Abstract

Time-resolved imagery is presented showing the changes that occur in the focal volume of dilute liquid–particle suspensions following the arrival of single, Q-switched, frequency-doubled, Nd:YAG laser pulses. Data are presented for a carbon particle suspension consisting of used (carbonized) 10W-15 motor oil and for a suspension of the inorganic metallic cluster molecule Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4. The images in conjunction with the accompanying limiting data show that the reduction in transmission, observed as the input pulse energy is increased, results from scattering from bubbles augmented by plasma absorption. The imaging technique involves converting a portion of the laser pulse to probe pulses that are then delayed through varying lengths of optical fiber. The focal volume is probed perpendicular to the incident beam at various times from 12 ns to 2.9 μs after the arrival of the pulse in the test cell. Light emitted from the cell as a result of incandescence or a hot plasma is also imaged. Nonlinear loss, time-resolved pump–probe and picosecond limiting experiments, performed at the University of Central Florida’s Center for Research in Electro-Optics and Lasers (CREOL), are described in the companion paper in this issue entitled “Nonlinear optical properties of the inorganic metal cluster Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

1997 (1)

1996 (2)

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2853, 142–148 (1996).
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H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

1995 (2)

1994 (2)

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

1993 (1)

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

1991 (1)

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
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1989 (3)

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Materials for Optical Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
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P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE 1031, 545–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (2)

1987 (1)

1986 (1)

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography, Proc. SPIE 491, 950–957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

1980 (1)

S. G. Jennings and R. G. Pinnick, Atmos. Environ. 14, 1123–1129 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

1975 (1)

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
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1974 (2)

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
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C. E. Bell and B. S. Maccabee, Appl. Opt. 13, 605–609 (1974).
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1969 (1)

C. D. David and H. Weichel, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674–3678 (1969).
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1959 (1)

L. E. Scriven, Chem. Eng. Sci. 10, 1–13 (1959).
[CrossRef]

1954 (1)

M. S. Plesset and S. A. Zwick, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 493–500 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Aaron, J. M.

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Ackerman, T. P.

Alloncle, P.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE 1031, 545–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Asiyo-Vogel, M. N.

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

Autric, M.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE 1031, 545–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Auvermann, H. J.

Barber, P. W.

Bell, C. E.

Birngruber, R.

A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

Bournot, Ph.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE 1031, 545–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Brown, R. A.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
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A. Vogel, M. R. C. Capon, M. N. Asiyo-Vogel, and R. Birngruber, Invest. Ophthalmol. Visual Sci. 35, 3032–3044 (1994).

F. Docchio, P. Regondi, M. R. C. Capon, and J. Mellerio, Appl. Opt. 27, 3661–3674 (1988).
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Chang, R. K.

Chu, B. T.

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Crosley, D. R.

D. R. Crosley, Opt. Eng. 20, 511–521 (1981).
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David, C. D.

C. D. David and H. Weichel, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 3674–3678 (1969).
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Docchio, F.

Dogariu, A.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2853, 142–148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Du, H.

Dufresne, D.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE 1031, 545–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography, Proc. SPIE 491, 950–957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Euliss, G. W.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Giovanneschi, P.

P. Giovanneschi and D. Dufresne, J. Appl. Phys. 58, 651–652 (1985).
[CrossRef]

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography, Proc. SPIE 491, 950–957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Giovanneschi, P. T.

P. T. Giovanneschi, P. Alloncle, D. Dufresne, Ph. Bournot, and M. Autric, in Seventh International Symposium on Gas Flow and Lasers, D. Schuoecker, ed., Proc. SPIE 1031, 545–550 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Grey Morgan, C.

C. Grey Morgan, Rep. Prog. Phys. 38, 621–665 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Hagan, D. J.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2853, 142–148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hammer, D. X.

Hentschel, W.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Holzfuss, J.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Honey, R. C.

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ireland, C. L. M.

J. M. Aaron, C. L. M. Ireland, and C. Grey Morgan, J. Phys. D 7, 1907 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Jennings, S. G.

Ji, W.

W. Ji, H. Du, S. Tang, and S. Shi, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 876–881 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jungnickel, K.

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

Lam, J. K.

Lang, J. P.

S. Shi, W. Ji, S. H. Tang, J. P. Lang, and X. Q. Xin, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 3615–3616 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lauterborn, W.

A. Vogel, W. Hentschel, J. Holzfuss, and W. Lauterborn, Klin. Mbl. Augenheilk 189, 308–316 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lawson, C. M.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Leach, D. H.

Lee, H. S.

H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

Maccabee, B. S.

Mansour, K.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2853, 142–148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Mansour, E. W. Van Stryland, and M. J. Soileau, in Materials for Optical Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 91 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Mellerio, J.

Merte, H.

H. S. Lee and H. Merte, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 39, 2422–2447 (1996).

Michael, R. R.

C. M. Lawson, G. W. Euliss, and R. R. Michael, Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 2195 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nashold, K. M.

K. M. Nashold and D. Powell Walter, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1228–1237 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Nashold, R. A. Brown, D. P. Walter, and R. C. Honey, in Materials for Optical Switches, Isolators, and Limiters, M. J. Solieau, ed., Proc. SPIE 1105, 78 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Noojin, G. D.

Pinnick, R. G.

S. G. Jennings and R. G. Pinnick, Atmos. Environ. 14, 1123–1129 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Pinnock, R. G.

Plesset, M. S.

M. S. Plesset and S. A. Zwick, J. Appl. Phys. 25, 493–500 (1954).
[CrossRef]

Powell Walter, D.

Puech, F.

D. Dufresne, P. Giovanneschi, and F. Puech, in High Speed Photography, Proc. SPIE 491, 950–957 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Regondi, P.

Rein, S.

K. Jungnickel, S. Rein, and A. Vogel, Ophthalmologe 89, 283–287 (1992).
[PubMed]

Roach, W. P.

Rockwell, B.

Said, A. A.

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1497–1501 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Xia, A. Dogariu, K. Mansour, D. J. Hagan, A. A. Said, and E. W. Van Stryland, in Nonlinear Optical Liquids, C. M. Lawson, ed., Proc. SPIE 2853, 142–148 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. J. Hagan, T. Xia, A. A. Said, T. H. Wei, and E. W. Van Stryland, Int. J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. 2, 483 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scriven, L. E.

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Figures (19)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Shadowgraph and emitted light setup.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image of scale, 50 μm per division.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Scattered energy test setup.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Used motor oil in toluene response over time, Ein17 μJ.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Used motor oil in toluene response over time, Ein320 μJ.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Used motor oil in toluene response over time, Ein2 μJ. Shadowgraph at 2900 ns omitted because it looks exactly the same as the image at 790 ns; neither image shows any features, indicating that the bubble lifetime is short.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Used oil in toluene at 95 μJ; shadowgraph, scattered, and emitted images and profiles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Used oil in toluene at 514 μJ; shadowgraph, scattered, and emitted images and profiles.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Used oil in toluene at 1.19 mJ; shadowgraph, scattered, and emitted images and profiles.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile response over time, Ein16 μJ.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile response over time, Ein347 μJ.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Shadowgraphs and emitted light image for Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile, Ein=910 μJ.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Shadowgraphs and emitted light image for Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile, Ein=71 μJ.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Shadowgraphs and emitted light image for Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile, Ein>1.5 mJ.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Limiting in used oil in toluene and Mo2Ag4S8[PPh3]4 in acetonitrile suspensions.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Shadowgraph, emitted light image, and 3D emission intensity plot for air breakdown, Ein=3.61 mJ.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Shadowgraph and emitted light image for methanol breakdown, Ein=517 μJ.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Diagram of primary and secondary volumes.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Transmitted and scattered energy versus input energy for used oil in toluene.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Solvent Thermophysical Properties

Tables Icon

Table 2 Scattered Energy versus Angle

Equations (20)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

Fv=ρCδ1-R (Tv-T0),
νc=Nqv,
v (cm/s)=6×107E(eV).
D=13 vNq=2.23×107 E(eV)Nq cm2/s,
x¯2=6Dt,
PbbεAΩτ=E,
n2=2.4×1015T3/2 exp(-X/kT)N0,
Kω=4πnre2mc νcω2+νc2 n=0.106nr νcω2+νc2 n,
Kω=qan2×10-17 cm2,
qa=4πnre2mc νcω2+νc2.
qaImeK/τ,
τ=1/υm
νm=2mM νc.
dPdΩ=(ka)2π J1(ka sin θ)ka sin θ2,
ka sin θ=1.61
ε2=ε1-ωp2ωp2+νc2,
ε2=-i ωp2ωp2+νc2 υcω,
ωp2=3.18×109n.
Qs19 Δεε2,Qaka εε,
qspqsb=ωp2(ε-1)(ω2+νc2)2arb24×10-44n2arb2.

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