Abstract

We have investigated the mechanism of stimulated emission in ZnCdSe–ZnSSe quantum wells through optically pumped measurements of the gain spectrum in a variety of structures from 270 to 77 K. We also calculated the optical gain, using a model that includes many-body effects, and found excellent agreement between the calculated gain line shapes and our measurements. Under the conditions studied, which are close to those found in an operating laser diode, we conclude that the stimulated emission arises from an electron–hole plasma in our samples, even down to 77 K. Although our measurements do not rule out exciton gain mechanisms at other temperatures or operating conditions, sensitive line-shape fitting does not require them in our case. However, our line-shape analysis does show that Coulomb enhancement is significant, even at room temperature.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. C. Klingshirn, “Properties of the electron–hole plasma in II–VI semiconductors,” J. Cryst. Growth 117, 753–756 (1992).
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  3. J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  4. Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Cingolani, L. Calcagnile, G. Colí, R. Rinaldi, M. Lomascolo, M. DiDio, A. Franciosi, L. Vanzetti, G. C. LaRocca, and D. Campi, “Radiative recombination processes in wide-band-gap II–VI quantum wells: the interplay between excitons and free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1268–1277 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. A. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton–exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. Y. Kuroda, I. Suemune, Y. Gujii, and M. Fujimoto, “Blue-light stimulated emission from a localized state formed by well-barrier fluctuation in a II–VI semiconductor superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1182–1184 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  9. F. Kreller, M. Löwisch, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “The role of bi-excitons in the stimulated emission of wide-gap II–VI quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2420–2423 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
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  15. S. T. Kim, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and N. Koide, “Optical gain of optically pumped Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1535–1536 (1994).
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  16. G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
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    [CrossRef]
  20. R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
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  23. M. Asada, “Intraband relaxation time in quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2019–2026 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. P. Rees and P. Blood, “Implementation of spectral broadening by carrier–carrier scattering in quantum well gain-current calculations,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1545–1554 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  26. Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
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  28. K. Shazad, D. J. Olego, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Optical characterisation and band offsets in ZnSe-ZnSxSe1−x strained-layer superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1417–1426 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  29. R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  30. K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
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    [CrossRef]
  35. V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  37. G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  38. M. Buijs, K. Shahzad, S. Flamholtz, K. Haberern, and J. Gaines, “Carrier leakage in blue-green semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1987–1989 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  39. G. Lasher and F. Stern, “Spontaneous emission and stimulated recombination in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 133, A553–A563 (1964).
    [CrossRef]
  40. P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  41. N. F. Mott, “The transition to a metallic state,” Philos. Mag. 6, 287–309 (1961), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  42. P. P. Edwards and M. J. Sienko, “Universality aspects of the metal-nonmetal transition in condensed media,” Phys. Rev. B 17, 2575–2581 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  43. R. G. Ulbrich, “Dense nonequilibrium excitons: band edge absorption spectra of highly excited gallium arsenide,” in Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors, H. Haug, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1988).

1997

W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. F. Hsu, P. S. Zory, Jr., and C.-H. Wu, “Coulomb enhance-ment in InGaAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Taniguchi, T. Hino, S. Itoh, K. Nakano, N. Nakano, A. Ishibashi, and M. Ikeda, “100h blue-green laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 32, 552–553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Cingolani, L. Calcagnile, G. Colí, R. Rinaldi, M. Lomascolo, M. DiDio, A. Franciosi, L. Vanzetti, G. C. LaRocca, and D. Campi, “Radiative recombination processes in wide-band-gap II–VI quantum wells: the interplay between excitons and free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1268–1277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

F. Kreller, M. Löwisch, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “The role of bi-excitons in the stimulated emission of wide-gap II–VI quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2420–2423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Moritz and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in ordered GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3340–3342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Buijs, K. Shahzad, S. Flamholtz, K. Haberern, and J. Gaines, “Carrier leakage in blue-green semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1987–1989 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rees and P. Blood, “Implementation of spectral broadening by carrier–carrier scattering in quantum well gain-current calculations,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1545–1554 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. A. Lott, and K. D. Choquette, “Wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 135–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Kim, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and N. Koide, “Optical gain of optically pumped Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1535–1536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Klingshirn, “Properties of the electron–hole plasma in II–VI semiconductors,” J. Cryst. Growth 117, 753–756 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuroda, I. Suemune, Y. Gujii, and M. Fujimoto, “Blue-light stimulated emission from a localized state formed by well-barrier fluctuation in a II–VI semiconductor superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1182–1184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. A. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton–exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1989

H. Haug and S. W. Koch, “Semiconductor laser theory with many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 1887–1898 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Asada, “Intraband relaxation time in quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2019–2026 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

K. Shazad, D. J. Olego, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Optical characterisation and band offsets in ZnSe-ZnSxSe1−x strained-layer superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1417–1426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Blood, S. Colak, and A. I. Kucharska, “Influence of broadening and high injection on GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1593–1604 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1978

P. P. Edwards and M. J. Sienko, “Universality aspects of the metal-nonmetal transition in condensed media,” Phys. Rev. B 17, 2575–2581 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975

P. S. Cross and W. G. Oldham, “Monolithic measurement of optical gain and absorption in PbTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 952–954 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1973

K. L. Shaklee, R. E. Nahory, and R. F. Leheny, “Optical gain in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 7, 284–309 (1973).
[CrossRef]

1967

W. T. Silfvast and J. S. Deech, “Six dB/cm single-pass gain at 7229 Å in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 97–99 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1964

G. Lasher and F. Stern, “Spontaneous emission and stimulated recombination in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 133, A553–A563 (1964).
[CrossRef]

1961

N. F. Mott, “The transition to a metallic state,” Philos. Mag. 6, 287–309 (1961), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Akasaki, I.

S. T. Kim, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and N. Koide, “Optical gain of optically pumped Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1535–1536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Akimoto, K.

M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Amano, H.

S. T. Kim, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and N. Koide, “Optical gain of optically pumped Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1535–1536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Asada, M.

M. Asada, “Intraband relaxation time in quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2019–2026 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Blood, P.

W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. Rees and P. Blood, “Implementation of spectral broadening by carrier–carrier scattering in quantum well gain-current calculations,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1545–1554 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Blood, S. Colak, and A. I. Kucharska, “Influence of broadening and high injection on GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1593–1604 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Boggavarapu, D.

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Buijs, M.

M. Buijs, K. Shahzad, S. Flamholtz, K. Haberern, and J. Gaines, “Carrier leakage in blue-green semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1987–1989 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Calcagnile, L.

R. Cingolani, L. Calcagnile, G. Colí, R. Rinaldi, M. Lomascolo, M. DiDio, A. Franciosi, L. Vanzetti, G. C. LaRocca, and D. Campi, “Radiative recombination processes in wide-band-gap II–VI quantum wells: the interplay between excitons and free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1268–1277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, D.

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Cammack, D. A.

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. A. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton–exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Campi, D.

Cavenett, B. C.

Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chang, T. Y.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Choquette, K. D.

W. W. Chow, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. A. Lott, and K. D. Choquette, “Wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 135–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chow, W. W.

W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. A. Lott, and K. D. Choquette, “Wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 135–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cingolani, R.

R. Cingolani, L. Calcagnile, G. Colí, R. Rinaldi, M. Lomascolo, M. DiDio, A. Franciosi, L. Vanzetti, G. C. LaRocca, and D. Campi, “Radiative recombination processes in wide-band-gap II–VI quantum wells: the interplay between excitons and free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1268–1277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Colak, S.

P. Blood, S. Colak, and A. I. Kucharska, “Influence of broadening and high injection on GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1593–1604 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Colí, G.

Cross, P. S.

P. S. Cross and W. G. Oldham, “Monolithic measurement of optical gain and absorption in PbTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 952–954 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Deech, J. S.

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J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
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P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
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R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
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Frankowsky, G.

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
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G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
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Y. Kuroda, I. Suemune, Y. Gujii, and M. Fujimoto, “Blue-light stimulated emission from a localized state formed by well-barrier fluctuation in a II–VI semiconductor superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1182–1184 (1992).
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Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
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Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
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M. Buijs, K. Shahzad, S. Flamholtz, K. Haberern, and J. Gaines, “Carrier leakage in blue-green semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1987–1989 (1995).
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Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
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R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Girndt, A.

W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
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R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
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Glew, R. W.

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Goldstein, L.

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Greco, D.

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Grillo, D. C.

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gujii, Y.

Y. Kuroda, I. Suemune, Y. Gujii, and M. Fujimoto, “Blue-light stimulated emission from a localized state formed by well-barrier fluctuation in a II–VI semiconductor superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1182–1184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Haberern, K.

M. Buijs, K. Shahzad, S. Flamholtz, K. Haberern, and J. Gaines, “Carrier leakage in blue-green semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1987–1989 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hagerott, M.

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Han, J.

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Hangleiter, A.

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Moritz and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in ordered GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3340–3342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Härle, V.

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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H. Haug and S. W. Koch, “Semiconductor laser theory with many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 1887–1898 (1989).
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Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

He, L.

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Heffernan, J. F.

P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hegarty, J.

P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
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F. Kreller, M. Löwisch, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “The role of bi-excitons in the stimulated emission of wide-gap II–VI quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2420–2423 (1995).
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M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
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S. Taniguchi, T. Hino, S. Itoh, K. Nakano, N. Nakano, A. Ishibashi, and M. Ikeda, “100h blue-green laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 32, 552–553 (1996).
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G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
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C. F. Hsu, P. S. Zory, Jr., and C.-H. Wu, “Coulomb enhance-ment in InGaAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 158–165 (1997).
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R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
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Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
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H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
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K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
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M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
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J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
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K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
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S. Taniguchi, T. Hino, S. Itoh, K. Nakano, N. Nakano, A. Ishibashi, and M. Ikeda, “100h blue-green laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 32, 552–553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Jeon, H.

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jin, R.

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, C.

P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kalt, H.

M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kato, E.

H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kawakami, Y.

Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kelkar, P.

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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S. T. Kim, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and N. Koide, “Optical gain of optically pumped Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1535–1536 (1994).
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K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klingshirn, C.

M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
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C. Klingshirn, “Properties of the electron–hole plasma in II–VI semiconductors,” J. Cryst. Growth 117, 753–756 (1992).
[CrossRef]

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W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

H. Haug and S. W. Koch, “Semiconductor laser theory with many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 1887–1898 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koide, N.

S. T. Kim, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and N. Koide, “Optical gain of optically pumped Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1535–1536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kozlov, V.

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kreller, F.

F. Kreller, M. Löwisch, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “The role of bi-excitons in the stimulated emission of wide-gap II–VI quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2420–2423 (1995).
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P. Blood, S. Colak, and A. I. Kucharska, “Influence of broadening and high injection on GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1593–1604 (1988).
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Y. Kuroda, I. Suemune, Y. Gujii, and M. Fujimoto, “Blue-light stimulated emission from a localized state formed by well-barrier fluctuation in a II–VI semiconductor superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1182–1184 (1992).
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K. L. Shaklee, R. E. Nahory, and R. F. Leheny, “Optical gain in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 7, 284–309 (1973).
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G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Logue, F. P.

P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lomascolo, M.

R. Cingolani, L. Calcagnile, G. Colí, R. Rinaldi, M. Lomascolo, M. DiDio, A. Franciosi, L. Vanzetti, G. C. LaRocca, and D. Campi, “Radiative recombination processes in wide-band-gap II–VI quantum wells: the interplay between excitons and free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1268–1277 (1996).
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R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
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W. W. Chow, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. A. Lott, and K. D. Choquette, “Wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 135–137 (1994).
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F. Kreller, M. Löwisch, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “The role of bi-excitons in the stimulated emission of wide-gap II–VI quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2420–2423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

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M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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A. Moritz and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in ordered GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3340–3342 (1995).
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N. F. Mott, “The transition to a metallic state,” Philos. Mag. 6, 287–309 (1961), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Nahory, R. E.

K. L. Shaklee, R. E. Nahory, and R. F. Leheny, “Optical gain in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 7, 284–309 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, K.

S. Taniguchi, T. Hino, S. Itoh, K. Nakano, N. Nakano, A. Ishibashi, and M. Ikeda, “100h blue-green laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 32, 552–553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nakano, N.

S. Taniguchi, T. Hino, S. Itoh, K. Nakano, N. Nakano, A. Ishibashi, and M. Ikeda, “100h blue-green laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 32, 552–553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakayama, N.

H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Newbury, P. R.

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. A. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton–exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nurmikko, A. V.

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ohata, T.

H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Okuyama, H.

H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oldham, W. G.

P. S. Cross and W. G. Oldham, “Monolithic measurement of optical gain and absorption in PbTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 952–954 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Olego, D. J.

K. Shazad, D. J. Olego, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Optical characterisation and band offsets in ZnSe-ZnSxSe1−x strained-layer superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1417–1426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ozawa, M.

M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Prete, P.

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Prior, K. A.

Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Puls, J.

F. Kreller, M. Löwisch, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “The role of bi-excitons in the stimulated emission of wide-gap II–VI quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2420–2423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ramaswamy, M.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Rees, P.

P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Rees and P. Blood, “Implementation of spectral broadening by carrier–carrier scattering in quantum well gain-current calculations,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1545–1554 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rinaldi, R.

R. Cingolani, L. Calcagnile, G. Colí, R. Rinaldi, M. Lomascolo, M. DiDio, A. Franciosi, L. Vanzetti, G. C. LaRocca, and D. Campi, “Radiative recombination processes in wide-band-gap II–VI quantum wells: the interplay between excitons and free carriers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1268–1277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ringle, M.

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Salokatve, A.

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sauer, M.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schneider Jr., R. P.

W. W. Chow, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. A. Lott, and K. D. Choquette, “Wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 135–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scholl, M.

M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Scholz, F.

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Shahzad, K.

M. Buijs, K. Shahzad, S. Flamholtz, K. Haberern, and J. Gaines, “Carrier leakage in blue-green semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1987–1989 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shaklee, K. L.

K. L. Shaklee, R. E. Nahory, and R. F. Leheny, “Optical gain in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 7, 284–309 (1973).
[CrossRef]

Shazad, K.

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. A. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton–exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Shazad, D. J. Olego, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Optical characterisation and band offsets in ZnSe-ZnSxSe1−x strained-layer superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1417–1426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sienko, M. J.

P. P. Edwards and M. J. Sienko, “Universality aspects of the metal-nonmetal transition in condensed media,” Phys. Rev. B 17, 2575–2581 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Silfvast, W. T.

W. T. Silfvast and J. S. Deech, “Six dB/cm single-pass gain at 7229 Å in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 97–99 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Simpson, J.

Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smowton, P. M.

W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Söllner, J.

M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sorba, L.

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stern, F.

G. Lasher and F. Stern, “Spontaneous emission and stimulated recombination in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 133, A553–A563 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Steuber, F.

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stewart, H.

Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Suemune, I.

Y. Kuroda, I. Suemune, Y. Gujii, and M. Fujimoto, “Blue-light stimulated emission from a localized state formed by well-barrier fluctuation in a II–VI semiconductor superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1182–1184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Taniguchi, S.

S. Taniguchi, T. Hino, S. Itoh, K. Nakano, N. Nakano, A. Ishibashi, and M. Ikeda, “100h blue-green laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 32, 552–553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ukita, M.

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Umlauff, M.

M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Van de Walle, C. G.

K. Shazad, D. J. Olego, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Optical characterisation and band offsets in ZnSe-ZnSxSe1−x strained-layer superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1417–1426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Vanzette, L.

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Vanzetti, L.

Wu, C.-H.

C. F. Hsu, P. S. Zory, Jr., and C.-H. Wu, “Coulomb enhance-ment in InGaAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wu, Y.-H.

Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yoshida, H.

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zory Jr., P. S.

C. F. Hsu, P. S. Zory, Jr., and C.-H. Wu, “Coulomb enhance-ment in InGaAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

H. Okuyama, E. Kato, S. Itoh, N. Nakayama, T. Ohata, and A. Ishibashi, “Operation and dynamics of ZnSe/ZnMgSSe double heterostructure blue laser diode at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 656–658 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. A. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton–exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kuroda, I. Suemune, Y. Gujii, and M. Fujimoto, “Blue-light stimulated emission from a localized state formed by well-barrier fluctuation in a II–VI semiconductor superlattice,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1182–1184 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, P. M. Smowton, P. Blood, A. Girndt, F. Jahnke, and S. W. Koch, “Comparison of experimental and theoretical GaInP quantum well gain spectra,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 157–159 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. T. Silfvast and J. S. Deech, “Six dB/cm single-pass gain at 7229 Å in lead vapor,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 11, 97–99 (1967).
[CrossRef]

S. T. Kim, H. Amano, I. Akasaki, and N. Koide, “Optical gain of optically pumped Al0.1Ga0.9N/GaN double heterostructure at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1535–1536 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Fuchs, J. Hörer, A. Hangleiter, V. Härle, F. Scholz, R. W. Glew, and L. Goldstein, “Intervalence band absorption in strained and unstrained InGaAs multiple quantum well structures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 231–233 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Moritz and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in ordered GaInP/AlGaInP quantum wells,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 3340–3342 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. W. Chow, R. P. Schneider, Jr., J. A. Lott, and K. D. Choquette, “Wavelength dependence of the threshold in an InGaP-InAlGaP vertical cavity surface emitting laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 135–137 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Jin, D. Boggavarapu, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, Y. Z. Hu, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Linewidth broadening factor of a microcavity semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 1883–1885 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Rees, F. P. Logue, J. F. Donegan, J. F. Heffernan, C. Jordan, and J. Hegarty, “Calculation of gain-current characteristics in ZnCdSe–ZnSe quantum well structures including many-body effects,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 3780–3782 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ukita, H. Okuyama, M. Ozawa, A. Ishibashi, K. Akimoto, and Y. Mori, “Refractive indices of ZnMgSe alloys lattice matched to GaAs,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2082–2084 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Frankowsky, F. Steuber, V. Härle, F. Scholz, and A. Hangleiter, “Optical gain in GaInN/GaN heterostructures,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 3746–3748 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. Kozlov, A. Salokatve, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, M. Ringle, and R. L. Gunshor, “Gain characteristics of blue/green II–VI quantum well lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1863–1864 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. R. Newbury, K. Shazad, and D. Cammack, “Stimulated emission via inelastic exciton-exciton scattering in ZnSe epilayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 58, 1065–1067 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Buijs, K. Shahzad, S. Flamholtz, K. Haberern, and J. Gaines, “Carrier leakage in blue-green semiconductor lasers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1987–1989 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett.

S. Taniguchi, T. Hino, S. Itoh, K. Nakano, N. Nakano, A. Ishibashi, and M. Ikeda, “100h blue-green laser diode,” Electron. Lett. 32, 552–553 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

G. Livescu, D. A. B. Miller, D. S. Chemla, M. Ramaswamy, T. Y. Chang, M. Sauer, A. C. Gossard, and J. H. English, “Free carrier and many-body effects in absorption spectra of modulation-doped quantum wells,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1677–1689 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Blood, S. Colak, and A. I. Kucharska, “Influence of broadening and high injection on GaAs-AlGaAs quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 1593–1604 (1988).
[CrossRef]

M. Asada, “Intraband relaxation time in quantum well lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2019–2026 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron.

C. F. Hsu, P. S. Zory, Jr., and C.-H. Wu, “Coulomb enhance-ment in InGaAs-GaAs quantum-well lasers,” IEEE J. Sel. Topics Quantum Electron. 3, 158–165 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys.

K. Kondo, M. Ukita, H. Yoshida, Y. Kishita, H. Okuyama, S. Ito, T. Ohata, K. Nakano, and A. Ishibashi, “A study of internal absorption in Zn(Cd)Se/ZnMgSSe semiconductor lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 76, 2621–2626 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. S. Cross and W. G. Oldham, “Monolithic measurement of optical gain and absorption in PbTe,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 952–954 (1975).
[CrossRef]

J. Cryst. Growth

C. Klingshirn, “Properties of the electron–hole plasma in II–VI semiconductors,” J. Cryst. Growth 117, 753–756 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin.

K. L. Shaklee, R. E. Nahory, and R. F. Leheny, “Optical gain in semiconductors,” J. Lumin. 7, 284–309 (1973).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

Y.-H. Wu, K. Ichino, Y. Kawakami, Sz. Fujita, and Sg. Fujita, “Estimation of critical thickness and band lineups in ZnCdSe/ZnSSe strained-layer system for design of carrier confinement quantum well structures,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, 1737–1742 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Philos. Mag.

N. F. Mott, “The transition to a metallic state,” Philos. Mag. 6, 287–309 (1961), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev.

G. Lasher and F. Stern, “Spontaneous emission and stimulated recombination in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. 133, A553–A563 (1964).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

H. Haug and S. W. Koch, “Semiconductor laser theory with many-body effects,” Phys. Rev. A 39, 1887–1898 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, P. Kelkar, A. V. Nurmikko, D. C. Grillo, L. He, J. Han, and R. L. Gunshor, “Role of Coulomb-correlated electron-hole pairs in ZnSe-based quantum-well diode lasers,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 5787–5790 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Shazad, D. J. Olego, and C. G. Van de Walle, “Optical characterisation and band offsets in ZnSe-ZnSxSe1−x strained-layer superlattices,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1417–1426 (1988).
[CrossRef]

R. Cingolani, P. Prete, D. Greco, P. V. Giugno, M. Lomascolo, R. Rinaldi, L. Calcagnile, L. Vanzette, L. Sorba, and A. Fanciosi, “Exciton spectroscopy in Zn1−xCdxSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 5176–5183 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Umlauff, H. Kalt, C. Klingshirn, M. Scholl, J. Söllner, and M. Heuken, “Laser processes and optical nonlinearities in ZnSe heterostructures,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 5063–5069 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Ding, M. Hagerott, T. Ishihara, H. Jeon, and A. V. Nurmikko, “(Zn, Cd)Se/ZnSe quantum-well lasers: excitonic gain in an inhomogeneously broadened quasi-two-dimensional system,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 10, 528–10, 542 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Y. Kawakami, I. Hauksson, H. Stewart, J. Simpson, I. Galbraith, K. A. Prior, and B. C. Cavenett, “Exciton-related lasing mechanism in ZnSe-(Zn, Cd)Se multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 11, 994–12, 000 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. P. Edwards and M. J. Sienko, “Universality aspects of the metal-nonmetal transition in condensed media,” Phys. Rev. B 17, 2575–2581 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

F. Kreller, M. Löwisch, J. Puls, and F. Henneberger, “The role of bi-excitons in the stimulated emission of wide-gap II–VI quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2420–2423 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Semicond. Sci. Technol.

P. Rees and P. Blood, “Implementation of spectral broadening by carrier–carrier scattering in quantum well gain-current calculations,” Semicond. Sci. Technol. 10, 1545–1554 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other

W. W. Chow, S. W. Koch, and M. Sargent III, Semiconductor Laser Physics (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1994), p. 136.

H. E. Gumlich, D. Theis, and D. Tschierse, “II–VI compounds,” in Numerical Data and Functional Relationships in Science and Technology, by O. Madelung, ed. Landolt-Börnstein New Series, Group III 17a (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1982), Chap. 3.

F. P. Logue, “Optical properties of II–VI quantum wells,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Dublin, Dublin, 1996).

R. G. Ulbrich, “Dense nonequilibrium excitons: band edge absorption spectra of highly excited gallium arsenide,” in Optical Nonlinearities and Instabilities in Semiconductors, H. Haug, ed. (Academic, Boston, 1988).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of an electron–electron scattering event. The electrons in filled states 1 and 2 scatter into empty states 1 and 2, respectively; energy and crystal momentum are conserved.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Data from which the inhomogeneous broadening was determined. (a) For the SCH a FWHM of 13 meV was determined from the 10-K photoluminescence spectrum. (b) For sample MQW the FWHM of the N=1 heavy-hole exciton resonance in the 10-K absorption spectrum was 20 meV.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Line-shape analysis of the 270-K gain spectrum of sample SCH. (a) With a free-carrier model, the dashed curve shows the gain calculated by use of the calculated confinement factor of 0.032; the solid curve shows the fit adjusted to match the peak gain intensity. (b) Adding Coulomb enhancement produces a closer match by use of the calculated confinement factor (dashed curve), and there is excellent agreement with the line shape after the confinement factor is adjusted to 0.042 (solid curve).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured gain spectra (symbols) for sample MQW. The fits from the many-body theory are also shown (solid curves). The results obtained from the fits are summarized in Table 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measured gain spectra (symbols) for sample SCH. The fits from the many-body theory are also shown (solid curves). The results obtained from the fits are summarized in Table 2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Sensitivity of the line-shape analysis (solid curve) to variation (dashed curves) of the carrier density by ±0.06×1012 cm-2. The data are from sample SCH at T=120 K, and the fit corresponds to a carrier density of 1.26×1012 cm-2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Fits (solid curves) to the measured gain spectrum (symbols) of model MQW at 77 K and at pump intensities of 6 and 8 kW cm-2. The corresponding carrier densities obtained from the fit were 1.46 and 1.88×1012 cm-2.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Fits (solid curves) to the measured gain spectrum (symbols) of model SCH at 77 K and at intensities of 1.0 and 1.3 kW cm-2. The corresponding carrier densities obtained from the fit were 6.7 and 8.1×1011 cm-2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Best fit to the measured gain spectrum of sample SCH at 270 K with the gain spectrum calculated by the many-body theory (solid curves). Also shown is the gain calculated neglecting Coulomb enhancement (dashed curve), showing the pronounced effect of Coulomb enhancement even at room temperature.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Coulomb enhancement to the peak of the gain spectrum as a function of temperature for MQW (open squares) and SCH (filled circles); the dotted curves are guides to the eye.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Variation of the gain–spontaneous-emission redshift with temperature for samples MQW (open squares) and SCH (filled circles).

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Material Parameters Used in This Work a

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Table 2 Results of Fitting the Experimentally Measured Gain Spectra for Samples MQW and SCH as a Function of Temperature a

Equations (18)

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I(L){exp[g(ω)L]-1}g(ω),
I(L1)I(L2)={exp[g(ω)L1]-1}{exp[g(ω)L2]-1},
Vs(q)=2πe2ε0ε(q,ω)q,
1ε(q,ω)=1-ωpl2ωq2,
ωpl2=2πe2nqε0mr
ωq2=ωpl21+qκ+14q22mr2,
κ=2πe2ε0feμe+fhμh.
ΔEg=ΔEgCH-ΔEgSX,
ΔEgCH=-2ERa0κ ln1+32πna02(a0κ)31/2,
ΔEgSX=1VqVs(q)( fe,q+fh,q),
γ=2π1,2,2|M1,21,2|δ(E1+E2-E1-E2)Q,
Q=f(E1)f(E2)[1-f(E2)]+[1-f(E1)][1-f(E2)]f(E2)
[ω-Ee,k-Eh,k+iγk]pk(r, ω)
=-( fν,k-fe,k)×dkE(r, ω)+1VkVs(k-k)pk(r, ω).
X(r)=1VkdkXk(r),
α(ω)=ωcn¯ Im[X(ω)],
ω=Eg-2EBE-δEkin+Ekinex(A)+Ekinex(B).
nMott1/3a0=0.26.

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