Abstract

The high-performance photorefractive polymer composite PVK:PDCST:BBP:C60 is investigated in detail by use of optical two-wave mixing characterization measurements in conjunction with the grating translation technique for determination of the photorefractive phase shift. A large effective trap density of Neff=1.5×1017 cm-3 is estimated from the dependence of the phase shift on the grating spacing and the applied electric field. The theory of orientational enhancement is successfully used to explain the observed photorefractive response, and in this low-glass-transition temperature system the modulation of the refractive index is shown to stem primarily from the spatial modulation of the birefringence.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

1997 (4)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 22, 874 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Opt. 35, 2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

For reviews see W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994), and Refs. 8 and 9.
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, M. C. J. M. Donckers, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Opt. 33, 2218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (4)

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Opt. Lett. 18, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Bässler and P. M. Borsenberger, Chem. Phys. 177, 763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Schein and P. M. Borsenberger, Chem. Phys. 177, 773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Bässler, Phys. Status Solidi B 175, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

L. B. Schein, Philos. Mag. B 65, 795 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schildkraut and A. V. Buettner, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 1888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schildkraut and Y. Cui, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

1981 (1)

J. P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (2)

P. M. Borsenberger and A. I. Ateya, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4035 (1978).
[CrossRef]

A. Brunskill, A. De, and G. M. F. Vas, Synth. Commun. 8, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

H. Bader, A. R. Hansen, and F. J. McCarty, J. Org. Chem. 31, 2319 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Ateya, A. I.

P. M. Borsenberger and A. I. Ateya, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4035 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Bader, H.

H. Bader, A. R. Hansen, and F. J. McCarty, J. Org. Chem. 31, 2319 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Bässler, H.

H. Bässler and P. M. Borsenberger, Chem. Phys. 177, 763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Bässler, Phys. Status Solidi B 175, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Blackburn, R. D.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Borsenberger, P. M.

L. B. Schein and P. M. Borsenberger, Chem. Phys. 177, 773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Bässler and P. M. Borsenberger, Chem. Phys. 177, 763 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Borsenberger and A. I. Ateya, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 4035 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Brunskill, A.

A. Brunskill, A. De, and G. M. F. Vas, Synth. Commun. 8, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Buettner, A. V.

J. S. Schildkraut and A. V. Buettner, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 1888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, M. C. J. M. Donckers, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Opt. 33, 2218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Opt. Lett. 18, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cotts, P. M.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cox, A. M.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cui, Y.

J. S. Schildkraut and Y. Cui, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

De, A.

A. Brunskill, A. De, and G. M. F. Vas, Synth. Commun. 8, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Devoe, R. G.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Donckers, M. C. J. M.

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckl, M.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Geletneky, C.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 901 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 22, 874 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Gunter, P.

Haarer, D.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

Hanemann, T.

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hansen, A. R.

H. Bader, A. R. Hansen, and F. J. McCarty, J. Org. Chem. 31, 2319 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Horn, H.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

J. P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Jia, Y.

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

King, T. A.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Opt. 35, 2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kukhtarev, N. V.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, D. A.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lundquist, P. M.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Markov, V. B.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Marrakchi, A.

J. P. Huignard and A. Marrakchi, Opt. Commun. 38, 249 (1981).
[CrossRef]

McCarty, F. J.

H. Bader, A. R. Hansen, and F. J. McCarty, J. Org. Chem. 31, 2319 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Opt. 35, 2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 901 (1998).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 22, 874 (1997).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
[CrossRef]

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, M. C. J. M. Donckers, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Opt. 33, 2218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320 (1994).
[CrossRef]

For reviews see W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127 (1994), and Refs. 8 and 9.
[CrossRef]

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Opt. Lett. 18, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Moylan, C. R.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Odulov, S. G.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Pautmeier, L. Th.

Peyghambarian, N.

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Opt. 35, 2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Poga, C.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Rice, J. E.

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sandalphon,

Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, K. Meerholz, and N. Peyghambarian, Appl. Opt. 35, 2346 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature 371, 497 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schein, L. B.

L. B. Schein and P. M. Borsenberger, Chem. Phys. 177, 773 (1993).
[CrossRef]

L. B. Schein, Philos. Mag. B 65, 795 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Schildkraut, J. S.

J. S. Schildkraut and Y. Cui, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 5055 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Schildkraut and A. V. Buettner, J. Appl. Phys. 72, 1888 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 2059 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Silence, S. M.

Soskin, M. S.

N. V. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odulov, M. S. Soskin, and V. L. Vinetskii, Ferroelectrics 22, 949 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Stankus, J. J.

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

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Thompson, C. L.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 901 (1998).
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A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
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A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Opt. Lett. 22, 874 (1997).
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W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
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A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515 (1997).
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A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 901 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. M. Silence, M. C. J. M. Donckers, C. A. Walsh, D. M. Burland, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Opt. 33, 2218 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. C. J. M. Donckers, S. M. Silence, C. A. Walsh, F. Hache, D. M. Burland, W. E. Moerner, and R. J. Twieg, Opt. Lett. 18, 1044 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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[CrossRef]

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West, D. P.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801 (1996).
[CrossRef]

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R. Wortmann, C. Poga, R. J. Twieg, C. Geletneky, C. R. Moylan, P. M. Lundquist, R. G. Devoe, P. M. Cotts, H. Horn, J. E. Rice, and D. M. Burland, J. Chem. Phys. 105, 10637 (1996).
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[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (1)

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

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[CrossRef]

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846 (1991).
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Phys. Status Solidi B (1)

H. Bässler, Phys. Status Solidi B 175, 15 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

C. Poga, D. M. Burland, T. Hanemann, Y. Jia, C. R. Moylan, J. J. Stankus, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, in Xerographic Photoreceptors and Photorefractive Polymers, S. Ducharme and P. M. Borsenberger, eds., Proc. SPIE 2526, 82 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, and W. E. Moerner, Science 277, 549 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Synth. Commun. (1)

A. Brunskill, A. De, and G. M. F. Vas, Synth. Commun. 8, 1 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

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Provided by Robert J. Twieg, Department of Chemistry, Kent State University, Kent, Ohio 44240.

For a review see L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1996).

J. C. Scott, L. Th. Pautmeier, W. E. Moerner, C. A. Walsh, S. M. Silence, T. J. Matray, and R. J. Twieg, Res. Soc. Proc. 277, 135 (1992).

S. M. Silence, D. M. Burland, and W. E. Moerner, in Photorefractive Effects and Materials, D. D. Nolte, ed. (Kluwer, Boston, Mass., 1995), Chap. 5, pp. 265¿309.

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[CrossRef]

Ref. 1, p. 34, Eq. (2.58).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structures of the components of the photorefractive polymer composite charge-transporting network poly(n-vinyl carbazole) (PVK), nonlinear optical chromophore 4-piperidinobenzyl- idene-malononitrile (PDCST), the fullerene C60, and the liquid plasticizer butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP).  

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for two-wave mixing, depicting the positions of wave plates (λ/4’s), a beam splitter (BS), shutters (S’s), polarizers (P), detectors (D’s), mirrors (M’s), a variable attenuator (VA), a trombone stage (T), a piezoelectric mirror (PZM), and glass hemisphere sample mounts (GH’s).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Measurement of two-wave mixing showing energy transfer from beam 1 (solid curve) to beam 2 (dashed curve) as beam 2 is turned on at t=2 s. At t=6.3 s the interference pattern is translated quickly. The sample thickness is d=75 μm, the internal interbeam angle is θint=14°, the tilt angle is ψtilt=25°, the applied electric field is E0=93 V/μm, and the input beam ratio is β=1.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental gain coefficient ΓB for a 75-μm-thick sample of PVK:PDCST:BBP:C60 as a function of E0 for s- (open circles) and p- (filled circles) polarized light. The solid curves are the theoretical fits to ΓB as described in the text. The inset shows the increase of the effective EO coefficient for p-polarized light as predicted by the theoretical fit (see Section 5).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Measurement of the apparent phase shift versus electric field using s- (open circles) and p- (solid circles) polarized light. The divergence for E0>50 V/μm is due to significant energy and phase coupling, which affect the value of the measured phase shift.28 By taking into account the size of the beam coupling (Fig. 4), theory predicts that the true phase shift ϕp shown by the solid curve would result in apparent phase shifts ϕapp shown by the dotted and dashed curves for s- and p-polarized light, respectively. The inset illustrates the geometry used in the two-beam coupling experiments, showing the internal beam angles.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured phase shift of an index grating with respect to the interference pattern as a function of grating spacing. The filled circles are the experimental measurements, and the solid curve is theory, Eq. (3), for Neff=1.5×1017 cm-3 and εr=8; ψtilt=25°, d=120 μm, E0=41 V/μm, I1=I2=280 mW/cm2.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Gain coefficient as a function of grating spacing under the same conditions as for Fig. 6. The markers are the experimental measurements, and the solid curve is the theoretical fit explained in the text.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Theoretical dependence on grating spacing for the imaginary part of the space-charge field and for the effective EO coefficient for p-polarized light as deduced from Fig. 7 for E0=41 V/μm and ψtilt=25°.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕapp=arcsin2γo-γmax-γminγmax-γmin,
Esc=-m Eq(Ea-iED)ED+Eq+iEa,
ϕp=arctanEa2+EDEqEaEq.
Γ=2πnλm (e^1*e^2)(e^1*Δχe^2),
Δχ=A000A000CET2,
CEO=15 Nβ333μkBT,AEO=13 CEO,
CBR=245 N[α(ω)-α(ω)]μkBT2,ABR=-12 CBR,
ΓB=(2π/λ)n3reff[Im(Esc)/m],
reff(s)=2 AE0n4 sin ψtilt.
reff(p)=AE0n4 sin ψtilt cos θint×CA-1+CA+1cos θint.
reff(p)=2 CE0n4 sin ψtilt.
ΓB(p)ΓB(s)=12 cos θintCA-1+CA+1cos θint,
CEO= (2A-C),CBR= (C-3A),

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