Abstract

An absolutely calibrated spectrograph based on a new single x-ray optical element, namely, an elliptical off-axis reflection zone plate, has been used for brilliance measurements of a laser-produced plasma of solid carbon and boron nitride. The spectral range investigated, λ2.14.3 nm, covers the emission from excited H- and He-like carbon states to the ground state. The plasma was generated by a subpicosecond high-intensity KrF*-laser pulse at an intensity of 2×1016 W/cm2. Under these conditions more than 1011 photons/sr per pulse were emitted in the strongest lines, demonstrating that this plasma can serve as an intense x-ray source. The measured spectra were in good agreement with a simulation that used the radiation program ration for an electron density of ne=4×1022 cm3 and an electron temperature of Te=90 eV. Measurements of spectral changes at different angles of incidence of the laser beam confirmed theoretical predictions for line intensities.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1997 (3)

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (6)

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, J. Phys. B 29, 4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Malmquist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (5)

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, C. Wülker, W. Theobald, and E. Förster, Phys. Plasmas 2, 972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. Rymell, M. Berglund, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

See, for example, M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, Science 264, 917 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Wülker, W. Theobald, F. P. Schäfer, and J. S. Bakos, Phys. Rev. E 50, 4920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. N. Broughton and R. Fedosejevs, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

B. Luther-Davies, E. G. Gamalii, Y. Wang, A. V. Rode, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1988 (1)

D. G. Stearns, O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 37, 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Stout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Agafanov, Yu.

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Altenbernd, D.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Antonetti, A.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Aschoff, H.

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Audebert, P.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bakos, J. S.

C. Wülker, W. Theobald, F. P. Schäfer, and J. S. Bakos, Phys. Rev. E 50, 4920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berglund, M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Rymell, M. Berglund, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bergmann, J.

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Broughton, J. N.

J. N. Broughton and R. Fedosejevs, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Burkhalter, P. G.

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. M.

D. G. Stearns, O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 37, 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chevallier, P.

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chien, C.-Y.

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Coe, J. S.

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

David, C.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Dhez, P.

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Diehl, M.

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Eidmann, K.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ellenberger, U.

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Erko, A.

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Falcone, R. W.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fecher, G. H.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fedosejevs, R.

J. N. Broughton and R. Fedosejevs, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Feurer, T.

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Förster, E.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, C. Wülker, W. Theobald, and E. Förster, Phys. Plasmas 2, 972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fortagne, O.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Frömter, R.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gamalii, E. G.

B. Luther-Davies, E. G. Gamalii, Y. Wang, A. V. Rode, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Gauthier, J. C.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Geindre, J. P.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gibbon, P.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grillon, G.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Grzelakowski, K.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guttmann, P.

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Hambach, D.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Hässner, R.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hertz, H. M.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Malmquist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Rymell, M. Berglund, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hirst, G.

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jasny, J.

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kapteyn, H. C.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Key, M. H.

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kirschner, J.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Landen, O. L.

D. G. Stearns, O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 37, 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lee, R. W.

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Stout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Legrand, F.

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lehr, J.

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lister, J.

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Liu, X.

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Luther-Davies, B.

B. Luther-Davies, E. G. Gamalii, Y. Wang, A. V. Rode, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Maksimchuk, A.

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Maldonado, J. R.

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Malmquist, L.

L. Malmquist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Missalla, T.

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mourou, G.

See, for example, M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, Science 264, 917 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murnane, M. M.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Neely, D.

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Newman, D. A.

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Niemann, B.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Oepen, H. P.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Panchenko, L. A.

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Perry, M. D.

See, for example, M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, Science 264, 917 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Plontke, R.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Powers, M.

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, M. C.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rode, A. V.

B. Luther-Davies, E. G. Gamalii, Y. Wang, A. V. Rode, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M. D.

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ross, I. N.

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rudolph, D.

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Rymell, L.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Malmquist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. Rymell, M. Berglund, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sauerbrey, R.

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schäfer, F. P.

C. Wülker, W. Theobald, F. P. Schäfer, and J. S. Bakos, Phys. Rev. E 50, 4920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schliebe, T.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schmahl, G.

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Schmidt, O.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, C. M.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schneider, G.

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Schönhense, G.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Schwanda, W.

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

D. G. Stearns, O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 37, 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shields, H.

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Stearns, D. G.

D. G. Stearns, O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 37, 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolberg, I.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stout, R. E.

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Stout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Swiech, W.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Teubner, U.

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, J. Phys. B 29, 4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, C. Wülker, W. Theobald, and E. Förster, Phys. Plasmas 2, 972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Theobald, W.

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, J. Phys. B 29, 4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, C. Wülker, W. Theobald, and E. Förster, Phys. Plasmas 2, 972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Wülker, W. Theobald, F. P. Schäfer, and J. S. Bakos, Phys. Rev. E 50, 4920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Thieme, J.

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Tikhonchuk, V. T.

B. Luther-Davies, E. G. Gamalii, Y. Wang, A. V. Rode, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Turcu, I. C. E.

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Umstadter, D.

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uschmann, I.

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, Y.

B. Luther-Davies, E. G. Gamalii, Y. Wang, A. V. Rode, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Whitten, B. L.

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Stout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Wilhein, T.

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Workman, J.

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wülker, C.

U. Teubner, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, J. Phys. B 29, 4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Teubner, C. Wülker, W. Theobald, and E. Förster, Phys. Plasmas 2, 972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Wülker, W. Theobald, F. P. Schäfer, and J. S. Bakos, Phys. Rev. E 50, 4920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yakshin, A.

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zierbock, M.

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ziethen, Ch.

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. B: (1)

U. Teubner, T. Missalla, I. Uschmann, E. Förster, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, Appl. Phys. B: 62, 213 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

L. Malmquist, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2627 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Wilhein, D. Hambach, B. Niemann, M. Berglund, L. Rymell, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 71, 190 (1997).
[CrossRef]

L. Rymell, M. Berglund, and H. M. Hertz, Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2625 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

J. N. Broughton and R. Fedosejevs, J. Appl. Phys. 74, 3712 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. (1)

W. Swiech, G. H. Fecher, Ch. Ziethen, O. Schmidt, G. Schönhense, K. Grzelakowski, C. M. Schneider, R. Frömter, H. P. Oepen, and J. Kirschner, J. Electron Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom. 84, 171 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (2)

U. Teubner, W. Theobald, and C. Wülker, J. Phys. B 29, 4333 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. Altenbernd, U. Teubner, P. Gibbon, E. Förster, P. Audebert, J. P. Geindre, J. C. Gauthier, G. Grillon, and A. Antonetti, J. Phys. B 30, 3969 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer (2)

D. Umstadter, J. Workman, A. Maksimchuk, X. Liu, U. Ellenberger, J. S. Coe, and C.-Y. Chien, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 54, 401 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. W. Lee, B. L. Whitten, and R. E. Stout, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 32, 91 (1984).
[CrossRef]

J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. (1)

W. Schwanda, K. Eidmann, and M. C. Richardson, J. X-Ray Sci. Technol. 4, 8 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Microelectron. Eng. (1)

B. Niemann, T. Wilhein, T. Schliebe, R. Plontke, O. Fortagne, I. Stolberg, and M. Zierbock, Microelectron. Eng. 30, 49 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

A. Erko, Yu. Agafanov, L. A. Panchenko, A. Yakshin, P. Chevallier, P. Dhez, and F. Legrand, Opt. Commun. 106, 146 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Optik (Stuttgart) (1)

G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, J. Thieme, G. Schneider, C. David, M. Diehl, and T. Wilhein, Optik (Stuttgart) 93, 95 (1993).

Phys. Plasmas (1)

U. Teubner, C. Wülker, W. Theobald, and E. Förster, Phys. Plasmas 2, 972 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

D. G. Stearns, O. L. Landen, E. M. Campbell, and J. H. Scofield, Phys. Rev. A 37, 1684 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. E (2)

C. Wülker, W. Theobald, F. P. Schäfer, and J. S. Bakos, Phys. Rev. E 50, 4920 (1994).
[CrossRef]

U. Teubner, I. Uschmann, P. Gibbon, D. Altenbernd, E. Förster, T. Feurer, W. Theobald, R. Sauerbrey, G. Hirst, M. H. Key, J. Lister, and D. Neely, Phys. Rev. E 54, 4167 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

W. Theobald, R. Hässner, C. Wülker, and R. Sauerbrey, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 298 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (2)

G. Schneider, T. Wilhein, B. Niemann, P. Guttmann, T. Schliebe, J. Lehr, H. Aschoff, J. Thieme, D. Rudolph, and G. Schmahl, in X-Ray Microbeam Technology and Applications, W. Yun, ed., Proc. SPIE 2516, 90 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Shields, M. Powers, I. C. E. Turcu, I. N. Ross, J. R. Maldonado, P. G. Burkhalter, and D. A. Newman, in Applications of Laser Plasma Radiation II, M. C. Richardson and G. A. Kyrala, eds., Proc. SPIE 2523, 122 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

J. Jasny, U. Teubner, W. Theobald, C. Wülker, J. Bergmann, and F. P. Schäfer, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 65, 1631 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Science (2)

M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, M. D. Rosen, and R. W. Falcone, Science 251, 531 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

See, for example, M. D. Perry and G. Mourou, Science 264, 917 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

B. Luther-Davies, E. G. Gamalii, Y. Wang, A. V. Rode, and V. T. Tikhonchuk, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 22, 289 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (9)

J. C. Kieffer, P. Audebert, M. Chaker, H. Pepin, T. W. Johnston, P. Maine, D. Meyerhofer, J. Delettrez, D. Strickland, P. Bado, and G. Mourou, Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 760 (1989); IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 2640 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E.-E. Koch, D. E. Eastman, and Y. Farge, in Handbook on Synchrotron Radiation, E.-E. Koch, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1983), p. 42.

See, e.g., H. R. Griem, Plasma Spectroscopy (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1964).

European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, annual report, 1995/1996 (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Grenoble, 1995), p. 64; BESSY II Technische Studie (BESSY, Berlin, 1989), p. 41.

S. Szatmari and F. P. Schäfer, Opt. Commun. 68, 196 (1988); G. Almasi, S. Szatmari, and P. Simon, Opt. Commun. 88, 231 (1992).
[CrossRef]

B. Niemann, “Abbildende Spektrographenoptik für den Röntgen- and VUV-Bereich,” patent Application 195 42679.7, German patent office, Munich (November 16, 1995).

T. Wilhein, D. Rothweiler, A. Tusche, F. Scholze, and W. Meyer-Ilse, in X-Ray Microscopy IV, V. V. Aristov and A. I. Erko, eds. (Bogorodskii Pechatnik, Chernogolovka, Moscow region, 1994), p. 470.

A. G. Michette, Centre for X-Ray Science, Department of Physics, King’s College, Strand, London WC2R2L5 (personal communication, 1996).

T. Wilhein, “Investigations on laser generated plasma sources,” in X-Ray Microscopy and Spectromicroscopy, J. Thieme, G. Schmahl, D. Rudolph, and E. Umbach, eds. (Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1997).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic of the ORZ. The active region consists of two stripes, each 1 mm×8 mm, containing 7000 e-beam written line pairs.19 The central part is omitted to facilitate the alignment procedure in the spectroscopic experiment.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Image formation with an elliptical ORZ.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic of the spectrograph.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

ORZ diffraction efficiency and CCD quantum efficiency (dashed curve, measured; dotted curve, extrapolated).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pulse brilliance of the plasma generated with a 0.7-ps, 2×1016 W/cm2 KrF* laser upon a solid C target at αL=30°.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Pulse brilliance of the plasma generated with a 0.7-ps, 2×1016 W/cm2 KrF* laser upon a solid BN target.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

C spectrum simulated with the ration program for ne=4×1022 cm-3 and Te=80100 eV. For comparison the spectrum of Fig. 5 is displayed again. The inset shows details of the Ly-α line.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Influence of the angle of incidence on the spectra. Lower curve, left-hand scale, αL=67°; upper curve/right-hand scale, αL=30°. For better visibility the spectra are shifted with respect to each other. Note also the different scales of the two spectra. The spectrum measured at α=30° is displayed again for comparison.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Details of the spectra shown in Fig. 8: (a) Ly-α line, (b) He-α line. Solid curves, αL=67°; dotted curves, αL=30°.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Spectra measured at αL=30° with the transmission grating spectrograph from (a) a C plasma and (b) a BN plasma.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Design Parameters of the ORZ

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Table 2 Measured Linewidth, Absolute Photon Numbers, and Line Production Efficiency in Selected Lines for the C Spectrum Shown in Fig. 5

Equations (2)

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B := NtΔΩAΔν/ν.
Bpulse :=NΔΩAΔν/νperpulse.

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