Abstract

Crystals of BaY1.75Yb0.24Tm0.01F8, BaY1.50Yb0.49Tm0.01F8, and BaY1.00Yb0.99Tm0.01F8 grown by the gradient-freeze method under a hydrogen fluoride atmosphere operate as lasers at 348, 456, 482, 512, and 649 nm when upconversion pumped at 960 nm. The 649-nm red lasers show a clear orientation dependence; lasing is observed only when propagation is perpendicular to the crystallographic [010] direction. The orientation dependence of the red fluorescence confirms that the laser transition is exclusively polarized parallel to [010]. Ellipsoidal representations of intensities are determined from fluorescence data for several red and blue transitions. A crystal with composition BaY1.75Yb0.20Tm0.05F8 is considered as representative of the upconversion laser media. Stark levels for the 3H6, 3F4, 3H5, 3H4, 3F3, 3F2, 1G4, 1D2, and 1I6 states are determined from absorption and fluorescence over a range of temperatures from 10 to 298 K. A Judd–Ofelt analysis that averages data for three orthogonal polarizations is also performed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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1994 (3)

1993 (1)

L. H. Guilbert, J. Y. Gesland, A. Bulou, and R. Retoux, Mater. Res. Bull. 28, 923 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

M. Dulick, G. E. Faulkner, N. J. Cockcroft, and D. C. Nguyen, J. Lumin. 48–49, 517 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (3)

R. Beach, M. D. Shinn, L. Davis, R. W. Solarz, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. E. Weber, and M. Dulick, Proc. SPIE 1223, 54–63 (1990).
[CrossRef]

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. 68, 164 (1990).

1989 (1)

1987 (1)

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 32, 208 (1987).

1984 (1)

B. M. Antipenko, Opt. Spectrosc. 56, 72 (1984).

1979 (1)

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. B 20, 4343 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Phys. Rev. B 11, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1971 (1)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

1966 (1)

B. Edlen, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

1965 (1)

W. L. Bond, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Antipenko, B. M.

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. 68, 164 (1990).

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 32, 208 (1987).

B. M. Antipenko, Opt. Spectrosc. 56, 72 (1984).

Beach, R.

R. Beach, M. D. Shinn, L. Davis, R. W. Solarz, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Bond, W. L.

W. L. Bond, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

Bulou, A.

L. H. Guilbert, J. Y. Gesland, A. Bulou, and R. Retoux, Mater. Res. Bull. 28, 923 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Carnall, W. T.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Cheetham, A. K.

Cockcroft, N. J.

M. Dulick, G. E. Faulkner, N. J. Cockcroft, and D. C. Nguyen, J. Lumin. 48–49, 517 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Davis, L.

R. Beach, M. D. Shinn, L. Davis, R. W. Solarz, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

DeShazer, L. G.

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. B 20, 4343 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Dulick, M.

M. Dulick, G. E. Faulkner, N. J. Cockcroft, and D. C. Nguyen, J. Lumin. 48–49, 517 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. E. Weber, and M. Dulick, Proc. SPIE 1223, 54–63 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, and M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Edlen, B.

B. Edlen, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Faulkner, G. E.

M. Dulick, G. E. Faulkner, N. J. Cockcroft, and D. C. Nguyen, J. Lumin. 48–49, 517 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. E. Weber, and M. Dulick, Proc. SPIE 1223, 54–63 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, and M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fields, P. R.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Gesland, J. Y.

L. H. Guilbert, J. Y. Gesland, A. Bulou, and R. Retoux, Mater. Res. Bull. 28, 923 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Guggenheim, H. J.

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Guilbert, L. H.

L. H. Guilbert, J. Y. Gesland, A. Bulou, and R. Retoux, Mater. Res. Bull. 28, 923 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hebert, T.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jarman, R. H.

Jenssen, H. P.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Phys. Rev. B 11, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Johnson, L. F.

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 881 (1994).
[CrossRef]

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

Krupke, W. F.

R. Beach, M. D. Shinn, L. Davis, R. W. Solarz, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Leavitt, R. P.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Phys. Rev. B 11, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lenth, W.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Linz, A.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Phys. Rev. B 11, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Lomheim, T. S.

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. B 20, 4343 (1979).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Macfarlane, R. M.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

McFarlane, R. A.

Morrison, C. A.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Phys. Rev. B 11, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Nguyen, D. C.

M. Dulick, G. E. Faulkner, N. J. Cockcroft, and D. C. Nguyen, J. Lumin. 48–49, 517 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. E. Weber, and M. Dulick, Proc. SPIE 1223, 54–63 (1990).
[CrossRef]

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, and M. Dulick, Appl. Opt. 28, 3553 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nighman, N. A.

Owen, J. J.

Privalova, T. V.

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. 68, 164 (1990).

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 32, 208 (1987).

Rajnak, K.

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

Retoux, R.

L. H. Guilbert, J. Y. Gesland, A. Bulou, and R. Retoux, Mater. Res. Bull. 28, 923 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shinn, M. D.

R. Beach, M. D. Shinn, L. Davis, R. W. Solarz, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Solarz, R. W.

R. Beach, M. D. Shinn, L. Davis, R. W. Solarz, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thrash, R. J.

Voronin, S. P.

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. 68, 164 (1990).

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 32, 208 (1987).

Wannemacher, R.

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Weber, M. E.

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. E. Weber, and M. Dulick, Proc. SPIE 1223, 54–63 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wortman, D. E.

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Phys. Rev. B 11, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

L. F. Johnson and H. J. Guggenheim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 19, 44 (1971).
[CrossRef]

T. Hebert, R. Wannemacher, R. M. Macfarlane, and W. Lenth, Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2592 (1992).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

R. Beach, M. D. Shinn, L. Davis, R. W. Solarz, and W. F. Krupke, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 26, 1405 (1990).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 5517 (1978).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Bond, J. Appl. Phys. 36, 1674 (1965).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

W. T. Carnall, P. R. Fields, and K. Rajnak, J. Chem. Phys. 49, 4424 (1968).
[CrossRef]

J. Lumin. (1)

M. Dulick, G. E. Faulkner, N. J. Cockcroft, and D. C. Nguyen, J. Lumin. 48–49, 517 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Mater. Res. Bull. (1)

L. H. Guilbert, J. Y. Gesland, A. Bulou, and R. Retoux, Mater. Res. Bull. 28, 923 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Metrologia (1)

B. Edlen, Metrologia 2, 71 (1966).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Spectrosc. (2)

B. M. Antipenko, Opt. Spectrosc. 56, 72 (1984).

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Opt. Spectrosc. 68, 164 (1990).

Phys. Rev. B (2)

H. P. Jenssen, A. Linz, R. P. Leavitt, C. A. Morrison, and D. E. Wortman, Phys. Rev. B 11, 92 (1975).
[CrossRef]

T. S. Lomheim and L. G. DeShazer, Phys. Rev. B 20, 4343 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (1)

D. C. Nguyen, G. E. Faulkner, M. E. Weber, and M. Dulick, Proc. SPIE 1223, 54–63 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

B. M. Antipenko, S. P. Voronin, and T. V. Privalova, Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 32, 208 (1987).

Other (6)

R. J. Thrash and L. F. Johnson, in Advanced Solid State Lasers, T. Y. Fan and B. Chai, eds., Vol. 20 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D. C., 1994), pp. 400–401.

K. M. Dinndorf, D. S. Knowles, M. Gojer, C. J. Taylor, and H. P. Jenssen, Advanced Solid State Lasers, L. L. Chase and A. A. Pinto, eds., Vol. 13 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1992), pp. 270–274.

B. M. Antipenko, S. I. Boldyrev, S. P. Voronin, Y. E. Perlin, and T. A. Privalova, OSAM 60, 765 (1986).

A. A. Kaminskii, Laser Crystals, 2nd ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), Chap. 4, pp. 114–165.

D. E. Gray, ed., American Institute of Physics Handbook, 2nd ed. (McGraw-Hill, New York, 1963), Chap. 7, pp. 46–121.

H. P. Jenssen, Center for Research and Education in Optics and Lasers, University of Central Florida, 4000 Central Florida Boulevard, Orlando, Florida 32816-2700 (personal communication, 1995).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Relative orientation of the crystallographic a, a*, c, c* and optical x and z axes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Typical energy levels of Tm3+ ions.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

3H61D2 absorption data recorded at 10 K with white light polarized parallel to the y and z directions, propagating parallel to the x direction. Arrows indicate transitions from tentatively assigned Stark levels.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

3H63H4 absorption data recorded at 10 K with white light polarized parallel to the y and z directions, propagating parallel to the x direction. Arrow indicates the position of a transition predicted in Ref. 10.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

3H61G4 absorption data recorded at 10 K with white light polarized parallel to the y and z directions, propagating parallel to the x direction. Arrow indicates the position of a transition predicted in Ref. 10.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

3H63F2 absorption data recorded at 10 K with white light polarized parallel to the y and z directions, propagating parallel to the x direction. The arrow indicates the position of a transition not found in Ref. 10.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

1G43F4 unpolarized fluorescence data recorded at 10, 50, 100, and 150 K with the light propagating parallel to the x direction. Arrows indicate the positions of transitions to an additional Stark level of 3F4. Predicted transitions are indicated by inverted triangles.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Angular dependence of fluorescence intensity for selected transitions in the red region. Solid curves are fitted to the experimental points.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Angular dependence of fluorescence intensity for selected transitions in the blue region. Solid curves are fitted to the experimental points.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Red fluorescence spectra for angular rotations (χ) of 0° (approximately z polarized) and 90° (approximately x polarized).

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Red fluorescence spectrum polarized parallel to y.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Blue fluorescence spectra for angular rotations (χ) of 0° (approximately z polarized) and 90° (approximately x polarized).

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Blue fluorescence spectrum polarized parallel to y.

Tables (4)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Stark Levels Determined from Absorption Data for Tm3+ Ions in BaY1.75Yb0.2Tm0.05F8 a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Stark Levels Determined from Emission Data for Tm3+ Ions in BaY1.75Yb0.20Tm0.05F8

Tables Icon

Table 3 Selected Data for the Judd–Ofelt Analysis of Tm3+ Ions in BaY1.75Yb0.20Tm0.05F8 a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Fitted Values of ξ0 for Selected Red and Blue Transitions

Equations (10)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

BaY1.75Yb0.24Tm0.01F8,
BaY1.50Yb0.49Tm0.01F8,
BaY1.00Yb0.99Tm0.01F8,
BaY1.75Yb0.20Tm0.05F8,
OD(λ)=logI0(λ)I(λ).
S=3ch(2J+1)8π3N0λ¯ 9nn(n2+2)2 ln 10lbandOD(λ)dλ.
S=RΩ,
Ω=(RR-1)RS.
δ2=i=1q(Scalc-Sexpt)2 1q-p.
ξ1 cos2(χ-ξ0)-ξ2 sin2(χ-ξ0).

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