Abstract

We have observed light coupling between dual-core dye-doped polymer optical fibers. The experimentally observed coupling length is consistent with the standard coupled-mode theory for single-mode–single-mode coupling between step-index waveguides [P. D. McIntyre and A. W. Snyder, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1518–1527 (1973)]. We also show that a graded refractive-index profile of such dual-core fibers can be made by controlled dye diffusion. The concentration, as measured by optical absorption, shows a graded profile that matches the refractive-index profile, confirming that dye concentration determines the refractive index.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. M. G. Kuzyk, U. G. Paek, and C. W. Dirk, “Guest–host polymer fibers for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902–904 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. D. W. Garvey, K. Zimmerman, P. Young, J. Tostenrude, J. S. Townsend, Z. Zhou, M. Lobel, M. Dayton, R. Wittorf, M. G. Kuzyk, J. Sounick, and C. W. Dirk, “Single-mode nonlinear-optical polymer fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2017–2023 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  3. D. W. Garvey, Q. Li, M. G. Kuzyk, C. W. Dirk, and S. Martinez, “Sagnac interferometric intensity-dependent refractive-index measurements of polymer optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 21, 104–106 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. P. D. McIntyre and A. W. Snyder, “Power transfer between optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 63, 1518–1527 (1973).
    [CrossRef]
  5. Stephen M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, L. Poladian, D. R. Rowland, and Y. Chen, “Physics of nonlinear fiber couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2102–2118 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  8. A. W. Snyder, “Coupled-mode theory for optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 62, 1267–1277 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  9. M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

1996

1991

M. G. Kuzyk, U. G. Paek, and C. W. Dirk, “Guest–host polymer fibers for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902–904 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, L. Poladian, D. R. Rowland, and Y. Chen, “Physics of nonlinear fiber couplers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 2102–2118 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1987

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1982

Stephen M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1973

1972

Andrejco, M. J.

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y.

Dayton, M.

Dirk, C. W.

Friberg, S. R.

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Garvey, D. W.

Jensen, Stephen M.

Stephen M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G.

Li, Q.

Lobel, M.

Martinez, S.

McIntyre, P. D.

Mitchell, D. J.

Oliver, M. K.

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Paek, U. G.

M. G. Kuzyk, U. G. Paek, and C. W. Dirk, “Guest–host polymer fibers for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902–904 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

Rowland, D. R.

Saifi, M. A.

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W.

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

Sounick, J.

Tostenrude, J.

Townsend, J. S.

Wittorf, R.

Young, P.

Zhou, Z.

Zimmerman, K.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. G. Kuzyk, U. G. Paek, and C. W. Dirk, “Guest–host polymer fibers for nonlinear optics,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 902–904 (1991).
[CrossRef]

S. R. Friberg, Y. Silberberg, M. K. Oliver, M. J. Andrejco, M. A. Saifi, and P. W. Smith, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in a dual-core fiber nonlinear coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1135–1137 (1987).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron.

Stephen M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Opt. Lett.

Other

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics, 6th ed. (Pergamon, Oxford, 1980).

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Figures (10)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of ISQ molecule.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Fiber preform with ISQ cores. PMMA, poly(methyl methacrylate).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental layout.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) TV display of guided light (λ=1.064 μm) emerging from a dual-core fiber end. (b) Oscilloscope trace of a TV line going through the center of both cores.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Beam deflection experiment for measuring the refractive-index profile of a fiber preform.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Normalized intensity as a function of the total length cut from the end of the fiber.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated coupling length as a function of normalized frequency ν with F12=0.6 and Δn=0.001.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Concentration profile of dyes in a dual-core fiber as measured by optical absorption.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Concentration profile of the right-hand core (dots) from Fig. 8 and parabolic profile theory (solid curve).

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Measured absorption and refractive-index profiles in the left-hand core of the dual-core fiber.

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

da1(z)dz+iβ1a1=iC1112a2,
da2(z)dz+iβ2a2=iC1121a1,
βi2=(kini)2-uρi2,
uJ1(u)/J0(u)=wK1(w)/K0(w),
Cpqjs=ω2 A(s)[(s)-]ep(j)eq(s)dA,
C1112C11211n1k1 uρ1νK1(w)2K0[(d/ρ1)w],
|a1(z)|2=1-F12 sin2 βbz,
|a2(z)|2=F21 sin2 βbz,
F12=1+(β1-β2)24|C1112C1121|-1,
F21=C1121C1112F12,
βb=|C1112C1121|F121/2.
lc=π2βb.
ρ=1|(ln n)|=n|n|,
Δn=1zd r1r2f(r)(αˆrˆ)dr.
lc=πF122C11.

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