence Associates, February, 1995 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1995).

R. Becker, D. Smits, and H. Puterbaugh, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996).

R. J. Becker and P. Lee, “Liquid optical power limiter computer model,” Final Report to McDonnell Douglas Electronic Systems Co., September, 1993 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1993).

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, R. C. Honey, D. P. Walter, and K. Stalder, “Optical limiter development,” Final Report for NADC on Contract N62269-87-C-0262, May 31, 1990 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1990).

K. M. Nashold, paper presented at the Second DoD Workshop on Visible/NIR Optical Limiters, U.S. Department of Defense, Wright–Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio, 15–17 February, 1994.

R. J. Becker, paper presented at the Second DoD Workshop on Visible/NIR Optical Limiters, U.S. Department of Defense, Wright–Patterson AFB, Dayton, Ohio, 15–17 February, 1994.

K. M. Nashold, in Proceedings, Combined Ninth DoD Conference on Directed Energy Warfare, Vulnerability, Survivability and Effects and USAF Laser Hardened Materials Program Review (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1996), pp. 169–178.

R. Brown, K. Nashold, D. Walter, and R. Honey, paper presented at Seventh DoD Conference on DEW and Survivability, Vulnerability, and Effects, U.S. Department of Defense Monterey, Calif., 9–12 May, 1989.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 78 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Materials for Optical Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE1105, 91 (1989).
[Crossref]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Session on Electro-Optical Materials for Switches, Coatings, Sensor Optics, and Detectors, M. Hartmann, M. J. Solieau, and V. K. Varadan, eds., Proc. SPIE1307, 350–362 (1990);K. Mansour, Characterization of Optical Nonlinearities in Carbon Black Suspension in Liquids, Ph.D. dissertation (University of Florida, Orlando, 1990).
[Crossref]

W. B. Kunkel, Plasma Physics in Theory and Application (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1966).

M. A. Beik, “Free electron density in laser-induced plasmas,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Wyoming, Laramie, 1990).

P. Shah, “Experimental and theoretical studies of laser-induced plasma spectra formed on a graphite surface and in gases,” Ph.D. dissertation (New Mexico State University, Los Cruces, 1989).

P. A. Sturrock, Plasma Physics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, UK1994).

S. Ichimaru, Basic Principles of Plasma Physics (Addison- Wesley, Reading, Mass., 1994).

Yu. P. Raizer, Laser-Induced Discharge Phenomena (Consultants Bureau, New York, 1977).

S. Brown, Introduction to Electrical Discharges in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966).

L. Spitzer, Physics of Fully Ionized Gases (Interscience, New York, 1962).

G. Bekefi, Radiation Processes in Plasmas (Wiley, New York, 1996), Chap. 3.

W. Heitler, The Quantum Theory of Radiation (Dover, New York, 1984), p. 246.

W. Merzkirch, Flow Visualization (Academic, Orlando, Fla.1987), Chap. 3.

R. Goedert, R. Becker, A. Clements, and T. Whittaker, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE2853, (1996).

G. W. Weyl, Laser-Induced Plasmas and Applications, L. J. Radziemski and D. A. Cremers, eds. (Marcel Dekker, New York, 1990).

R. J. Becker, “Interpretation of carbon suspension cell limiting data,” Final Report to McDonnell Douglas Corp. on Contract Y1W083 April 2, 1992 (University of Dayton Research Institute, Dayton, Ohio, 1992).

R. J. Becker, “Mechanisms for limiting on MAC 1 experiments,” Air Force Suspension Limiter Workshop (Wright–Patterson Air Force Base, Dayton, Ohio, October16, 1992).

P. Menna and A. D’Alessio, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

H. Bockhorn, F. Fetting, G. Wannemacher, and H. W. Wenz, Nineteenth Symposium on Combustion (Combustion Institute, Pittsburgh, 1982).

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shadowgraph and emitted light setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of scale, 50 μm per division.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattered energy test setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Used motor oil in toluene response over time, Ein17 μJ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Used motor oil in toluene response over time, Ein320 μJ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Used motor oil in toluene response over time, Ein2 μJ. Shadowgraph at 2900 ns omitted because it looks exactly the same as the image at 790 ns; neither image shows any features, indicating that the bubble lifetime is short.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Used oil in toluene at 95 μJ; shadowgraph, scattered, and emitted images and profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Used oil in toluene at 514 μJ; shadowgraph, scattered, and emitted images and profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Used oil in toluene at 1.19 mJ; shadowgraph, scattered, and emitted images and profiles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile response over time, Ein16 μJ.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile response over time, Ein347 μJ.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Shadowgraphs and emitted light image for Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile, Ein=910 μJ.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Shadowgraphs and emitted light image for Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile, Ein=71 μJ.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Shadowgraphs and emitted light image for Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile, Ein>1.5 mJ.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Limiting in used oil in toluene and Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile suspensions.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Shadowgraph, emitted light image, and 3D emission intensity plot for air breakdown, Ein=3.61 mJ.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Shadowgraph and emitted light image for methanol breakdown, Ein=517 μJ.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Diagram of primary and secondary volumes.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Transmitted and scattered energy versus input energy for used oil in toluene.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Solvent Thermophysical Properties

Tables Icon

Table 2 Scattered Energy versus Angle

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fv=ρCδ1-R (Tv-T0),
νc=Nqv,
v (cm/s)=6×107E(eV).
D=13 vNq=2.23×107 E(eV)Nq cm2/s,
x¯2=6Dt,
PbbεAΩτ=E,
n2=2.4×1015T3/2 exp(-X/kT)N0,
Kω=4πnre2mc νcω2+νc2 n=0.106nr νcω2+νc2 n,
Kω=qan2×10-17 cm2,
qa=4πnre2mc νcω2+νc2.
qaImeK/τ,
τ=1/υm
νm=2mM νc.
dPdΩ=(ka)2π J1(ka sin θ)ka sin θ2,
ka sin θ=1.61
ε2=ε1-ωp2ωp2+νc2,
ε2=-i ωp2ωp2+νc2 υcω,
ωp2=3.18×109n.
Qs19 Δεε2,Qaka εε,
qspqsb=ωp2(ε-1)(ω2+νc2)2arb24×10-44n2arb2.

Metrics