We analyze the formation of two-dimensional biexcitons and the role of exciton dark states decoupled from the cavity mode in semiconductor microcavities containing a few resonating quantum wells. Although optically inactive, the dark levels are important because they contribute states available to the excitons. A general formalism is presented for the treatment of excitons, photon modes, and biexcitons in resonating microcavities. Scattering by disorder and phonons is also considered. Results for the biexciton binding energy, radius, and damping are discussed in the physically relevant cases. The cavity biexciton photoluminescence spectra are also investigated; they are found to be qualitatively different depending on the relative magnitudes of the exciton-cavity detuning, the biexciton binding energy, the exciton–photon coupling, and the damping.
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