Abstract

A narrowband and tunable XUV-laser source, based on harmonic generation of visible laser light, is developed for sensitive and direct absorption measurements. A novel method to monitor and eliminate the fluctuating intensity of this source is developed, which increases the sensitivity for absorption by an order of magnitude. This procedure allows for accurate relative cross-section measurements, demonstrated on selected bands of CO in the wavelength range 95–97 nm.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef]
  3. W. Ubachs, K. S. E. Eikema, W. Hogervorst, and P. C. Cacciani, “Narrow-band tunable extreme-ultraviolet laser source for lifetime measurements and precision spectroscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2469–2476 (1997).
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  12. M. Eidelsberg and F. Rostas, “Spectroscopic, absorption and photodissociation data for CO and isotopic species between 91 and 115 nm,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 472 (1990).
  13. K. P. Huber, G. Stark, and K. Ito, “Rotational structure in the Hopfield series of N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4471–4477 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  14. H. G. Beutler, “The theory of the concave grating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. 35, 311–350 (1945).
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1997

1993

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

K. P. Huber, G. Stark, and K. Ito, “Rotational structure in the Hopfield series of N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4471–4477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, K. Ito, and W. H. Parkinson, “High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nm,” Astrophys. J. 369, 574–580 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Eidelsberg and F. Rostas, “Spectroscopic, absorption and photodissociation data for CO and isotopic species between 91 and 115 nm,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 472 (1990).

1989

K. Ito, K. Maeda, Y. Murioka, and T. Namioka, “Performance of the 6VOPE high resolution VUV spectroscopic facility in the photoelectric detection mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1813–1817 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. P. Huber and Ch. Jungen, “High-resolution jet absorption study of nitrogen near 800 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 850–861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, “Ultranarrow bandwith VUV–XUV laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888–2892 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1968

1966

1945

Beutler, H. G.

Cacciani, P. C.

Cairns, R. B.

Carter, V. L.

Cromwell, E.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, “Ultranarrow bandwith VUV–XUV laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888–2892 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eidelsberg, M.

M. Eidelsberg and F. Rostas, “Spectroscopic, absorption and photodissociation data for CO and isotopic species between 91 and 115 nm,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 472 (1990).

Eikema, K. S. E.

Esmond, J. R.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

Huber, K. P.

K. P. Huber, G. Stark, and K. Ito, “Rotational structure in the Hopfield series of N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4471–4477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Huber and Ch. Jungen, “High-resolution jet absorption study of nitrogen near 800 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 850–861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hudson, R. D.

Ito, K.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Huber, G. Stark, and K. Ito, “Rotational structure in the Hopfield series of N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4471–4477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, K. Ito, and W. H. Parkinson, “High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nm,” Astrophys. J. 369, 574–580 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Ito, K. Maeda, Y. Murioka, and T. Namioka, “Performance of the 6VOPE high resolution VUV spectroscopic facility in the photoelectric detection mode,” Appl. Opt. 28, 1813–1817 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jungen, Ch.

K. P. Huber and Ch. Jungen, “High-resolution jet absorption study of nitrogen near 800 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 850–861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kung, A. H.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, “Ultranarrow bandwith VUV–XUV laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888–2892 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lee, Y. T.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, “Ultranarrow bandwith VUV–XUV laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888–2892 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Maeda, K.

Murioka, Y.

Namioka, T.

Parkinson, W. H.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, K. Ito, and W. H. Parkinson, “High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nm,” Astrophys. J. 369, 574–580 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rostas, F.

M. Eidelsberg and F. Rostas, “Spectroscopic, absorption and photodissociation data for CO and isotopic species between 91 and 115 nm,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 472 (1990).

Samson, J. A. R.

Smith, P. L.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, K. Ito, and W. H. Parkinson, “High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nm,” Astrophys. J. 369, 574–580 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stark, G.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Huber, G. Stark, and K. Ito, “Rotational structure in the Hopfield series of N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4471–4477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, K. Ito, and W. H. Parkinson, “High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nm,” Astrophys. J. 369, 574–580 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Stevens, M. H.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Trickl, T.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, “Ultranarrow bandwith VUV–XUV laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888–2892 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

Vassen, W.

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurements in the 1 1S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yoshino, K.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, K. Ito, and W. H. Parkinson, “High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nm,” Astrophys. J. 369, 574–580 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt.

Astron. Astrophys.

M. Eidelsberg and F. Rostas, “Spectroscopic, absorption and photodissociation data for CO and isotopic species between 91 and 115 nm,” Astron. Astrophys. 235, 472 (1990).

Astrophys. J.

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, J. R. Esmond, K. Ito, and M. H. Stevens, “High-resolution absorption cross section measurements of carbon monoxide at 20 K between 96.7 and 98.8 nm,” Astrophys. J. 410, 837–842 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. Stark, K. Yoshino, P. L. Smith, K. Ito, and W. H. Parkinson, “High-resolution absorption cross sections of carbon monoxide bands at 295 K between 91.7 and 100.4 nm,” Astrophys. J. 369, 574–580 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys.

K. P. Huber, G. Stark, and K. Ito, “Rotational structure in the Hopfield series of N2,” J. Chem. Phys. 98, 4471–4477 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. P. Huber and Ch. Jungen, “High-resolution jet absorption study of nitrogen near 800 Å,” J. Chem. Phys. 92, 850–861 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am.

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Phys. Rev. A

K. S. E. Eikema, W. Ubachs, W. Vassen, and W. Hogervorst, “Lamb shift measurements in the 1 1S ground state of helium,” Phys. Rev. A 55, 1866–1884 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum.

E. Cromwell, T. Trickl, Y. T. Lee, and A. H. Kung, “Ultranarrow bandwith VUV–XUV laser system,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 60, 2888–2892 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

P. C. Hinnen, “XUV-laser spectroscopy of H2 and the mystery of the diffuse interstellar bands,” Ph.D. dissertation (Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, 1997).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, New York, 1992).

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Top view of the setup for direct absorption measurements. The +1st-order diffracted XUV beam is used to monitor intensity. The 1st-order diffracted XUV beam intersects a secondary pulsed molecular expansion. EM, electron multiplier; BD, beam dump for 0th-order reflected beam.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Measured XUV intensity at -1st (upper trace) and +1st (middle trace) -order diffracted beams. The noise in both cases is approximateliy 6% for a 1-s (10 laser pulses) averaging time. The lower trace shows a ratio spectrum, with a noise reduction by one order of magnitude to 0.68% rms. The horizontal scale represents a time series.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Upper and middle traces show the simultaneously recorded signals from 1st- and -1st-order diffracted beams as measured with the setup of Fig. 1. The lower trace represents a ratio spectrum uncovering the c41u+X1g+(0,0) band of N2, which is hidden in the signal of the -1st-order diffracted beam. Note also how the dip in the XUV intensity disappears in the correlation spectrum.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Measured photoabsorption spectra for five bands of CO in the wavelength range 95.6–97.3 nm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Measured Integrated Band Cross Sections of CO in the Wavelength Range 95.7–97.3 nm Relative to the K(0)X Band Cross Section: σK(0) = (2.23 ± 0.44) × 10-17 cm2 nm 11 a

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

IXUVn2|χ(3)|2F(Δk, n)IUV3,
Var(Km)=1p×jp(Km-Kj)2Km2.
Var(Kdiv)=Var(Km)+Var(Km).
Im=gKm.
I=I0 exp(-σnl),
σvib(λ)=1N λ1λ2 ln I0(λ)I(λ).

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