Abstract

A light-induced index change and nonlinear absorption were clearly observed in channel optical waveguides fabricated from a novel quinoid dye, 4,8-dihydroxy-2,6-bis(butylamino)-1,5-naphthoquinone. The measured response time of the index change was below 10 ps, and the magnitude of the light-induced phase shift was more than 2π at the wavelengths of 780 and 800 nm in a 10-mm-long waveguide. The values of the nonlinear refractive index and the nonlinear absorption of the dye estimated from the experimental results are of the same order as that measured by the third-harmonic-generation method. This waveguide should lead to the construction of all-optical functional devices that have fast operating times.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
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    [CrossRef]
  7. J. P. Sabini, N. Finlayson, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching in nonlinear X-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1176–1178 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  8. H. Murata and M. Izutsu, “Novel optical waveguides with localized optical nonlinearity using multi-quantum well structures and their applications to all-optical functional devices,” in Proceedings of CLEO/Pacific Rim ’95 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Chiba, Japan), papers FE2, pp. 174–175 (1995).
  9. H. Murata, M. Izutsu, and T. Sueta, “Optical bistability in novel waveguide junctions with localized optical nonlinearity,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.
  10. A. Kaneko, T. Kuwabara, T. Wada, H. Sasabe, and K. Sasaki, “All-optical switching phenomenon in polydiacetylene (12, 8) based nonlinear directional coupler,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 704–708 (1994).
  11. P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).
  14. W. G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).

1995 (1)

M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).

1993 (1)

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

1989 (3)

J. P. Sabini, N. Finlayson, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching in nonlinear X-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1176–1178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1985 (1)

1983 (1)

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, and E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1982 (1)

S. M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

Baker, G. L.

P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Etmad, S.

P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Finlayson, N.

J. P. Sabini, N. Finlayson, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching in nonlinear X-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1176–1178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Fouckhardt, H.

Furuta, H.

Hattori, Y.

M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).

Haus, H. A.

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, and E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Horsthuis, W. H. G.

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ihara, A.

Ippen, E. P.

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, and E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Jensen, S. M.

S. M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

Kawaguchi, H.

Kim, D. Y.

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lattes, A.

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, and E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Leonberger, F. J.

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, and E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Matsuoka, M.

M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).

Mizuguchi, A.

M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).

Mohlmann, G. R.

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nishimura, A.

M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).

Noda, H.

Oshida, A.

M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).

Otomo, A.

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sabini, J. P.

J. P. Sabini, N. Finlayson, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching in nonlinear X-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1176–1178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sfez, B. G.

Shelburne, J. A.

P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Stegeman, G.

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

G. I. Stegeman and R. H. Stolen, “Waveguides and fibers for nonlinear optics,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 652–662 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sabini, N. Finlayson, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching in nonlinear X-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1176–1178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stolen, R. H.

Sundheimer, M.

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Townsend, P. D.

P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (3)

P. D. Townsend, J. L. Jackel, G. L. Baker, J. A. Shelburne, and S. Etmad, “Observation of nonlinear optical transmission and switching phenomena in polydiacetylene-based directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1829–1831 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, M. Sundheimer, A. Otomo, G. Stegeman, W. H. G. Horsthuis, and G. R. Mohlmann, “Third order nonlinearity of 4-dialkylamino-4nitro-stilbene waveguides at 1319 nm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 290–292 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. P. Sabini, N. Finlayson, and G. I. Stegeman, “All-optical switching in nonlinear X-junctions,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1176–1178 (1989).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. M. Jensen, “The nonlinear coherent coupler,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-18, 1580–1583 (1982).
[CrossRef]

A. Lattes, H. A. Haus, F. J. Leonberger, and E. P. Ippen, “An ultrafast all-optical gate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-19, 1718–1723 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Nonlinear Opt. (1)

M. Matsuoka, A. Oshida, A. Mizuguchi, Y. Hattori, and A. Nishimura, “Molecular design of quinoid dyes for 3rd order NLO materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 10, 109–114 (1995).

Opt. Lett. (2)

Other (5)

H. Murata and M. Izutsu, “Novel optical waveguides with localized optical nonlinearity using multi-quantum well structures and their applications to all-optical functional devices,” in Proceedings of CLEO/Pacific Rim ’95 (Japan Society of Applied Physics, Chiba, Japan), papers FE2, pp. 174–175 (1995).

H. Murata, M. Izutsu, and T. Sueta, “Optical bistability in novel waveguide junctions with localized optical nonlinearity,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.

A. Kaneko, T. Kuwabara, T. Wada, H. Sasabe, and K. Sasaki, “All-optical switching phenomenon in polydiacetylene (12, 8) based nonlinear directional coupler,” IEICE Trans. Electron. E77-C, 704–708 (1994).

W. G. Driscoll and W. Vaughan, eds., Handbook of Optics (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1978).

P. N. Butcher and D. Cotter, The Elements of Nonlinear Optics (Cambridge U. Press, Cambridge, 1990).

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Structure of the quinoid dye and the waveguide.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Experimental setup for measuring the nonlinear absorption. B.S., beam splitter; att., attenuator; det., photodetector; 20, 40, microscope objective lenses 20 and 40, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Example of the observed input–output characteristics of the waveguide.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental setup for measuring the nonlinear index change.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Examples of the pattern observed by a streak camera. The horizontal axis is time, and the time division is shown in the figures. Average input power:  (a), 50 mW; (b), 120 mW; (c), 180 mW. The wavelength is 780 nm. In (b), the intensity at the center part of the streak pattern is lower than that at the outer part, while this is not true in (a) and in (c). This means that a nonlinear index change corresponding to the transient change in the pulse envelope was induced. The response time of the index change was estimated to be shorter than 10 ps.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Measured characteristics of the output of the interferometer versus the average input power. Wavelength:  (a), 780 nm; (b), 800 nm.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Change in the induced phase shift of the light through the waveguide versus the average input power.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Estimated Values of the Nonlinear Coefficients of the Dye

Equations (4)

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Iinterf=Iinput[a+b cos(ϕ0+ϕNL)],
neff=n0eff+n2effI,
ϕNL=dye k0n2effI dz,
dI/dz=α0eff+α2effI,

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