Abstract

Recently it was shown that birefringence caused by orientation of chromophores with anisotropic polarizabilities contributes more to the photorefractive effect in in situ poled organic materials than do the electro-optic properties of the chromophores. A figure of merit specific to photorefractive applications has been derived, and an experimental procedure for its determination is described in detail. The figure of merit is evaluated for the chromophores used in four of the most historically important photorefractive polymers. The chromophore figures of merit and photorefractive material performances are compared and contrasted.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of photorefractivity in a fullerene-doped polymer composite,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900–9902 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320–330 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  6. A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 7590–7599 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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  10. R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
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  16. F. Meyers, S. R. Marder, B. M. Pierce, and J. L. Brédas, “Electric field modulated nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor polyenes: sum-over-states investigation of the relationship between molecular polarizabilities (α, β, and γ) and bond length alternation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10703–10714 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  17. P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  18. M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, “Net two-beam-coupling gain in a polymeric photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1044–1046 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  21. Here we correct an unfortunate error in Table 2 of Ref. 17. For the formulation reported in that paper, consisting of 90% 2BNCM (DHP) chromophore, 10% poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and 0.3% trinitrofluorenone sensitizer (TNF), the correct maximum value of Δn is 2×10−3. We note in passing that at higher chromophore concentrations (no PMMA), substantially higher Δn values have been observed by four-wave mixing experiments.22
  22. P. M. Lundquist, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, Calif. 95120 (personal communication, 1996).
  23. Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ellipsometric measurements of poling birefringence, the Pockels effect, and the Kerr effect in high-performance photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2346–2354 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ellipsometric measurements of poling birefringence, the Pockels effect, and the Kerr effect in high-performance photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2346–2354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

F. Meyers, S. R. Marder, B. M. Pierce, and J. L. Brédas, “Electric field modulated nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor polyenes: sum-over-states investigation of the relationship between molecular polarizabilities (α, β, and γ) and bond length alternation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10703–10714 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320–330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, “Net two-beam-coupling gain in a polymeric photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1044–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (3)

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of photorefractivity in a fullerene-doped polymer composite,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900–9902 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 7590–7599 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

W. Liptay, J. Becker, D. Wehning, W. Lang, and O. Burkhard, “The determination of molecular quantities from measurements on macroscopic systems. II. The determination of electric dipole moments,” Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 1396–1408 (1982).

1978 (1)

K. Eidner and M. F. Vuks, “Anisotropy of the polarizabilities of the tolan, benzalaniline, azobenzene, and stilbene molecules,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 647–649 (1978).

1977 (1)

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Becker, J.

W. Liptay, J. Becker, D. Wehning, W. Lang, and O. Burkhard, “The determination of molecular quantities from measurements on macroscopic systems. II. The determination of electric dipole moments,” Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 1396–1408 (1982).

Betterton, K. M.

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320–330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Borowicz, P.

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brédas, J. L.

F. Meyers, S. R. Marder, B. M. Pierce, and J. L. Brédas, “Electric field modulated nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor polyenes: sum-over-states investigation of the relationship between molecular polarizabilities (α, β, and γ) and bond length alternation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10703–10714 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Burkhard, O.

W. Liptay, J. Becker, D. Wehning, W. Lang, and O. Burkhard, “The determination of molecular quantities from measurements on macroscopic systems. II. The determination of electric dipole moments,” Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 1396–1408 (1982).

Burland, D. M.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, “Net two-beam-coupling gain in a polymeric photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1044–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 7590–7599 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chemla, D. S.

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Cotts, P. M.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of photorefractivity in a fullerene-doped polymer composite,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900–9902 (1992).
[CrossRef]

DeVoe, R. G.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donckers, M. C. J. M.

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eidner, K.

K. Eidner and M. F. Vuks, “Anisotropy of the polarizabilities of the tolan, benzalaniline, azobenzene, and stilbene molecules,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 647–649 (1978).

Elich, K.

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Geletneky, C.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grabowska, A.

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Horn, H.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jurich, M.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kaye, W.

Kippelen, B.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ellipsometric measurements of poling birefringence, the Pockels effect, and the Kerr effect in high-performance photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2346–2354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lang, W.

W. Liptay, J. Becker, D. Wehning, W. Lang, and O. Burkhard, “The determination of molecular quantities from measurements on macroscopic systems. II. The determination of electric dipole moments,” Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 1396–1408 (1982).

Lebus, S.

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V. Y.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Liptay, W.

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

W. Liptay, J. Becker, D. Wehning, W. Lang, and O. Burkhard, “The determination of molecular quantities from measurements on macroscopic systems. II. The determination of electric dipole moments,” Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 1396–1408 (1982).

Lundquist, P. M.

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

F. Meyers, S. R. Marder, B. M. Pierce, and J. L. Brédas, “Electric field modulated nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor polyenes: sum-over-states investigation of the relationship between molecular polarizabilities (α, β, and γ) and bond length alternation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10703–10714 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Matray, T. J.

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

McDaniel, J. B.

Meerholz, K.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ellipsometric measurements of poling birefringence, the Pockels effect, and the Kerr effect in high-performance photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2346–2354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, F.

F. Meyers, S. R. Marder, B. M. Pierce, and J. L. Brédas, “Electric field modulated nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor polyenes: sum-over-states investigation of the relationship between molecular polarizabilities (α, β, and γ) and bond length alternation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10703–10714 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, “Orientationally enhanced photorefractive effect in polymers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320–330 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, “Net two-beam-coupling gain in a polymeric photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1044–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moylan, C. R.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, C.

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Oudar, J. L.

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

Peyghambarian, N.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ellipsometric measurements of poling birefringence, the Pockels effect, and the Kerr effect in high-performance photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2346–2354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, B. M.

F. Meyers, S. R. Marder, B. M. Pierce, and J. L. Brédas, “Electric field modulated nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor polyenes: sum-over-states investigation of the relationship between molecular polarizabilities (α, β, and γ) and bond length alternation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10703–10714 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poga, C.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of photorefractivity in a fullerene-doped polymer composite,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900–9902 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rice, J. E.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 7590–7599 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, “Ellipsometric measurements of poling birefringence, the Pockels effect, and the Kerr effect in high-performance photorefractive polymer composites,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2346–2354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shelton, D. P.

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 7590–7599 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Silence, S. M.

Stankus, J. J.

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Swanson, S. A.

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J. I.

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, “Net two-beam-coupling gain in a polymeric photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1044–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volodin, B. L.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Vuks, M. F.

K. Eidner and M. F. Vuks, “Anisotropy of the polarizabilities of the tolan, benzalaniline, azobenzene, and stilbene molecules,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 647–649 (1978).

Walsh, C. A.

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, “Net two-beam-coupling gain in a polymeric photorefractive material,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1044–1046 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wehning, D.

W. Liptay, J. Becker, D. Wehning, W. Lang, and O. Burkhard, “The determination of molecular quantities from measurements on macroscopic systems. II. The determination of electric dipole moments,” Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 1396–1408 (1982).

Willetts, A.

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 7590–7599 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wortmann, R.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, Y.

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of photorefractivity in a fullerene-doped polymer composite,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900–9902 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Chem. Mater. (1)

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, K. M. Betterton, V. Y. Lee, T. J. Matray, and C. Nguyen, “Synthesis and nonlinear optical properties of donor-acceptor substituted triaryl azole derivatives,” Chem. Mater. 5, 1499–1508 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

F. Meyers, S. R. Marder, B. M. Pierce, and J. L. Brédas, “Electric field modulated nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor polyenes: sum-over-states investigation of the relationship between molecular polarizabilities (α, β, and γ) and bond length alternation,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 116, 10703–10714 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (3)

J. L. Oudar and D. S. Chemla, “Hyperpolarizabilities of the nitroanilines and their relations to the excited state dipole moment,” J. Chem. Phys. 66, 2664–2668 (1977).
[CrossRef]

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. DeVoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, “Design of optimized photorefractive polymers: a novel class of chromophores,” J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637–10647 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Willetts, J. E. Rice, D. M. Burland, and D. P. Shelton, J. Chem. Phys. 97, 7590–7599 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. Chem. (2)

R. Wortmann, K. Elich, S. Lebus, W. Liptay, P. Borowicz, and A. Grabowska, “Electrooptical absorption measurements of phototautomerizing systems. S0 and S1 static polarizabilities of bipyridinediols,” J. Phys. Chem. 96, 9724–9730 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, J. C. Scott, J. J. Stankus, W. E. Moerner, C. R. Moylan, G. C. Bjorklund, and R. J. Twieg, “Photorefractive polymers based on dual-function dopants,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 4096–4105 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, “A photorefractive polymer with high optical gain and diffraction efficiency near 100%,” Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) (1)

K. Eidner and M. F. Vuks, “Anisotropy of the polarizabilities of the tolan, benzalaniline, azobenzene, and stilbene molecules,” Opt. Spectrosc. (USSR) 45, 647–649 (1978).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

Y. Zhang, Y. Cui, and P. N. Prasad, “Observation of photorefractivity in a fullerene-doped polymer composite,” Phys. Rev. B 46, 9900–9902 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, “Observation of the photorefractive effect in a polymer,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. R. Moylan, S. A. Swanson, C. A. Walsh, J. I. Thackara, R. J. Twieg, R. D. Miller, and V. Y. Lee, “From EFISH to electro-optic measurements of nonlinear chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Möhlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 192–201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

P. M. Lundquist, R. Wortmann, C. Geletneky, R. J. Twieg, M. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, and D. M. Burland, “Organic glasses—a new class of photorefractive materials,” Science 274, 1182–1185 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Z. Naturforsch. (1)

W. Liptay, J. Becker, D. Wehning, W. Lang, and O. Burkhard, “The determination of molecular quantities from measurements on macroscopic systems. II. The determination of electric dipole moments,” Z. Naturforsch. 37a, 1396–1408 (1982).

Other (5)

H. A. Kurtz, J. J. P. Stewart, and K. M. Dieter, “Calculation of the nonlinear optical properties of molecules,” J. Comp. Chem. 11, 82–87 (1990).

B. H. Lengsfield, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, A. D. McLean, J. T. Carter, E. S. Replogle, L. A. Barnes, S. A. Maluendes, G. C. Lie, M. Gutowski, W. E. Rudge, S. P. A. Sauer, R. Lindh, K. Andersson, T. S. Chevalier, P.-O. Widmark, D. Bouzida, G. Pacansky, K. Singh, C. J. Gillan, P. Carnevali, W. C. Swope, and B. Liu, Mulliken 2.0 software, available from CAChe Scientific, Beaverton, Ore.

R. J. W. LeFèvre, “Molecular refractivity and polarizability,” in Advances in Physical Organic Chemistry, V. Gold, ed. (Academic, London, 1965), Vol. 3.

Here we correct an unfortunate error in Table 2 of Ref. 17. For the formulation reported in that paper, consisting of 90% 2BNCM (DHP) chromophore, 10% poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and 0.3% trinitrofluorenone sensitizer (TNF), the correct maximum value of Δn is 2×10−3. We note in passing that at higher chromophore concentrations (no PMMA), substantially higher Δn values have been observed by four-wave mixing experiments.22

P. M. Lundquist, IBM Almaden Research Center, San Jose, Calif. 95120 (personal communication, 1996).

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Figures (1)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structures of four PR chromophores.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Molecular Parameters for the Four Compounds Shown in Fig. 1 a

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

F=9kTμβ+2μ2(α-α)kTM,
1ρ=1ρ*+VM-1ρ*w.
n2-1ρ=n*2-1ρ*+Zε0M-n*2-1ρ*w.
ζ=Z-[Z-ε0V(n*2-1)]n*2-1n*2+2.
Tr(α)=9ζNA(n*2+2),
Iρ=I*ρ*+SM-I*ρ*w.
γ2=[(αxx-αyy)2+(αyy-αzz)2+(αzz-αxx)2]/2.

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