Abstract

The dynamic behavior of the complementary space-charge gratings formed in a Bi12SiO20 crystal through prolonged recording at 780 nm is used to determine a number of significant photorefractive parameters, including effective trap density, diffusion length, and dielectric relaxation time, simultaneously for both types of charge carriers. This simple, all-optical method does not require prior knowledge of any other photorefractive parameters and therefore represents the only procedure currently available capable of direct materials evaluation in the low-coupling regime. Furthermore, the scheme provides the means for quantitatively assessing the effects of crystal sensitization resulting, for example, from uniform preillumination.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
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  4. G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Determinations of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12GeO20 crystals using transient grating analysis,” Opt. Commun. 59, 266–271 (1986).
  5. N. A. Vainos, S. L. Clapham, and R. W. Eason, “Multiplexed permanent and real time holographic recording in photorefractive BSO,” Appl. Opt. 28, 4381–4385 (1989).
  6. L. Arizmendi, “Thermal fixing of holographic gratings in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423–427 (1989).
  7. F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).
  8. D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rogers, “High-sensitivity optical recording in KTN by two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22–24 (1975).
  9. G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, and P. Gunter, “Photorefractive charge compensation at elevated temperatures and application to KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 171–185 (1993).
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  13. M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillating behavior of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photo-refractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192–194 (1988).
  14. L. M. Bernardo, J. C. Lopes, and O. D. Soares, “Hole-electron competition with fast and slow gratings in Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Opt. 29, 12–14 (1990).
  15. S. Mailis, L. Boutsikaris, and N. A. Vainos, “Multiplexed static and dynamic photorefraction in Bi12SiO20 crystals at 780 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1996–1999 (1994).
  16. S. Mailis, L. Boutsikaris, and N. A. Vainos, “Photorefraction at 780 nm in Bi12SiO20 crystals: effects and applications,” Asian J. Phys. 4, 31–44 (1994).
  17. S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Image subtraction using fixed holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 16, 750–751 (1991).
  18. F. P. Strohkendl, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, “Hole-electron competition in photorefractive gratings,” Opt. Lett. 11, 312–314 (1986).
  19. G. C. Valley, “Erase rates in photorefractive materials with two photoactive species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3160–3164 (1983).
  20. N. V. Kukhtarev, G. E. Dovgalenko, and V. N. Starkov, “Influence of the optical activity on hologram formation in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 33, 227–230 (1984).
  21. G. C. Valley, “Simultaneous electron/hole transport in photorefractive materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3363–3366 (1986).
  22. M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Theory of complementary holograms arising from electron-hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2329–2338 (1990).
  23. S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Holographic recording in photorefractive crystals with simultaneous electron-hole transport and two active centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3099–3103 (1990).
  24. S. Zhivkova, “Quasi-nondestructive readout of holograms stored in photorefractive sillenites,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 581–585 (1992).
  25. M. Jeganathan and L. Hesselink, “Diffraction from thermally fixed gratings in a photorefractive medium: steady state and transient analysis,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1791–1799 (1994).
  26. A. E. Attard, “Theory of origins of the photorefractive and photoconductive effects in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 44–55 (1991).
  27. J. E. Dennis and D. J. Woods, New Computing Environments: Microcomputers in Large-Scale Computing, A. Wouk, ed., SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) Rev. 29, 116–122 (1987).
  28. P. Gunter, “Holography, coherent light amplification and optical phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199–299 (1982).
  29. R. Grousson, M. Henry, and S. Mallick, “Transport properties of photoelectrons in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 224–229 (1984).
  30. M. Peltier and F. Micheron, “Volume hologram recording and charge transfer process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683–3690 (1977).
  31. S. G. Odoulov, K. V. Shcherbin, and A. N. Shumeljuk, “Photorefractive recording in BTO in the near infrared,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1780–1785 (1994).
  32. J. P. Huignard and F. Micheron, “High-sensitivity read-write volume holographic storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591–593 (1976).
  33. J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, and G. Rivet, “Phase-conjugation and spatial-frequency dependence of wave-front reflectivity in Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 5, 102–104 (1980).

1994

1993

1992

S. Zhivkova, “Quasi-nondestructive readout of holograms stored in photorefractive sillenites,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 581–585 (1992).

1991

1990

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Introduction, revelation and evolution of complementary gratings in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641–5648 (1990).

L. M. Bernardo, J. C. Lopes, and O. D. Soares, “Hole-electron competition with fast and slow gratings in Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Opt. 29, 12–14 (1990).

S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Holographic recording in photorefractive crystals with simultaneous electron-hole transport and two active centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3099–3103 (1990).

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Theory of complementary holograms arising from electron-hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2329–2338 (1990).

1989

1988

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillating behavior of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photo-refractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192–194 (1988).

1987

J. E. Dennis and D. J. Woods, New Computing Environments: Microcomputers in Large-Scale Computing, A. Wouk, ed., SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) Rev. 29, 116–122 (1987).

1986

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing process at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140–1142 (1986).

G. C. Valley, “Simultaneous electron/hole transport in photorefractive materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3363–3366 (1986).

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Determinations of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12GeO20 crystals using transient grating analysis,” Opt. Commun. 59, 266–271 (1986).

F. P. Strohkendl, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, “Hole-electron competition in photorefractive gratings,” Opt. Lett. 11, 312–314 (1986).

1985

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, “Optical measurement of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40–44 (1985).

1984

N. V. Kukhtarev, G. E. Dovgalenko, and V. N. Starkov, “Influence of the optical activity on hologram formation in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 33, 227–230 (1984).

R. Grousson, M. Henry, and S. Mallick, “Transport properties of photoelectrons in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 224–229 (1984).

1983

1982

P. Gunter, “Holography, coherent light amplification and optical phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199–299 (1982).

1980

1979

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

1977

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, “Volume hologram recording and charge transfer process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683–3690 (1977).

1976

J. P. Huignard and F. Micheron, “High-sensitivity read-write volume holographic storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591–593 (1976).

1975

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rogers, “High-sensitivity optical recording in KTN by two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22–24 (1975).

1972

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

Allain, M.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Determinations of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12GeO20 crystals using transient grating analysis,” Opt. Commun. 59, 266–271 (1986).

Arizmendi, L.

L. Arizmendi, “Thermal fixing of holographic gratings in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423–427 (1989).

Attard, A. E.

A. E. Attard, “Theory of origins of the photorefractive and photoconductive effects in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 44–55 (1991).

Barker, R. C.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Theory of complementary holograms arising from electron-hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2329–2338 (1990).

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Introduction, revelation and evolution of complementary gratings in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641–5648 (1990).

Bashaw, M. C.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Introduction, revelation and evolution of complementary gratings in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641–5648 (1990).

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Theory of complementary holograms arising from electron-hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2329–2338 (1990).

Bernardo, L. M.

Bismuth, G.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

Boutsikaris, L.

S. Mailis, L. Boutsikaris, and N. A. Vainos, “Multiplexed static and dynamic photorefraction in Bi12SiO20 crystals at 780 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1996–1999 (1994).

S. Mailis, L. Boutsikaris, and N. A. Vainos, “Photorefraction at 780 nm in Bi12SiO20 crystals: effects and applications,” Asian J. Phys. 4, 31–44 (1994).

Clapham, S. L.

Dennis, J. E.

J. E. Dennis and D. J. Woods, New Computing Environments: Microcomputers in Large-Scale Computing, A. Wouk, ed., SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) Rev. 29, 116–122 (1987).

Dovgalenko, G. E.

N. V. Kukhtarev, G. E. Dovgalenko, and V. N. Starkov, “Influence of the optical activity on hologram formation in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 33, 227–230 (1984).

Dube, R. R.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Theory of complementary holograms arising from electron-hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2329–2338 (1990).

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Introduction, revelation and evolution of complementary gratings in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641–5648 (1990).

Eason, R. W.

Feinberg, J.

Glass, A. M.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rogers, “High-sensitivity optical recording in KTN by two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22–24 (1975).

Grousson, R.

R. Grousson, M. Henry, and S. Mallick, “Transport properties of photoelectrons in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 224–229 (1984).

Gunter, P.

G. Montemezzani, M. Zgonik, and P. Gunter, “Photorefractive charge compensation at elevated temperatures and application to KNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 171–185 (1993).

P. Gunter, “Holography, coherent light amplification and optical phase conjugation with photorefractive materials,” Phys. Rep. 93, 199–299 (1982).

Hellwarth, R. W.

F. P. Strohkendl, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, “Hole-electron competition in photorefractive gratings,” Opt. Lett. 11, 312–314 (1986).

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, “Optical measurement of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40–44 (1985).

Henry, M.

R. Grousson, M. Henry, and S. Mallick, “Transport properties of photoelectrons in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 224–229 (1984).

Herriau, J. P.

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing process at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140–1142 (1986).

J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, and G. Rivet, “Phase-conjugation and spatial-frequency dependence of wave-front reflectivity in Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 5, 102–104 (1980).

Hesselink, L.

Huignard, J. P.

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing process at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140–1142 (1986).

J. P. Huignard, J. P. Herriau, and G. Rivet, “Phase-conjugation and spatial-frequency dependence of wave-front reflectivity in Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 5, 102–104 (1980).

J. P. Huignard and F. Micheron, “High-sensitivity read-write volume holographic storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591–593 (1976).

Jeganathan, M.

Jonathan, J. M. C.

F. P. Strohkendl, J. M. C. Jonathan, and R. W. Hellwarth, “Hole-electron competition in photorefractive gratings,” Opt. Lett. 11, 312–314 (1986).

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Determinations of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12GeO20 crystals using transient grating analysis,” Opt. Commun. 59, 266–271 (1986).

Kirilov, D.

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, G. E. Dovgalenko, and V. N. Starkov, “Influence of the optical activity on hologram formation in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 33, 227–230 (1984).

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

Launay, J. C.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Determinations of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12GeO20 crystals using transient grating analysis,” Opt. Commun. 59, 266–271 (1986).

Lopes, J. C.

Ma, T.-P.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Theory of complementary holograms arising from electron-hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2329–2338 (1990).

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Introduction, revelation and evolution of complementary gratings in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641–5648 (1990).

Mailis, S.

S. Mailis, L. Boutsikaris, and N. A. Vainos, “Photorefraction at 780 nm in Bi12SiO20 crystals: effects and applications,” Asian J. Phys. 4, 31–44 (1994).

S. Mailis, L. Boutsikaris, and N. A. Vainos, “Multiplexed static and dynamic photorefraction in Bi12SiO20 crystals at 780 nm,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1996–1999 (1994).

Mallick, S.

R. Grousson, M. Henry, and S. Mallick, “Transport properties of photoelectrons in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 224–229 (1984).

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

Micheron, F.

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, “Volume hologram recording and charge transfer process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683–3690 (1977).

J. P. Huignard and F. Micheron, “High-sensitivity read-write volume holographic storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591–593 (1976).

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

Miteva, M.

S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Image subtraction using fixed holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 16, 750–751 (1991).

S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Holographic recording in photorefractive crystals with simultaneous electron-hole transport and two active centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3099–3103 (1990).

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillating behavior of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photo-refractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192–194 (1988).

Montemezzani, G.

Mroczkowski, S.

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Introduction, revelation and evolution of complementary gratings in photorefractive bismuth silicon oxide,” Phys. Rev. B 42, 5641–5648 (1990).

M. C. Bashaw, T.-P. Ma, R. C. Barker, S. Mroczkowski, and R. R. Dube, “Theory of complementary holograms arising from electron-hole transport in photorefractive media,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 2329–2338 (1990).

Mullen, R. A.

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, “Optical measurement of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40–44 (1985).

Nikolova, L.

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillating behavior of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photo-refractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192–194 (1988).

Odoulov, S. G.

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

Pauliat, G.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Determinations of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12GeO20 crystals using transient grating analysis,” Opt. Commun. 59, 266–271 (1986).

Peltier, M.

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, “Volume hologram recording and charge transfer process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683–3690 (1977).

Rivet, G.

Rogers, K. F.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rogers, “High-sensitivity optical recording in KTN by two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22–24 (1975).

Roosen, G.

G. Pauliat, J. M. C. Jonathan, M. Allain, J. C. Launay, and G. Roosen, “Determinations of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12GeO20 crystals using transient grating analysis,” Opt. Commun. 59, 266–271 (1986).

Shcherbin, K. V.

Shumeljuk, A. N.

Soares, O. D.

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

Starkov, V. N.

N. V. Kukhtarev, G. E. Dovgalenko, and V. N. Starkov, “Influence of the optical activity on hologram formation in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 33, 227–230 (1984).

Strohkendl, F. P.

Vainos, N. A.

Valley, G. C.

G. C. Valley, “Simultaneous electron/hole transport in photorefractive materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3363–3366 (1986).

G. C. Valley, “Erase rates in photorefractive materials with two photoactive species,” Appl. Opt. 22, 3160–3164 (1983).

Vinetskii, V. L.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

von der Linde, D.

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rogers, “High-sensitivity optical recording in KTN by two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22–24 (1975).

Woods, D. J.

J. E. Dennis and D. J. Woods, New Computing Environments: Microcomputers in Large-Scale Computing, A. Wouk, ed., SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) Rev. 29, 116–122 (1987).

Zgonik, M.

Zhivkova, S.

S. Zhivkova, “Quasi-nondestructive readout of holograms stored in photorefractive sillenites,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 581–585 (1992).

S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Image subtraction using fixed holograms in photorefractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Lett. 16, 750–751 (1991).

S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Holographic recording in photorefractive crystals with simultaneous electron-hole transport and two active centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3099–3103 (1990).

Appl. Opt.

Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf.

N. V. Kukhtarev, G. E. Dovgalenko, and V. N. Starkov, “Influence of the optical activity on hologram formation in photorefractive crystals,” Appl. Phys. A: Solids Surf. 33, 227–230 (1984).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

F. Micheron and G. Bismuth, “Electrical control of fixation and erasure of holographic patterns in ferroelectric materials,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 79–81 (1972).

D. von der Linde, A. M. Glass, and K. F. Rogers, “High-sensitivity optical recording in KTN by two-photon absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 26, 22–24 (1975).

J. P. Herriau and J. P. Huignard, “Hologram fixing process at room temperature in photorefractive Bi12SiO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 49, 1140–1142 (1986).

J. P. Huignard and F. Micheron, “High-sensitivity read-write volume holographic storage in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20 crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 29, 591–593 (1976).

Asian J. Phys.

S. Mailis, L. Boutsikaris, and N. A. Vainos, “Photorefraction at 780 nm in Bi12SiO20 crystals: effects and applications,” Asian J. Phys. 4, 31–44 (1994).

Ferroelectrics

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals. I. Steady state,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

J. Appl. Phys.

R. A. Mullen and R. W. Hellwarth, “Optical measurement of the photorefractive parameters of Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 58, 40–44 (1985).

L. Arizmendi, “Thermal fixing of holographic gratings in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 65, 423–427 (1989).

G. C. Valley, “Simultaneous electron/hole transport in photorefractive materials,” J. Appl. Phys. 59, 3363–3366 (1986).

A. E. Attard, “Theory of origins of the photorefractive and photoconductive effects in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 44–55 (1991).

R. Grousson, M. Henry, and S. Mallick, “Transport properties of photoelectrons in Bi12SiO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 56, 224–229 (1984).

M. Peltier and F. Micheron, “Volume hologram recording and charge transfer process in Bi12SiO20 and Bi12GeO20,” J. Appl. Phys. 48, 3683–3690 (1977).

S. Zhivkova and M. Miteva, “Holographic recording in photorefractive crystals with simultaneous electron-hole transport and two active centers,” J. Appl. Phys. 68, 3099–3103 (1990).

S. Zhivkova, “Quasi-nondestructive readout of holograms stored in photorefractive sillenites,” J. Appl. Phys. 71, 581–585 (1992).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Commun.

M. Miteva and L. Nikolova, “Oscillating behavior of diffracted light on uniform illumination of holograms in photo-refractive Bi12TiO20 crystals,” Opt. Commun. 67, 192–194 (1988).

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