Abstract

We observed two-photon-induced refractive-index changes in As2S3 by exposure in the 800-nm region. We studied this photosensitivity by writing interference gratings on a 2-μm As2S3 thin film. This property is the key to creating self-written channel waveguides in a planar As2S3 slab.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  3. H. Fritzsche, “Optical anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses induced by band-gap light,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15854–15861 (1995).
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  4. K. Tanaka, M. Notani, and H. Hisakuni, “Optical anisotropy in As2S3 glass induced with sub-bandgap illumination,” Solid State Commun. 95, 461–464 (1995).
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  5. J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in arsenic (S, Se)-based chalcogenide glasses,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.
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    [CrossRef]
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  14. A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, and S. Sudo, “Optical amplification with neodymium-doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1230–1232 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  26. T. Monro, L. Poladian, and C. de Sterke, “Analysis of self-written waveguides in photopolymers and photosensitive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 1104–1113 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  27. T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
    [CrossRef]
  28. S. Ramachandran, S. G. Bishop, J. P. Guo, and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3 glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1041–1043 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. C. Richardson, and E. Van Stryland, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by train of femtosecond laser pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper CThL2.
  30. T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Investigation of waveguide growth in photosensitive germanosilicate glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2824–2832 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Unification of linear and nonlinear wave optics,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 6, 1479–1506 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, and H. Itoh, “Laser-diode-driven ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1056–1058 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1998 (5)

A. Lebeyrie, J. P. Huignard, and B. Loiseaux, “Optical data storage in microfibers,” Opt. Lett. 23, 301–303 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 15, 155–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, and K. A. Richardson, “Luminescence from neodymium-ion-implanted As2S3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1305–1308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. Monro, L. Poladian, and C. de Sterke, “Analysis of self-written waveguides in photopolymers and photosensitive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 1104–1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

1997 (4)

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, and S. Sudo, “Optical amplification with neodymium-doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1230–1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (8)

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 714–718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Hayashi, D. Kato, and K. Shimakawa, “Photoinduced effects in amorphous chalcogenide films by vacuum ultra-violet light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 696–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop using a chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

V. I. Mikla, “Photoinduced structural changes and related phenomena in amorphous arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 429–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, “As-S based materials and fibres toward efficient 1.3-μm fibre amplification,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1220–1221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Ramachandran, S. G. Bishop, J. P. Guo, and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3 glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1041–1043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Investigation of waveguide growth in photosensitive germanosilicate glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2824–2832 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (6)

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Unification of linear and nonlinear wave optics,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 6, 1479–1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Self-writing a waveguide in glass using photosensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 119, 523–526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1976–1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Fritzsche, “Optical anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses induced by band-gap light,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15854–15861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, M. Notani, and H. Hisakuni, “Optical anisotropy in As2S3 glass induced with sub-bandgap illumination,” Solid State Commun. 95, 461–464 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13–15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

1991 (1)

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

I. I. Turyanitsa, M. I. Mar’yan, and V. V. Khiminets, “Planar waveguides formed by the action of light on layers of arsenic chalcogenides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 246–248 (1990).

1972 (1)

D. L. Wood and J. Tauc, “Weak absorption tails in amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3144–3151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Asobe, M.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop using a chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, H. Kobayashi, and H. Itoh, “Laser-diode-driven ultrafast all-optical switching by using highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass fiber,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1056–1058 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bazylenko, M.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Belykh, A. V.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bishop, S. G.

S. Ramachandran, S. G. Bishop, J. P. Guo, and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3 glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1041–1043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Brady, D. J.

S. Ramachandran, S. G. Bishop, J. P. Guo, and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3 glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1041–1043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cernošek, Z.

M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C.

T. Monro, L. Poladian, and C. de Sterke, “Analysis of self-written waveguides in photopolymers and photosensitive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 1104–1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

de Sterke, C. M.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Investigation of waveguide growth in photosensitive germanosilicate glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2824–2832 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Self-writing a waveguide in glass using photosensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 119, 523–526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Duguay, M. A.

C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, and K. A. Richardson, “Luminescence from neodymium-ion-implanted As2S3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1305–1308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Efimov, O. M.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, H.

H. Fritzsche, “Optical anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses induced by band-gap light,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15854–15861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Frumar, M.

M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fujiura, K.

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13–15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Galstyan, T. V.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Glebov, L. B.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Guo, J. P.

S. Ramachandran, S. G. Bishop, J. P. Guo, and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3 glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1041–1043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hayashi, K.

K. Hayashi, D. Kato, and K. Shimakawa, “Photoinduced effects in amorphous chalcogenide films by vacuum ultra-violet light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 696–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hewak, D. W.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hisakuni, H.

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 714–718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, M. Notani, and H. Hisakuni, “Optical anisotropy in As2S3 glass induced with sub-bandgap illumination,” Solid State Commun. 95, 461–464 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1976–1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huber, G.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Huignard, J. P.

Itoh, H.

Jensen, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kaino, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop using a chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanamori, T.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, and S. Sudo, “Optical amplification with neodymium-doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1230–1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13–15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kato, D.

K. Hayashi, D. Kato, and K. Shimakawa, “Photoinduced effects in amorphous chalcogenide films by vacuum ultra-violet light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 696–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khiminets, V. V.

I. I. Turyanitsa, M. I. Mar’yan, and V. V. Khiminets, “Planar waveguides formed by the action of light on layers of arsenic chalcogenides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 246–248 (1990).

Kirchhof, J.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, “As-S based materials and fibres toward efficient 1.3-μm fibre amplification,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1220–1221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Unification of linear and nonlinear wave optics,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 6, 1479–1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Knystautas, E. J.

Kobayashi, H.

Kobelke, J.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, “As-S based materials and fibres toward efficient 1.3-μm fibre amplification,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1220–1221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, B.

K. A. Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 15, 155–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Lebeyrie, A.

Loiseaux, B.

Mar’yan, M. I.

I. I. Turyanitsa, M. I. Mar’yan, and V. V. Khiminets, “Planar waveguides formed by the action of light on layers of arsenic chalcogenides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 246–248 (1990).

Matveev, Y. A.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McKinley, J. M.

K. A. Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 15, 155–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Mekyukov, A. M.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Meneghini, C.

Mikla, V. I.

V. I. Mikla, “Photoinduced structural changes and related phenomena in amorphous arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 429–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mitchell, D. J.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Unification of linear and nonlinear wave optics,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 6, 1479–1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T.

T. Monro, L. Poladian, and C. de Sterke, “Analysis of self-written waveguides in photopolymers and photosensitive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 1104–1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Monro, T. M.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Investigation of waveguide growth in photosensitive germanosilicate glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2824–2832 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Self-writing a waveguide in glass using photosensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 119, 523–526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mori, A.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, and S. Sudo, “Optical amplification with neodymium-doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1230–1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13–15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Moss, D.

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Notani, M.

K. Tanaka, M. Notani, and H. Hisakuni, “Optical anisotropy in As2S3 glass induced with sub-bandgap illumination,” Solid State Commun. 95, 461–464 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohara, T.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop using a chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ohishi, Y.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, and S. Sudo, “Optical amplification with neodymium-doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1230–1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13–15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Payne, D. N.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pfeiffer, G.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Poladian, L.

T. Monro, L. Poladian, and C. de Sterke, “Analysis of self-written waveguides in photopolymers and photosensitive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 1104–1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Investigation of waveguide growth in photosensitive germanosilicate glass,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2824–2832 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Self-writing a waveguide in glass using photosensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 119, 523–526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Polák, Z.

M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Ramachandran, S.

S. Ramachandran, S. G. Bishop, J. P. Guo, and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3 glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1041–1043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K.

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, K. A.

K. A. Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 15, 155–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, and K. A. Richardson, “Luminescence from neodymium-ion-implanted As2S3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1305–1308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Schweizer, T.

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schwuchow, A.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, “As-S based materials and fibres toward efficient 1.3-μm fibre amplification,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1220–1221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sheffler, M.

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, “As-S based materials and fibres toward efficient 1.3-μm fibre amplification,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1220–1221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Shimakawa, K.

K. Hayashi, D. Kato, and K. Shimakawa, “Photoinduced effects in amorphous chalcogenide films by vacuum ultra-violet light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 696–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Snyder, A. W.

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Unification of linear and nonlinear wave optics,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 6, 1479–1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sudo, S.

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, and S. Sudo, “Optical amplification with neodymium-doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1230–1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13–15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 714–718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, M. Notani, and H. Hisakuni, “Optical anisotropy in As2S3 glass induced with sub-bandgap illumination,” Solid State Commun. 95, 461–464 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, N. Toyosawa, and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced Bragg gratings in As2S3 optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1976–1978 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, “Optical fabrication of microlenses in chalcogenide glasses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 958–960 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tauc, J.

D. L. Wood and J. Tauc, “Weak absorption tails in amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3144–3151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Toyosawa, N.

Turyanitsa, I. I.

I. I. Turyanitsa, M. I. Mar’yan, and V. V. Khiminets, “Planar waveguides formed by the action of light on layers of arsenic chalcogenides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 246–248 (1990).

Viens, J. F.

Viens, J.-F.

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

C. Meneghini, J. F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, and K. A. Richardson, “Luminescence from neodymium-ion-implanted As2S3 waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1305–1308 (1998).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 15, 155–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Vlcek, M.

M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wágner, T.

M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wood, D. L.

D. L. Wood and J. Tauc, “Weak absorption tails in amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3144–3151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Yokohama, I.

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop using a chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

Y. Ohishi, A. Mori, T. Kanamori, K. Fujiura, and S. Sudo, “Fabrication of praseodymium-doped arsenic sulphide fiber for 1.3 μm fiber amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 13–15 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Mori, Y. Ohishi, T. Kanamori, and S. Sudo, “Optical amplification with neodymium-doped chalcogenide glass fiber,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 70, 1230–1232 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

J. Kirchhof, J. Kobelke, M. Sheffler, and A. Schwuchow, “As-S based materials and fibres toward efficient 1.3-μm fibre amplification,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1220–1221 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Asobe, T. Ohara, T. Kaino, and I. Yokohama, “Low power all-optical switching in a nonlinear optical loop using a chalcogenide glass fibre,” Electron. Lett. 32, 1396–1397 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Schweizer, D. W. Hewak, D. N. Payne, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Rare-earth doped chalcogenide glass laser,” Electron. Lett. 32, 666–667 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Ramachandran, S. G. Bishop, J. P. Guo, and D. J. Brady, “Fabrication of holographic gratings in As2S3 glass by photoexpansion and photodarkening,” IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 8, 1041–1043 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Lightwave Technol. (1)

T. V. Galstyan, J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, K. Richardson, and M. A. Duguay, “Photoinduced self-developing relief gratings in thin film chalcogenide As2S3 glasses,” J. Lightwave Technol. 15, 1343–1347 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (5)

K. Hayashi, D. Kato, and K. Shimakawa, “Photoinduced effects in amorphous chalcogenide films by vacuum ultra-violet light,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 696–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. V. Belykh, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, Y. A. Matveev, A. M. Mekyukov, and K. Richardson, “Photo-structural transformation of chalcogenide glasses under non-linear absorption of laser radiation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 330–335 (1997).
[CrossRef]

M. Frumar, M. Vlček, Z. Černošek, Z. Polák, and T. Wágner, “Photoinduced changes of the structure and physical properties of amorphous chalcogenides,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 213 & 214, 215–224 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and H. Hisakuni, “Photoinduced phenomena in As2S3 glass under sub-bandgap excitation,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 198–200, 714–718 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, “Reversible photodarkening of amorphous arsenic chalcogens,” J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111–143 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. Phys. Condens. Matter (1)

V. I. Mikla, “Photoinduced structural changes and related phenomena in amorphous arsenic chalcogenides,” J. Phys. Condens. Matter 8, 429–448 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mod. Phys. Lett. B (1)

A. W. Snyder, D. J. Mitchell, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Unification of linear and nonlinear wave optics,” Mod. Phys. Lett. B 6, 1479–1506 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

T. M. Monro, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Self-writing a waveguide in glass using photosensitivity,” Opt. Commun. 119, 523–526 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (4)

Opt. Mater. (1)

K. A. Richardson, J. M. McKinley, B. Lawrence, and A. Villeneuve, “Comparison of nonlinear optical properties of sulfide glasses in bulk and thin film form,” Opt. Mater. 15, 155–160 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (2)

D. L. Wood and J. Tauc, “Weak absorption tails in amorphous semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. B 5, 3144–3151 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Fritzsche, “Optical anisotropies in chalcogenide glasses induced by band-gap light,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 15854–15861 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. E (1)

T. Monro, L. Poladian, and C. de Sterke, “Analysis of self-written waveguides in photopolymers and photosensitive materials,” Phys. Rev. E 57, 1104–1113 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (1)

T. M. Monro, D. Moss, M. Bazylenko, C. M. de Sterke, and L. Poladian, “Observation of self-trapping of light in a self-written channel in a photosensitive glass,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4072–4075 (1998).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

K. Tanaka, M. Notani, and H. Hisakuni, “Optical anisotropy in As2S3 glass induced with sub-bandgap illumination,” Solid State Commun. 95, 461–464 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. (1)

I. I. Turyanitsa, M. I. Mar’yan, and V. V. Khiminets, “Planar waveguides formed by the action of light on layers of arsenic chalcogenides,” Sov. Phys. Tech. Phys. 35, 246–248 (1990).

Other (4)

J.-F. Viens, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Cerqua-Richardson, and S. Schwartz, “Photoinduced integrated optical devices in sulfide chalcogenide glasses,” in Bragg Gratings, Photosensitivity, and Poling in Glass Fibers and Waveguides: Applications and Fundamentals, Vol. 17 of 1997 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1997), pp. 243–245.

J.-F. Viens, C. Meneghini, A. Villeneuve, T. Galstian, E. J. Knystautas, M. A. Duguay, K. A. Richardson, and T. Cardinal, “Fabrication and characterization of integrated optical waveguides in arsenic (S, Se)-based chalcogenide glasses,” submitted to J. Lightwave Technol.

V. Chumash, I. Cojocaru, E. Fazio, F. Michelotti, and M. Bertolotti, “Nonlinear propagation of strong laser pulses in chalcogenide glass films,” in Progress in Optics, E. Wolf, ed. (Elsevier, Amsterdam, 1996), Vol. 36, pp. 1–47.

T. Cardinal, O. M. Efimov, L. B. Glebov, K. C. Richardson, and E. Van Stryland, “Waveguide writing in chalcogenide glasses by train of femtosecond laser pulses,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics (CLEO/U.S.), Vol. 6 of 1998 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1998), paper CThL2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Optical microscope image of a grating written during 11 min onto a 2-μm As2S3 thin film at a 780-nm wavelength. The average input powers in the two interfering beams are 640 and 740 mW, respectively, whereas the pulse duration is ∼2 ps. The encircled regions (a and b) indicate different levels of refractive-index change. This grating generates six diffraction orders.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Ratio of the zero to first diffraction orders as a function of time. The average input powers of the interfering beams are, respectively, (a) P1=710 mW, P2=820 mW; (b) P1=700 mW, P2=800 mW; and (c) P1=525 mW, P2=652 mW.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Schematic representation of a channel self-writing. Top views of waveguides and near-field output images at (a) low intensity and/or short exposure (the beam is diffracted) and at (b) high intensity and long exposure (the channel is self-written).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Image of the output of the 4-mm-long waveguide as a function of time (one image every 2 min). The frame width corresponds to 90 μm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Series of camera line scans of the output waveguide field (one every 4 s) as a function of exposure time. The frame width corresponds to 90 μm. The superposed central line is the calculated centroid of each camera line scan.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Output power as a function of time (solid curve) for a 4-mm-long waveguide and 175-μW uncoupled average input power.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Image of the output of a 1.55-μm diode-laser beam before and after the channel writing.

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