Abstract

The spatial coherence of a nanosecond pulsed germanium collisionally excited x-ray laser is measured experimentally for three target configurations. The diagnostic is based on Young’s slit interference fringes with a dispersing element to resolve the 23.2- and 23.6-nm spectral lines. Target configurations include a double-slab target, known as the injector, and geometries in which the injector image is image relayed to seed either an additional single-slab target or a second double-slab target. A special feature of this study is the observation of the change in the apparent source size with angle of refraction across the diverging laser beam. Source sizes derived with a Gaussian source model decrease from 44 μm for the injector target by a variable factor of as much as 2, according to target configuration, for beams leaving the additional amplifiers after strong refraction in the plasma.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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1998 (1)

1997 (2)

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, X.-H. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Spatial coherence of x-ray laser emission from neonlike germanium after prepulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2742–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (3)

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–R4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (5)

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neonlike germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, P. Charalambous, G. E. Slark, P. J. Smith, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “Sub-optical x-ray imaging using the Vulcan x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 661–663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Optimization of single-stage x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4348–4363 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (7)

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short-wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Modal study of the role of excess noise in x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 7478–7492 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (3)

R. A. London, M. Strauss, and M. D. Rosen, “Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563–566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. N. Lea, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Al Hadithi, Y.

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amendt, P.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Optimization of single-stage x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4348–4363 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Modal study of the role of excess noise in x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 7478–7492 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

An, Z.

Anderson, E.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Attwood, D. T.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Azuma, H.

Balhom, R.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barbee, T. W.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbee Jr., T. W.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Behjat, A.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Boehly, T.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Brase, J.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Brown, S. B.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Browne, M. T.

Burge, R. E.

Cairns, G. F.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Campbell, E. M.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carillon, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, M. R.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cauble, R.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Celliers, P.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chandler, E. A.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambous, P.

Chen, H. Z.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cheng, X.-H.

Corzett, M.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Craxton, R. S.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daido, H.

DaSilva, L. B.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Decker, C.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, A.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwivedi, L.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Elton, R. C.

T. N. Lea, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Epstein, R.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feit, M. D.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fields, D. J.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E. E.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–R4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Gray, J.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Healy, S. B.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

Holden, M.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

Holden, P. B.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaegle, P.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kanabe, T.

Kato, Y.

Kern, D.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kidd, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kingston, A. E.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, J. A.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, R.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neonlike germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurkcuoglu, M.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, S. L.

Lamb, M. J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

Lea, T. N.

T. N. Lea, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, Z. An, X.-H. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Time dependence of the spatial coherence of the 23.2–23.6-nm radiation in a single pulse from the germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1620–1626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, X.-H. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Spatial coherence of x-ray laser emission from neonlike germanium after prepulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2742–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neonlike germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, P. Charalambous, G. E. Slark, P. J. Smith, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “Sub-optical x-ray imaging using the Vulcan x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 661–663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–R4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Libby, S. B.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lightbody, M. T. M.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Optimization of single-stage x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4348–4363 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Modal study of the role of excess noise in x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 7478–7492 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. London, M. Strauss, and M. D. Rosen, “Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563–566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacGowan, B. J.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, Z. An, X.-H. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Time dependence of the spatial coherence of the 23.2–23.6-nm radiation in a single pulse from the germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1620–1626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, X.-H. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Spatial coherence of x-ray laser emission from neonlike germanium after prepulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2742–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCabe, S. P.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McLean, E. A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

T. N. Lea, E. A. McLean, and R. C. Elton, “Soft x-ray lasing in neon-like germanium and copper plasmas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 1185–1188 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Miura, E.

Moreno, J. C.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murai, K.

Neely, D.

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, Z. An, X.-H. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Time dependence of the spatial coherence of the 23.2–23.6-nm radiation in a single pulse from the germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 15, 1620–1626 (1998).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, G. E. Slark, M. T. Browne, X.-C. Yuan, P. Charalambous, X.-H. Cheng, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, and D. Neely, “Spatial coherence of x-ray laser emission from neonlike germanium after prepulse,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 2742–2751 (1997).
[CrossRef]

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neonlike germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, P. Charalambous, G. E. Slark, P. J. Smith, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “Sub-optical x-ray imaging using the Vulcan x-ray laser,” Opt. Lett. 18, 661–663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. Da Silva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Nilson, D. S.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norreys, P.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Norreys, P. N.

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short-wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, D.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O’Neill, D. M.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neonlike germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Osterheid, A. L.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Pichler, C.

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

Plowes, J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plowes, J. A.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pretzler, G.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51, R4341–R4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramsden, S. A.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Raucourt, J. P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Robertson, E.

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rogoyski, A.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rosen, M. D.

R. A. London, M. Strauss, and M. D. Rosen, “Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563–566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rus, B.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Russoto, M.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scofield, J. A.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scofield, J. H.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shimkaveg, G.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shiraga, H.

Slark, G.

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

Slark, G. E.

Smith, C. G.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

Smith, P. J.

Stone, G.

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G. F.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strauss, M.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–R26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Optimization of single-stage x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 47, 4348–4363 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Amendt, R. A. London, and M. Strauss, “Modal study of the role of excess noise in x-ray lasers,” Phys. Rev. A 44, 7478–7492 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. London, M. Strauss, and M. D. Rosen, “Modal analysis of x-ray laser coherence,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 563–566 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sureau, A.

B. Rus, C. L. S. Lewis, G. F. Cairns, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, M. H. Key, D. Neely, A. G. MacPhee, S. A. Ramsden, C. G. Smith, and A. Sureau, “Demonstration of a polarized soft x-ray laser beam in a neonlike germanium plasma,” Phys. Rev. A 51, 2316–2327 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takabe, H.

Takagi, M.

Tallents, G. J.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. A.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short-wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. DaSilva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. B. DaSilva, J. E. Trebes, R. Balhom, S. Mrowka, E. Anderson, D. T. Attwood, T. W. Barbee, Jr., J. Brase, M. Corzett, J. Gray, J. A. Koch, C. Lee, D. Kern, R. A. London, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, and G. Stone, “Soft x-ray laser microscopy of rat sperm nuclei,” Science 258, 269–271 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Uejio, J. Y.

Uhomoibhi, J.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Uhomoibhi, J. O.

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Walling, R. S.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wan, A. S.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. A. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterisation of germanium stripe x-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, P. J.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weber, F.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, A. S. Wan, and F. Weber, “Simultaneous measurement of local gain and electron density in x-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminating a Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Whelan, D. A.

J. E. Trebes, S. B. Brown, E. M. Campbell, D. L. Matthews, D. S. Nilson, G. F. Stone, and D. A. Whelan, “Demonstration of x-ray holography with an x-ray laser,” Science 238, 517–519 (1987).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolfrum, E.

P. J. Warwick, C. L. S. Lewis, S. P. McCabe, A. G. MacPhee, A. Behjat, M. Kurkcuoglu, G. J. Tallents, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “A study to optimise the temporal drive pulse structure for efficient XUV lasing on the J=0–1, 19.6 nm line of Ge XXIII,” Opt. Commun. 144, 192–197 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Yaakobi, B.

T. Boehly, M. Russoto, R. S. Craxton, R. Epstein, B. Yaakobi, L. B. Da Silva, J. Nilsen, E. A. Chandler, D. J. Fields, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, J. H. Scofield, and G. Shimkaveg, “Demonstration of a narrow-divergence x-ray laser in neon-like titanium,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 6962–6965 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Yamada, H. T.

Young, G. C.

Yuan, G.

Yuan, X.-C.

Zhang, J.

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O’Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near-diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at 23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O’Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at 23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

AIP Conf. Proc. (1)

G. F. Cairns, M. J. Lamb, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, C. Pichler, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, R. E. Burge, M. T. Browne, and G. Slark, “Coupling between remote plasmas in an ‘injector-amplifier’ XUV laser system,” in X-Ray Lasers, D. C. Elder and D. L. Matthews, eds., AIP Conf. Proc. 332, 191–195 (1994).

Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. (1)

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft X-ray laser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B: Lasers Opt. 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

J. Phys. B (1)

P. B. Holden, S. B. Healy, M. T. M. Lightbody, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, A. E. Kingston, E. Robertson, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “A computational investigation of the neon-like germanium collisionally pumped laser,” J. Phys. B 27, 341–367 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (6)

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, G. J. Tallents, and S. A. Ramsden, “An injector/amplifier double target configuration for the Ne-like Ge x-ray laser scheme,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, A. G. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, S. A. Ramsden, A. Rogoyski, E. A. McLean, and G. J. Pert, “Characterisation of soft x-ray amplification observed in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 75, 406–412 (1990).
[CrossRef]

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C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O’Neill, J. O. Uhomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laser schemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
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G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healy, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1 transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
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Opt. Eng. (Bellingham) (1)

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Phys. Rev. Lett. (4)

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Other (9)

M. S. Schulz, H. Daido, K. Murai, Y. Kato, R. Kodama, G. Yuan, S. Nakai, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, K. Shinohara, I. Kodama, T. Honda, D. Neely, and G. Slark, “Soft x-ray holography using an x-ray laser at 23.2/23.6 nm and 19.6 nm,” in Short-Wavelength V: Physics with Intense Laser Pulses ’93, P. B. Corkum and M. D. Perry, eds., Vol. 17 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1993), pp. 226–230.

D. M. O’Neill, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, J. O. Uhomoibhi, H. Z. Chen, J. Jacoby, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, R. Kodama, P. Norreys, L. Dwivedi, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. Zhang, A. Carillon, P. Dhez, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Klisnick, and J. P. Raucourt, “Saturated and near diffraction limited ASE output at 23.6nm,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, Vol. 125 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1992), pp. 41–44.

M. Born and E. Wolf, Principles of Optics (Pergamon, Oxford, 1993), Chap. 10.

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R. A. London, P. Amendt, and M. Strauss, “Geometric scaling laws for x-ray laser coherence,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, E. E. Fill, ed., Vol. 125 of Institute of Physics Conference Series, (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1992), pp. 261–264.

G. F. Cairns, “Developmental studies of XUV laser amplifiers,” Ph.D. dissertation (Queen’s University, Belfast, Ireland, 1995).

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5.

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C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. O’Neill, J. Uhomoibhi, G. Cairns, A. MacPhee, G. J. Tallents, J. Krishnan, I. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, P. Norreys, R. Kodama, R. E. Burge, G. Slark, M. Browne, G. J. Pert, P. Holden, M. Lightbody, S. A. Ramsden, J. Zhang, C. Smith, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, A. Carillon, A. Klisnick, J. P. Raucourt, J. E. Trebes, M. R. Carter, S. Mrowka, and K. A. Nugent, “Collision pumped soft x-ray lasers: progress at RAL,” in X-Ray Lasers 1992, E. E. Fill, ed., Vol. 125 of Institute of Physics Conference Series (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1992), pp. 23–30.

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Figures (5)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic diagram showing two-target injector A1, A2, a concave multilayer relay mirror fabricated preferentially to reflect the 23.2–23.6-nm lines, and two-target amplifier A3, A4. The direct radiation from the face of the injector nearer the amplifier is blocked when the relay mirror is used. The position of the beam-limiting aperture at the relay mirror is shown. The aperture was 10 mm×12 mm in size and had no effect on the angular divergence of the laser beam.    

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Calculated Young slit visibilities under Fresnel conditions for 23.2-nm radiation corresponding to the FWHM of the Gaussian model for representative slit separations 50, 100, and 200 μm and for each of the distances from source to diagnostic and from diagnostic to recording used in the three experiments. Solid curves, 580 and 650 mm; dashed curves, 673 and 520 mm; points, 580 and 575 mm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Experimental intensity value and visibility value at each slit station across the angular range of the laser beam for the injector alone and the 23.2–23.6-nm lines; slit separation, 200 μm. Gratings perpendicular to slits with 3-μm periods and 30 slit apertures. Individual experimental values are plotted for positive and negative orders. Diagnostic (iii); angular separation of slit pairs, 2.4 mrad; station number increasing with increasing refraction. Source to slit, 673 mm; slit to plate, 520 mm (third run). Values for a Gaussian source model are also plotted; average visibility values are average source FWHM against station number. Maximum intensity at ∼10 mrad to target axis.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental visibility and intensity values across the beam divergence for four separate experiments; individual symbols plot the three-target case and slit separations of 150 μm. Results are for the second experiment and the unresolved 23.2–23.6-nm lines. Source-to-slits distance, 580 mm; slits-to-film distance, 650 mm (second run); diagnostic (ii); station number increasing with increasing angle of refraction. Angular separation of slit pairs, 4.3 mrad. Also shown is a single set of results, plotted as open circles, for the first run [source to slits, 580 mm; slits to film, 575 mm; diagnostic (i):] for a range of slit separations converted to FWHM at 150-μm separation by the Gaussian model. Maximum intensity at ∼15 mrad to target axis.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Angular variation of intensity and FWHM source sizes across the laser beam on the Gaussian model for combined 23.2–23.6-nm lines and four-target configuration (first run). Angular separation of slit stations, 4.3 mrad; diagnostic (i). Source sizes were derived on the basis of the Gaussian source model. The results are the average values for FWHM derived from the visibilities for the separate 23.2- and 23.6-nm and higher diffraction orders and the combined lines taken together (see Table 1). Source-to-slits distance, 580 mm; slits-to-film distance, 575 mm. Maximum intensity at ∼3 mrad to target axis.

Tables (1)

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Table 1 Fringe Visibilities V for Separated 23.2- and 23.6-nm and Combined Linesa

Equations (1)

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I=I0 exp-x22σ2.

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