Abstract

Crystals of BaY1.75Yb0.24Tm0.01F8, BaY1.50Yb0.49Tm0.01F8, and BaY1.00Yb0.99Tm0.01F8 grown by the gradient-freeze method under a hydrogen fluoride atmosphere operate as lasers at 348, 456, 482, 512, and 649 nm when upconversion pumped at 960 nm. The 649-nm red lasers show a clear orientation dependence; lasing is observed only when propagation is perpendicular to the crystallographic [010] direction. The orientation dependence of the red fluorescence confirms that the laser transition is exclusively polarized parallel to [010]. Ellipsoidal representations of intensities are determined from fluorescence data for several red and blue transitions. A crystal with composition BaY1.75Yb0.20Tm0.05F8 is considered as representative of the upconversion laser media. Stark levels for the 3H6, 3F4, 3H5, 3H4, 3F3, 3F2, 1G4, 1D2, and 1I6 states are determined from absorption and fluorescence over a range of temperatures from 10 to 298 K. A Judd–Ofelt analysis that averages data for three orthogonal polarizations is also performed.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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