Abstract

We report the first observation, to our knowledge, of amplified scattering (beam fanning) in a photorefractive polymer. The manifestations of beam fanning and the implications for two-beam coupling measurements are investigated experimentally, and optimal geometries for observing or avoiding fanning are presented.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  2. G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
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  3. P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 133, 301–305.
  4. L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1996), pp. 320–322, 268–281.
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    [CrossRef]
  6. M. Segev, D. Engin, A. Yariv, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 18, 956–958 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. E. Parshall, M. Cronin-Golomb, and R. Barakat, Opt. Lett. 20, 432–434 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. S. Residori, P. L. Ramazza, and M. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 102, 100–104 (1993).
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  9. V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
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  10. H. Rajbenbach, A. Deboulbe, and J. P. Huignard, Opt. Lett. 14, 1275–1277 (1989).
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  17. B. Fischer and S. Sternklar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 74–75 (1987).
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    [CrossRef]
  27. A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  28. A preliminary oral report of this research was presented by W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. Thompson, at the Third International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics, Marco Island, Florida, December 16–20, 1996.
  29. B. Fischer and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 684–686 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  30. M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1086–1088 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  31. M. Cronin-Golomb, Opt. Lett. 20, 2075–2077 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  32. G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. I. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571–1575 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

1995 (4)

M. Cronin-Golomb, Opt. Lett. 20, 2075–2077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. I. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571–1575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

E. Parshall, M. Cronin-Golomb, and R. Barakat, Opt. Lett. 20, 432–434 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (2)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

1992 (1)

1991 (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (2)

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265–274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1086–1088 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1988 (2)

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41, 46–52 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (3)

1986 (1)

1985 (1)

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906–4910 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1982 (2)

J. Feinberg, Opt. Lett. 7, 486–488 (1982).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. Feinberg and R. W. Hellwarth, Opt. Lett. 5, 519–521 (1980).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Barakat, R.

Bjorklund, G. C.

Blackburn, R. D.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801–2803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

Chiou, A. E.

Cox, A. M.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801–2803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cronin-Golomb, M.

M. Cronin-Golomb, Opt. Lett. 20, 2075–2077 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. Parshall, M. Cronin-Golomb, and R. Barakat, Opt. Lett. 20, 432–434 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906–4910 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Deboulbe, A.

Dorosh, I. R.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Ducharme, S.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eckl, M.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Engin, D.

Feinberg, J.

Fischer, B.

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265–274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1086–1088 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 684–686 (1989).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer and S. Sternklar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 74–75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

S. Weiss, S. Sternklar, and B. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 12, 114–116 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Sternklar, S. Weiss, M. Segev, and B. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 11, 528–530 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Garcia Quirino, G. S.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. A. Vysloukh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2530–2535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. I. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571–1575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Garcia-Weidner, A.

Grunnet-Jepsen, A.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Haarer, D.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hache, F.

He, Q.

Hellwarth, R. W.

Huignard, J. P.

Kamshilin, A. A.

Kamshilin, A. I.

Khomenko, A. V.

King, T. A.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801–2803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kippelen, B.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klein, M. B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuz’minov, I. R.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Leigh, D. A.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801–2803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Meerholz, K.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moerner, W. E.

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, S. M. Silence, F. Hache, and G. C. Bjorklund, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 320–330 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mullen, R. A.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ophir, Y.

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265–274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1086–1088 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Parshall, E.

Peyghambarian, N.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Raita, E.

Rajbenbach, H.

Ramazza, P. L.

S. Residori, P. L. Ramazza, and M. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 102, 100–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Residori, S.

S. Residori, P. L. Ramazza, and M. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 102, 100–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Rytz, D.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Mondragon, J. J.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, S. Stepanov, and V. A. Vysloukh, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2530–2535 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. I. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571–1575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sandalphon,

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scott, J. C.

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Segev, M.

M. Segev, D. Engin, A. Yariv, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 18, 956–958 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265–274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1086–1088 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 684–686 (1989).
[CrossRef]

S. Sternklar, S. Weiss, M. Segev, and B. Fischer, Opt. Lett. 11, 528–530 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shamir, J.

Silence, S. M.

Stepanov, S.

Stepanov, S. I.

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. I. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571–1575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sternklar, S.

Strohriegl, P.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, C. L.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Tkachenko, N. V.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Valley, G. C.

M. Segev, D. Engin, A. Yariv, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 18, 956–958 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Volodin, B. L.

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Voronov, V. V.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Vysloukh, V. A.

Wade, F. A.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801–2803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wechsler, B.

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Weiss, S.

West, D. P.

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801–2803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

White, J. O.

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yariv, A.

M. Segev, D. Engin, A. Yariv, and G. C. Valley, Opt. Lett. 18, 956–958 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906–4910 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Yeh, P.

Yu, S.

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Zhao, M.

S. Residori, P. L. Ramazza, and M. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 102, 100–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zobel, O.

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

O. Zobel, M. Eckl, P. Strohriegl, and D. Haarer, Adv. Mater. 7, 911–194 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. (2)

W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. L. Thompson, “Photorefractive polymers,” Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 27, 585–623 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. C. Valley, M. B. Klein, R. A. Mullen, D. Rytz, and B. Wechsler, Annu. Rev. Mater. Sci. 18, 165–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (2)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

B. Fischer and S. Sternklar, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 74–75 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. O. White, M. Cronin-Golomb, B. Fischer, and A. Yariv, Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 450–452 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Grunnet-Jepsen, C. L. Thompson, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1515–1517 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Cox, R. D. Blackburn, D. P. West, T. A. King, F. A. Wade, and D. A. Leigh, Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2801–2803 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Fischer and M. Segev, Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 684–686 (1989).
[CrossRef]

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1086–1088 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

W. E. Moerner and S. M. Silence, Chem. Rev. 94, 127–155 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

M. Cronin-Golomb and A. Yariv, J. Appl. Phys. 57, 4906–4910 (1985).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Nature (London) (1)

K. Meerholz, B. L. Volodin, Sandalphon, B. Kippelen, and N. Peyghambarian, Nature (London) 371, 497–500 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (2)

M. Segev, Y. Ophir, and B. Fischer, Opt. Commun. 77, 265–274 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Residori, P. L. Ramazza, and M. Zhao, Opt. Commun. 102, 100–104 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (9)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

G. S. Garcia Quirino, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragon, and S. I. Stepanov, Phys. Rev. A 51, 1571–1575 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

S. Ducharme, J. C. Scott, R. J. Twieg, and W. E. Moerner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1846–1849 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Today (1)

J. Feinberg, Phys. Today 41, 46–52 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (1)

V. V. Voronov, I. R. Dorosh, I. R. Kuz’minov, S. Yu, and N. V. Tkachenko, Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 10, 1346–1349 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

P. Yeh, Introduction to Photorefractive Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1993), pp. 133, 301–305.

L. Solymar, D. J. Webb, and A. Grunnet-Jepsen, The Physics and Applications of Photorefractive Materials (Oxford U. Press, Oxford, 1996), pp. 320–322, 268–281.

J. E. Ford, Y. Fainmann, and S. Lee, Opt. Lett. 15, 1088–1090 (1988); D. Z. Anderson and J. Feinberg, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 635–647 (1989).
[CrossRef]

A preliminary oral report of this research was presented by W. E. Moerner, A. Grunnet-Jepsen, and C. Thompson, at the Third International Conference on Organic Nonlinear Optics, Marco Island, Florida, December 16–20, 1996.

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Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

(a) Experimental arrangement for observing fanning. A single beam, incident at external angle θ, is both transmitted (A) and reflected (B) onto a screen placed 10 cm from the PR polymer. The outline arrow shows the direction of energy transfer. (b)–(d) Images on the screen shown in (a). No fanning is observed for electric fields up to ≅40 V/μm; however, amplified scattering is readily apparent for E0=50V/μm at (c) t=0.5 s after the application of the electric field and (d) t=1 s. Beam diameter, D=4 mm; intensity, I =5 mW; incident external angle, θ=60°. The vertical line near A in (b)–(d) is the shadow of a neutral-density filter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Normalized transmitted intensity as a function of time during an on (t=0 s)–off (t=30 s) cycle for an electric field of E0=+80 V/μm (solid curve) and E0=-80 V/μm (dotted curve). I=300 mW/cm2, θext=60°. (b) Normalized transmitted intensity as a function of electric field for I=30, 300, 1900 mW/cm2.(c) Fan-induced loss in the pump beam as a function of external angle of incidence. I=300 mW/cm2, p-polarized light, E0=80 V/μm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Two-beam coupling gain as a function of time for (a) E0=-62 V/μm and (b) E0=+62 V/μm. With beam 2 (solid curve, θext=60°) present, the electric field is applied at t=0 s and beam 1 (dotted curve, θext=30°) is turned on at t=10 s. I=30 mW/cm2, p-polarized beams, D=2 mm.

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