Abstract

The on- and near-resonant third-order nonlinear optical response of polydiacetylene microcrystals in suspension was studied by the Z-scan technique with tunable picosecond pulses. The absorptive and refractive contributions to the excitonic-dominated nonlinearity were fully resolved at several wavelengths. Microcrystals of two different average sizes were studied, and a comparison of their nonlinear coefficients was made. A three-level model for the nonlinear response is presented that shows good agreement with the experimental data.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  4. R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. E. Torruellas, B. L. Lawrence, G. I. Stegeman, and G. Baker, “Two-photon saturation in the band gap of a molecular quantum wire,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1777–1779 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. See, for example, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, P. N. Prasad, and D. R. Ulrich, eds., Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989).
  8. S. Molyneux, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, T. L. Axon, and D. Bloor, “Near-resonant refractive nonlinearity in polydiacetylene 9-BCMU thin films,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2093–2095 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).
  10. H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  12. R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).
  13. X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, “Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951–1955 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).
  15. H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. V. A. Shakin, S. Abe, and T. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of conjugated polymers: damping, resonances, and scaling laws,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 10656–10666 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1997

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

X. J. Zhang, W. Ji, and S. H. Tang, “Determination of optical nonlinearities and carrier lifetime in ZnO,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1951–1955 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996

V. A. Shakin, S. Abe, and T. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of conjugated polymers: damping, resonances, and scaling laws,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 10656–10666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

W. E. Torruellas, B. L. Lawrence, G. I. Stegeman, and G. Baker, “Two-photon saturation in the band gap of a molecular quantum wire,” Opt. Lett. 21, 1777–1779 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995

R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

1994

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

S. Molyneux, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, T. L. Axon, and D. Bloor, “Near-resonant refractive nonlinearity in polydiacetylene 9-BCMU thin films,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2093–2095 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).

1992

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1983

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1976

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Abe, S.

V. A. Shakin, S. Abe, and T. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of conjugated polymers: damping, resonances, and scaling laws,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 10656–10666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Axon, T. L.

Baker, G.

Baughman, R. H.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bloor, D.

Bolger, J.

Carroll, M.

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

Carter, G. M.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Chance, R. R.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Y. J.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Cotter, N. P. K.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Crook, R. J.

R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cross, G. H.

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

Ducuing, J.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Frey, R.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Harvey, T. G.

Hermann, J. P.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Iida, R.

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

Ji, W.

Kaino, T.

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

Kakuta, A.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kanbara, H.

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

Kar, A. K.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).

S. Molyneux, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, T. L. Axon, and D. Bloor, “Near-resonant refractive nonlinearity in polydiacetylene 9-BCMU thin films,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2093–2095 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kasai, H.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Katagi, H.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kobayashi, T.

V. A. Shakin, S. Abe, and T. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of conjugated polymers: damping, resonances, and scaling laws,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 10656–10666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, B. L.

Matsuda, H.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).

Minami, N.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Molyneux, S.

Mukoh, A.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nakanishi, H.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nalwa, H. S.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Norman, P.

Oikawa, H.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Okada, S.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ono, K.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Pradere, F.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Rangel-Rojo, R.

R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sambles, J. R.

R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sauteret, C.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shakin, V. A.

V. A. Shakin, S. Abe, and T. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of conjugated polymers: damping, resonances, and scaling laws,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 10656–10666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Smith, E. C.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Spruce, G.

R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

Tang, S. H.

Torruellas, W. E.

Tripathy, S. K.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

Van Keuren, E.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Wherrett, B. S.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Molyneux, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, T. L. Axon, and D. Bloor, “Near-resonant refractive nonlinearity in polydiacetylene 9-BCMU thin films,” Opt. Lett. 18, 2093–2095 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).

J. Bolger, T. G. Harvey, W. Ji, A. K. Kar, S. Molyneux, B. S. Wherrett, D. Bloor, and P. Norman, “Near-resonant third-order optical nonlinearities in p-toluene sulfonate polydiacetylene,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 1552–1557 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, S.

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X. J.

Appl. Phys. Lett.

G. M. Carter, Y. J. Chen, and S. K. Tripathy, “Intensity dependent index of refraction in multilayers of polydiacetylene,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 43, 891–893 (1983).
[CrossRef]

J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A

H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Matsuda, and H. Nakanishi, “Preparation and characterization of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” J. Macromol. Sci. Pure Appl. Chem. A 34, 2013–2024 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

J. Phys. D

R. J. Crook, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “The electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating coupled polymer 9BCMU waveguide,” J. Phys. D 28, 269–274 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

H. Kasai, H. S. Nalwa, H. Oikawa, S. Okada, N. Minami, A. Kakuta, K. Ono, A. Mukoh, and H. Nakanishi, “A novel preparation method for organic microcrystals,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 31, L1132–L1134 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Nonlinear Opt.

H. Kasai, R. Iida, H. Kanbara, S. Okada, H. Matsuda, H. Oikawa, T. Kaino, and H. Nakanishi, “Organic microcrystals as optical Kerr shutter materials,” Nonlinear Opt. 15, 263–266 (1996).

S. Molyneux, H. Matsuda, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, S. Okada, and H. Nakanishi, “Third-order optical nonlinearities in poly-DCHD thin single crystals,” Nonlinear Opt. 4, 299–304 (1993).

Opt. Commun.

R. J. Crook, N. P. K. Cotter, J. R. Sambles, R. Rangel-Rojo, G. Spruce, and B. S. Wherrett, “Electronic nonlinear optical behaviour of a grating-coupled polymer 4BCMU waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 113, 344–352 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rev. B

V. A. Shakin, S. Abe, and T. Kobayashi, “Nonlinear optical susceptibilities of conjugated polymers: damping, resonances, and scaling laws,” Phys. Rev. B 53, 10656–10666 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

C. Sauteret, J. P. Hermann, R. Frey, F. Pradere, J. Ducuing, R. H. Baughman, and R. R. Chance, “Optical nonlinearities in one-dimensional-conjugated polymer crystals,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 36, 956–959 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

H. Matsuda, S. Yamada, E. Van Keuren, H. Katagi, H. Kasai, S. Okada, H. Oikawa, H. Nakanishi, E. C. Smith, A. K. Kar, and B. S. Wherrett, “Nonlinear refractive indices of polydiacetylene microcrystals,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 241–248 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Mex. Fis.

R. Rangel-Rojo, A. K. Kar, B. S. Wherrett, M. Carroll, G. H. Cross, and D. Bloor, “Third order optical nonlinearities of a polymeric film doped with a novel zwitterion, DEMI-3CNQ,” Rev. Mex. Fis. 41, 832–840 (1995).

Other

See, for example, J. Messier, F. Kajzar, P. N. Prasad, and D. R. Ulrich, eds., Nonlinear Optical Effects in Organic Polymers (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1989).

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structure of poly-DCHD.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Z-scan results for poly-DHCD microcrystals (100 nm in diameter) at three wavelengths: (1) 610, (b) 630, and (c) 760 nm. Top, open-aperture results; bottom, closed-aperture results. Also shown are the fits to the data made through the procedure described in the text. In both figures traces (a) and (b) have been vertically shifted for legibility.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Calculated Re χ(3) and Im χ(3) as functions of wavelength for 100-nm microcrystals. Solid curves, theoretical fits obtained with the three-level model described. Also shown is the linear absorption of the sample (dotted curves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Calculated Re χ(3) and Im χ(3) as functions of wavelength for 30-nm microcrystals. Solid curves, theoretical fits obtained with the three-level model described. Also shown is the linear absorption of the sample (dotted curves).

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Energy-level diagram for the three-level model, showing the possible absorption and decay processes. Level |1〉 represents ground state 1Ag, level |2〉 exciton state 1Bu, and level |3〉 the conduction band.

Tables (3)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Fitted Nonlinear Parameters for 100-nm Microcrystals

Tables Icon

Table 2 Fitted Nonlinear Parameters for 30-nm Microcrystals

Tables Icon

Table 3 Three-Level Model Parametersa

Equations (19)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

α(I)=α0+βI,
dI/dz=-α(I)I
T=exp(-α0 L)1+βI0 Leff,
α(I)=α01+I/Is,
lnI(L)I0=-α0 L-I(L)-I0Is.
α(I)=α01+I/Isα01-IIs+IIs2-IIs3+.
n(I)=n0+n2I,
dΔϕNLdz=2πλ n2I(z).
dN3dt=(N2-N3)σ23p+(N1-N3)σ13p-N3τ31,
dN2dt=(N1-N2)σ12p-N2τ21,
Im χeff=n0cω [(N1-N2)σ12+(N2-N3)σ23+(N1-N3)σ13].
Im χeff=n0cω N0pσ12[W21(σ23+σ13)+W31(σ23+σ13)]+W31W21(σ12+σ13)3p2σ12(σ23+σ13)+p[W21(σ23+2σ13)+2W31σ12]+W31W21,
Im χeff=n0cN0ω(σ12+σ13)+Iω-2σ122W21-2σ132W31+(σ12σ23-σ12σ13)W21-(σ12σ13+σ23σ13)W31.
χeff=χ(1)+χ(3)|E|2=χ(1)+χ(3)2I0cn0
Im χ(3)=0n02c2N02ω2-2σ122W21-2σ132W31+(σ12σ23-σ12σ13)W21-(σ12σ13+σ23σ13)W31.
σij=2π2μij2λ0 gji(ω),
gji(ω)=Γij2π1(ωij-ω)2+(Γij/2)2,
Im χ(3)=π2N0μ214τ21203μ322μ212 g21(ω)g32(ω)-2g212(ω)-2 τ31μ314τ21μ214 g312(ω).
Re χ(3)=π2N0μ214τ21T2203(ω2-ω)×T3μ322T2μ212 g21(ω)g32(ω)-2g212(ω)-2(ω3-ω) T3τ31μ314T2τ21μ214 g312(ω),

Metrics