Abstract

We analyze interaction-free measurements in cavity resonators. We study both classical objects and quantum objects: two-level atoms strongly coupled to a cavity mode. We also discuss complementarity in interaction-free measurement.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Renninger, Z. Phys. 158, 417 (1960).
    [Crossref]
  2. R. H. Dicke, Am. J. Phys. 49, 925 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  3. A. Elitzur and L. Vaidman, Found. Phys. 23, 987 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  4. L. Vaidman, Quantum Opt. 6, 119 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  5. P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4763 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Pavicic, Phys. Lett. A 223, 241 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  8. H. Paul and M. Pavicic, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 35, 2085 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. H. Paul and M. Pavicic, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1275 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  10. A. Karlsson, G. Björk, and E. Forsberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1198 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  11. T. Geszti, “Interaction-free measurement and forward scattering,” .
  12. D. Gabor, Prog. Opt. 1, 122 (1966).
  13. Y. Yamamoto, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305 (personal communication, 1994).
  14. This was mentioned by S. Haroche in his “Cavity quantum electrodynamics” lectures at the 1995Les Houches, France, summer school on “Quantum fluctuations.”
  15. C. H. Woo, Phys. Lett. 11, 973 (1996).
  16. We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
    [Crossref]
  17. A recent experiment demonstrating the modification of cavity transmission by a single falling atom is found in H. Mabuchi, Q. A. Turchette, M. S. Chapman, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 21, 1393 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  19. M. J. Holland, D. Walls, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1716 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  20. S. Kunze, G. Rempe, and M. Wilkens, Europhys. Lett. 27, 115 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  21. M. A. M. Marte and P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 447 (1992).
  22. M. O. Scully, B. G. Englert, and H. Walther, Nature (London) 351, 111 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  23. H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  24. M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208 (1982).
    [Crossref]
  25. D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “Bohr’s complementarity without momentum kicks,” presented at Drexel-4, Fourth Drexel Symposium on Quantum Nonintegrability, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa., September 8–11, 1994.
  26. D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “A quantum eraser using the interaction-free measurement,” presented at BrisPhys 94, Sixth Asia Pacific Physics Conference of the Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies and the Eleventh Australian Institute of Physics Congress, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, July 4–8, 1994.
  27. B. G. Englert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2154 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).
  29. K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 2025 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  30. Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. L. Davidovich, A. Maali, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2360 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2269 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  33. H. J. Carmichael, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2273 (1993).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. S. Haroche, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” in Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics, Les Houches Session LIII, 1990, J. Dalibard, J. M. Raimond, and Z. Zinn-Justin, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1992).
  35. G. Björk and A. Karlsson, “Complementarity and quantum erasers in welcher-weg measurements,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  36. P. G. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Coherence and Quantum Optics VII, J. Eberly, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1996), p. 673.

1998 (2)

A. Karlsson, G. Björk, and E. Forsberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1198 (1998).
[Crossref]

We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
[Crossref]

1997 (2)

H. Paul and M. Pavicic, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1275 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (5)

B. G. Englert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2154 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Pavicic, Phys. Lett. A 223, 241 (1996).
[Crossref]

H. Paul and M. Pavicic, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 35, 2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

A recent experiment demonstrating the modification of cavity transmission by a single falling atom is found in H. Mabuchi, Q. A. Turchette, M. S. Chapman, and H. J. Kimble, Opt. Lett. 21, 1393 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. H. Woo, Phys. Lett. 11, 973 (1996).

1995 (2)

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4763 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (2)

S. Kunze, G. Rempe, and M. Wilkens, Europhys. Lett. 27, 115 (1994).
[Crossref]

L. Vaidman, Quantum Opt. 6, 119 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (4)

A. Elitzur and L. Vaidman, Found. Phys. 23, 987 (1993).
[Crossref]

L. Davidovich, A. Maali, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2360 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2269 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

H. J. Carmichael, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2273 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (1)

M. A. M. Marte and P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 447 (1992).

1991 (4)

M. O. Scully, B. G. Englert, and H. Walther, Nature (London) 351, 111 (1991).
[Crossref]

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 2025 (1991).
[Crossref]

O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. J. Holland, D. Walls, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1716 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1982 (1)

M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208 (1982).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

R. H. Dicke, Am. J. Phys. 49, 925 (1981).
[Crossref]

1966 (1)

D. Gabor, Prog. Opt. 1, 122 (1966).

1960 (1)

M. Renninger, Z. Phys. 158, 417 (1960).
[Crossref]

Arsenault, L.

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 2025 (1991).
[Crossref]

Björk, G.

A. Karlsson, G. Björk, and E. Forsberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1198 (1998).
[Crossref]

We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Björk and A. Karlsson, “Complementarity and quantum erasers in welcher-weg measurements,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Brune, M.

L. Davidovich, A. Maali, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2360 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carmichael, H. J.

H. J. Carmichael, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2273 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Carnal, O.

O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chapman, M. S.

Collet, M. J.

H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
[Crossref]

Davidovich, L.

L. Davidovich, A. Maali, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2360 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dicke, R. H.

R. H. Dicke, Am. J. Phys. 49, 925 (1981).
[Crossref]

Drühl, K.

M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208 (1982).
[Crossref]

Elitzur, A.

A. Elitzur and L. Vaidman, Found. Phys. 23, 987 (1993).
[Crossref]

Englert, B. G.

B. G. Englert, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 2154 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. O. Scully, B. G. Englert, and H. Walther, Nature (London) 351, 111 (1991).
[Crossref]

Forsberg, E.

A. Karlsson, G. Björk, and E. Forsberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1198 (1998).
[Crossref]

Gabor, D.

D. Gabor, Prog. Opt. 1, 122 (1966).

Gardiner, C. W.

C. W. Gardiner, Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2269 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Gauthier, D. J.

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Geszti, T.

T. Geszti, “Interaction-free measurement and forward scattering,” .

Goobar, E.

We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
[Crossref]

Haroche, S.

L. Davidovich, A. Maali, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2360 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

S. Haroche, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” in Fundamental Systems in Quantum Optics, Les Houches Session LIII, 1990, J. Dalibard, J. M. Raimond, and Z. Zinn-Justin, eds. (Elsevier, New York, 1992).

This was mentioned by S. Haroche in his “Cavity quantum electrodynamics” lectures at the 1995Les Houches, France, summer school on “Quantum fluctuations.”

Harrison, F. E.

H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
[Crossref]

Herzog, T.

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4763 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
[Crossref]

Holland, M. J.

M. J. Holland, D. Walls, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1716 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Karlsson, A.

We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
[Crossref]

A. Karlsson, G. Björk, and E. Forsberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 1198 (1998).
[Crossref]

G. Björk and A. Karlsson, “Complementarity and quantum erasers in welcher-weg measurements,” Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

Kasevich, M.

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4763 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
[Crossref]

Killip, R. B.

H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kimble, H. J.

Kishino, K.

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 2025 (1991).
[Crossref]

Kunze, S.

S. Kunze, G. Rempe, and M. Wilkens, Europhys. Lett. 27, 115 (1994).
[Crossref]

Kwiat, P.

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4763 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Kwiat, P. G.

P. G. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Coherence and Quantum Optics VII, J. Eberly, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1996), p. 673.

Lim, K. H.

We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
[Crossref]

Lloyd, P.

D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “Bohr’s complementarity without momentum kicks,” presented at Drexel-4, Fourth Drexel Symposium on Quantum Nonintegrability, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa., September 8–11, 1994.

D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “A quantum eraser using the interaction-free measurement,” presented at BrisPhys 94, Sixth Asia Pacific Physics Conference of the Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies and the Eleventh Australian Institute of Physics Congress, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, July 4–8, 1994.

Loh, M. Y.

We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
[Crossref]

Maali, A.

L. Davidovich, A. Maali, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2360 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mabuchi, H.

Marte, M. A. M.

M. A. M. Marte and P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 447 (1992).

Mlynek, J.

O. Carnal and J. Mlynek, Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2689 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morin, S. E.

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Morkoc, H.

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 2025 (1991).
[Crossref]

Mossberg, T. W.

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Osborne, C. F.

D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “Bohr’s complementarity without momentum kicks,” presented at Drexel-4, Fourth Drexel Symposium on Quantum Nonintegrability, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa., September 8–11, 1994.

D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “A quantum eraser using the interaction-free measurement,” presented at BrisPhys 94, Sixth Asia Pacific Physics Conference of the Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies and the Eleventh Australian Institute of Physics Congress, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, July 4–8, 1994.

Paul, H.

H. Paul and M. Pavicic, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1275 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Paul and M. Pavicic, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 35, 2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

Pavicic, M.

H. Paul and M. Pavicic, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1275 (1997).
[Crossref]

H. Paul and M. Pavicic, Int. J. Theor. Phys. 35, 2085 (1996).
[Crossref]

M. Pavicic, Phys. Lett. A 223, 241 (1996).
[Crossref]

Raimond, J. M.

L. Davidovich, A. Maali, M. Brune, J. M. Raimond, and S. Haroche, Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2360 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Reed, J.

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 2025 (1991).
[Crossref]

Rempe, G.

S. Kunze, G. Rempe, and M. Wilkens, Europhys. Lett. 27, 115 (1994).
[Crossref]

Renninger, M.

M. Renninger, Z. Phys. 158, 417 (1960).
[Crossref]

Rice, D. A.

D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “A quantum eraser using the interaction-free measurement,” presented at BrisPhys 94, Sixth Asia Pacific Physics Conference of the Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies and the Eleventh Australian Institute of Physics Congress, Griffith University, Brisbane, Australia, July 4–8, 1994.

D. A. Rice, C. F. Osborne, and P. Lloyd, “Bohr’s complementarity without momentum kicks,” presented at Drexel-4, Fourth Drexel Symposium on Quantum Nonintegrability, Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pa., September 8–11, 1994.

Scully, M. O.

M. O. Scully, B. G. Englert, and H. Walther, Nature (London) 351, 111 (1991).
[Crossref]

M. O. Scully and K. Drühl, Phys. Rev. A 25, 2208 (1982).
[Crossref]

Tan, S. M.

H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
[Crossref]

Tsegaye, T.

We have recently made a ηLH=0.8 proof-of-principle experiment on cavity IFM using a highly attenuated laser diode as the single-photon source: T. Tsegaye, E. Goobar, A. Karlsson, G. Björk, K. H. Lim, and M. Y. Loh, Phys. Rev. A 57, 3987–3990 (1998).
[Crossref]

Turchette, Q. A.

Unlu, M. S.

K. Kishino, M. S. Unlu, J. Reed, L. Arsenault, and H. Morkoc, IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 2, 2025 (1991).
[Crossref]

Vaidman, L.

L. Vaidman, Quantum Opt. 6, 119 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. Elitzur and L. Vaidman, Found. Phys. 23, 987 (1993).
[Crossref]

Walls, D.

M. J. Holland, D. Walls, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1716 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Walls, D. F.

H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
[Crossref]

Walther, H.

M. O. Scully, B. G. Englert, and H. Walther, Nature (London) 351, 111 (1991).
[Crossref]

Weinfurter, H.

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4763 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Coherence and Quantum Optics VII, J. Eberly, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1996), p. 673.

Wilkens, M.

S. Kunze, G. Rempe, and M. Wilkens, Europhys. Lett. 27, 115 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wiseman, H. M.

H. M. Wiseman, F. E. Harrison, M. J. Collet, S. M. Tan, D. F. Walls, and R. B. Killip, Phys. Rev. A 56, 55 (1997).
[Crossref]

Woo, C. H.

C. H. Woo, Phys. Lett. 11, 973 (1996).

Wu, Q.

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yamamoto, Y.

Y. Yamamoto, Stanford University, Stanford, Calif. 94305 (personal communication, 1994).

Yariv, A.

A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

Zeilinger, A.

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 4763 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, and A. Zeilinger, Coherence and Quantum Optics VII, J. Eberly, ed. (Plenum, New York, 1996), p. 673.

Zhu, Y.

Y. Zhu, D. J. Gauthier, S. E. Morin, Q. Wu, H. J. Carmichael, and T. W. Mossberg, Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2499 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zoller, P.

M. A. M. Marte and P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 447 (1992).

M. J. Holland, D. Walls, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 1716 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Am. J. Phys. (1)

R. H. Dicke, Am. J. Phys. 49, 925 (1981).
[Crossref]

Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. (1)

P. Kwiat, H. Weinfurter, T. Herzog, A. Zeilinger, and M. Kasevich, Ann. (N.Y.) Acad. Sci. 755, 383 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. (1)

M. A. M. Marte and P. Zoller, Appl. Phys. B: Photophys. Laser Chem. 54, 447 (1992).

Europhys. Lett. (1)

S. Kunze, G. Rempe, and M. Wilkens, Europhys. Lett. 27, 115 (1994).
[Crossref]

Found. Phys. (1)

A. Elitzur and L. Vaidman, Found. Phys. 23, 987 (1993).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematical picture of the interferometric scheme of Elitzur and Vaidman: (a) Without an object, and (b) with an object, a bomb is inserted in the upper path. In an experiment the path length of the arms should be equal to give a broadband operation.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematical picture of interaction-free measurement using a resonator and single-photon injection. A circulator is inserted to couple out the reflected beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

IFM coupling using seeding of the IFM cavity from an auxillary cavity initially containing a single photon. A circulator is inserted to couple out the reflected beam.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Evolution of probability amplitudes as a function of normalized interaction time γbτ: (a) The cavity is empty; (b) a single atom is inside the cavity.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Atomic waveguide with the IFM detector in the left (upper) waveguide. An atom is initially launched in the left waveguide.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Evolution of the reduced atomic density operator conditioned on the detection in dR versus normalized time γbτ.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Maximum likelihood Lm, visibility V, conditioned fringe visibility Vc, and duality relations Dm2+Vc2, plotted as a function of normalized time γbτ. The regions (I)–(IV) are commented on in the text.

Equations (32)

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ηEV=P(found)P(absorb)+P(found).
Lm=12 [P(R|in)+P(T|out)+P(absorb)],
ηLHLm-1/2P(absorb).
TT=(1-R)2G0(1-RG0)2,RR=R(1-G0)2(1-RG0)2.
α(f )=α0δH24δf2+δH2,
n(f )=1-α0c02πf×δHδf4δf2+δH2,
ηEV=α0L02(1-R)+α0L0.
ΔωFWHM×Δτ=c0n0L (1-R)×Δτ12.
ωP(absorb)×Δτ2,
H^0=ω[1/2(1+σ^z)+(a^aˆ+1/2)+(b^bˆ+1/2)]-ΩR[σ^+aˆ+a^σ^-];
H^s=1/2γaγb(a^bˆ+b^aˆ).
C^R=(γaaˆ+γbbˆ)d^R,C^T=γaaˆd^T.
dρˆdt=1i [H^0+H^s, ρˆ]+LRρˆ+LTρˆ+Lcρˆ,
LRρˆ=C^RρˆC^R-1/2C^RC^Rρˆ-1/2ρˆC^RC^R,
LTρˆ=C^TρˆC^T-1/2C^TC^Tρˆ-1/2ρˆC^TC^T
Lcρˆ=γc2 (2σ^-ρˆσ^+-σ^+σ^-ρˆ-ρˆσ^+σ^-),
W^s(t)=-Sp2 [a^exp(-iωt)+aˆ exp(iωt)],
|ψ(t)=d0(t)|0, g+d1(t)exp(-iωt)|1, g+d2(t)exp(-iωt)|0, e,
d0(t)=11+x2×[1+x2cos(Ωlt)],
d1(t)=ix1+x2×sin(Ωlt),
d2(t)=x1+x2×[cos(Ωlt)-1].
H^0=ω[1/2(1+σzl)+1/2(1+σzr)+(a^aˆ+1/2)+(b^bˆ+1/2)]-ΩR[σ^+laˆ+a^σ^-l]-Ωat[σglr+σgrl+σelr+σerl].
ρ^at,cond=0, 0, g, 1, 0|ρˆ|0, 0, g, 1, 0Tr[0, 0, g, 1, 0|ρˆ|0, 0, g, 1, 0].
Lm=imax{ψi|ρ^r|ψi, ψi|ρ^l|ψi},
ρ^l=lg|ρˆ|gl+le|ρˆ|el,
ρ^r=rg|ρˆ|gr+re|ρˆ|er,
Dmi|ψi|(ρ^r-ρ^l)|ψi|=2Lm-1.
D=Trdet{|ρ^l-ρ^r|}Dm,
V2(|lg|ρ^at|gr|+|le|ρ^at|er|).
D2+V21,
Vc=2i{|lg|ψi|ρˆ|ψi|gr|+|le|ψi|ρˆ|ψi|er|}V.
Dm2+Vc21

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