Abstract

The local electric fields on a semicontinuous metal film are shown to experience giant fluctuations in the visible and infrared spectral ranges when the dissipation in metallic grains is small. The field fluctuations result in strongly enhanced Raman scattering. The scattered local fields at the Stokes frequency are concentrated in sharp well-separated peaks and are enhanced up to giant values, 1014, that exceed by many orders of magnitude the average enhancement, 106. This opens a fascinating possibility for Raman scattering spectroscopy of single molecules on a semicontinuous metal film. A developed scaling theory for surface-enhanced Raman scattering from a semicontinuous film successfully explains the experimental observations.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973);G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3382 (1984);Y. Yagil, P. Gadenne, C. Julien, and G. Deutscher, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2503 (1992);P. Gadenne, A. Beghadi, and J. Lafait, Opt. Commun. 65, 17 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  2. D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992); D. Stauffer and A. Aharony, Introduction to Percolation Theory (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, 1991).
  3. F. Brouers, D. Rauw, J. P. Clerc, and G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. B 49, 14582 (1994);J. P. Clerc, G. Giraud, and J. M. Luck, Adv. Phys. 39, 191 (1990).
    [Crossref]
  4. A. K. Sarychev, D. J. Bergman, and Y. Yagil, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5366 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  5. S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  6. K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  7. M. Moskovits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985);A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, J. Phys. C 4, 1143 (1992); R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982); M. I. Stockman, V. M. Shalaev, M. Moskovits, R. Botet, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2821 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  8. V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rep. 272, 61 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  9. V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, J. Mercer, and E. B. Stechel, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8235 (1996);E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1628 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  10. V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991);M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  11. D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  12. E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992);T. L. Ferrel, S. L. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 408 (1992).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, Science 265, 364 (1994);W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994);C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. A. M. Dykhne, Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 348 (1971).
  15. F. Brouers, S. Blacher, and A. K. Sarychev, in Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), Chap. 24; F. Brouers, S. Blacher, A. N. Lagarkov, A. K. Sarychev, P. Gadenne, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 55, 13234 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  16. P. J. Reynolds, W. Klein, and H. E. Stanley, J. Phys. C 10, L167 (1977);A. K. Sarychev, Zk. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1001 (1977) [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 524 (1977)].
    [Crossref]
  17. P. Gadenne, Y. Yagil, and G. Deutscher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3019 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  18. V. L. Schlegel and T. M. Corton, Ann. Chem. 63, 241 (1991).

1997 (2)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rep. 272, 61 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, J. Mercer, and E. B. Stechel, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8235 (1996);E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

A. K. Sarychev, D. J. Bergman, and Y. Yagil, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5366 (1995).
[Crossref]

1994 (3)

F. Brouers, D. Rauw, J. P. Clerc, and G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. B 49, 14582 (1994);J. P. Clerc, G. Giraud, and J. M. Luck, Adv. Phys. 39, 191 (1990).
[Crossref]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, Science 265, 364 (1994);W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994);C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992);T. L. Ferrel, S. L. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 408 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992); D. Stauffer and A. Aharony, Introduction to Percolation Theory (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, 1991).

1991 (2)

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991);M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. L. Schlegel and T. M. Corton, Ann. Chem. 63, 241 (1991).

1989 (1)

P. Gadenne, Y. Yagil, and G. Deutscher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3019 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

M. Moskovits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985);A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, J. Phys. C 4, 1143 (1992); R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982); M. I. Stockman, V. M. Shalaev, M. Moskovits, R. Botet, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2821 (1992).
[Crossref]

1977 (1)

P. J. Reynolds, W. Klein, and H. E. Stanley, J. Phys. C 10, L167 (1977);A. K. Sarychev, Zk. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1001 (1977) [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 524 (1977)].
[Crossref]

1973 (1)

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973);G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3382 (1984);Y. Yagil, P. Gadenne, C. Julien, and G. Deutscher, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2503 (1992);P. Gadenne, A. Beghadi, and J. Lafait, Opt. Commun. 65, 17 (1988).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

A. M. Dykhne, Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 348 (1971).

Abeles, B.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973);G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3382 (1984);Y. Yagil, P. Gadenne, C. Julien, and G. Deutscher, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2503 (1992);P. Gadenne, A. Beghadi, and J. Lafait, Opt. Commun. 65, 17 (1988).
[Crossref]

Ambrose, W. P.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, Science 265, 364 (1994);W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994);C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Bergman, D. J.

A. K. Sarychev, D. J. Bergman, and Y. Yagil, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5366 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992); D. Stauffer and A. Aharony, Introduction to Percolation Theory (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, 1991).

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992);T. L. Ferrel, S. L. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 408 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Blacher, S.

F. Brouers, S. Blacher, and A. K. Sarychev, in Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), Chap. 24; F. Brouers, S. Blacher, A. N. Lagarkov, A. K. Sarychev, P. Gadenne, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 55, 13234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Botet, R.

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, J. Mercer, and E. B. Stechel, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8235 (1996);E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Brouers, F.

F. Brouers, D. Rauw, J. P. Clerc, and G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. B 49, 14582 (1994);J. P. Clerc, G. Giraud, and J. M. Luck, Adv. Phys. 39, 191 (1990).
[Crossref]

F. Brouers, S. Blacher, and A. K. Sarychev, in Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), Chap. 24; F. Brouers, S. Blacher, A. N. Lagarkov, A. K. Sarychev, P. Gadenne, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 55, 13234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Clerc, J. P.

F. Brouers, D. Rauw, J. P. Clerc, and G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. B 49, 14582 (1994);J. P. Clerc, G. Giraud, and J. M. Luck, Adv. Phys. 39, 191 (1990).
[Crossref]

Cody, G. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973);G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3382 (1984);Y. Yagil, P. Gadenne, C. Julien, and G. Deutscher, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2503 (1992);P. Gadenne, A. Beghadi, and J. Lafait, Opt. Commun. 65, 17 (1988).
[Crossref]

Cohen, R. W.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973);G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3382 (1984);Y. Yagil, P. Gadenne, C. Julien, and G. Deutscher, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2503 (1992);P. Gadenne, A. Beghadi, and J. Lafait, Opt. Commun. 65, 17 (1988).
[Crossref]

Corton, T. M.

V. L. Schlegel and T. M. Corton, Ann. Chem. 63, 241 (1991).

Coutts, M. D.

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973);G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3382 (1984);Y. Yagil, P. Gadenne, C. Julien, and G. Deutscher, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2503 (1992);P. Gadenne, A. Beghadi, and J. Lafait, Opt. Commun. 65, 17 (1988).
[Crossref]

Dasari, R. R.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Deutscher, G.

P. Gadenne, Y. Yagil, and G. Deutscher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3019 (1989).
[Crossref]

Dykhne, A. M.

A. M. Dykhne, Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 348 (1971).

Emory, S. R.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Feld, M. S.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Gadenne, P.

P. Gadenne, Y. Yagil, and G. Deutscher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3019 (1989).
[Crossref]

George, T. F.

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991);M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Giraud, G.

F. Brouers, D. Rauw, J. P. Clerc, and G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. B 49, 14582 (1994);J. P. Clerc, G. Giraud, and J. M. Luck, Adv. Phys. 39, 191 (1990).
[Crossref]

Goodwin, P. M.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, Science 265, 364 (1994);W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994);C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Itzkan, I.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Keller, R. A.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, Science 265, 364 (1994);W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994);C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Klein, W.

P. J. Reynolds, W. Klein, and H. E. Stanley, J. Phys. C 10, L167 (1977);A. K. Sarychev, Zk. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1001 (1977) [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 524 (1977)].
[Crossref]

Kneip, H.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kneipp, K.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Kovacs, J.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Markel, V. A.

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991);M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Martin, J. C.

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, Science 265, 364 (1994);W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994);C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Mercer, J.

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, J. Mercer, and E. B. Stechel, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8235 (1996);E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Moskovits, M.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M. Moskovits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985);A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, J. Phys. C 4, 1143 (1992); R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982); M. I. Stockman, V. M. Shalaev, M. Moskovits, R. Botet, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2821 (1992).
[Crossref]

Muratov, L. S.

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991);M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nie, S.

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Perelman, L.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Rauw, D.

F. Brouers, D. Rauw, J. P. Clerc, and G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. B 49, 14582 (1994);J. P. Clerc, G. Giraud, and J. M. Luck, Adv. Phys. 39, 191 (1990).
[Crossref]

Reynolds, P. J.

P. J. Reynolds, W. Klein, and H. E. Stanley, J. Phys. C 10, L167 (1977);A. K. Sarychev, Zk. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1001 (1977) [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 524 (1977)].
[Crossref]

Sarychev, A. K.

A. K. Sarychev, D. J. Bergman, and Y. Yagil, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5366 (1995).
[Crossref]

F. Brouers, S. Blacher, and A. K. Sarychev, in Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), Chap. 24; F. Brouers, S. Blacher, A. N. Lagarkov, A. K. Sarychev, P. Gadenne, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 55, 13234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Schlegel, V. L.

V. L. Schlegel and T. M. Corton, Ann. Chem. 63, 241 (1991).

Shalaev, V. M.

V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rep. 272, 61 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, J. Mercer, and E. B. Stechel, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8235 (1996);E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stanley, H. E.

P. J. Reynolds, W. Klein, and H. E. Stanley, J. Phys. C 10, L167 (1977);A. K. Sarychev, Zk. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1001 (1977) [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 524 (1977)].
[Crossref]

Stechel, E. B.

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, J. Mercer, and E. B. Stechel, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8235 (1996);E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stockman, M. I.

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991);M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Stroud, D.

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992); D. Stauffer and A. Aharony, Introduction to Percolation Theory (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, 1991).

Suh, J.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Trautman, J. K.

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992);T. L. Ferrel, S. L. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 408 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Tsai, D. P.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Wang, Y.

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

Wang, Z.

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Yagil, Y.

A. K. Sarychev, D. J. Bergman, and Y. Yagil, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5366 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. Gadenne, Y. Yagil, and G. Deutscher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3019 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ann. Chem. (1)

V. L. Schlegel and T. M. Corton, Ann. Chem. 63, 241 (1991).

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

P. Gadenne, Y. Yagil, and G. Deutscher, J. Appl. Phys. 66, 3019 (1989).
[Crossref]

J. Phys. C (1)

P. J. Reynolds, W. Klein, and H. E. Stanley, J. Phys. C 10, L167 (1977);A. K. Sarychev, Zk. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 72, 1001 (1977) [Sov. Phys. JETP 45, 524 (1977)].
[Crossref]

Phys. Rep. (1)

V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rep. 272, 61 (1996).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. B (5)

V. M. Shalaev, R. Botet, J. Mercer, and E. B. Stechel, Phys. Rev. B 54, 8235 (1996);E. Y. Poliakov, V. M. Shalaev, V. A. Markel, and R. Botet, Opt. Lett. 21, 1628 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. A. Markel, L. S. Muratov, M. I. Stockman, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 43, 8183 (1991);M. I. Stockman, L. N. Pandey, L. S. Muratov, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 2486 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. W. Cohen, G. D. Cody, M. D. Coutts, and B. Abeles, Phys. Rev. B 8, 3689 (1973);G. A. Niklasson and C. G. Granqvist, J. Appl. Phys. 55, 3382 (1984);Y. Yagil, P. Gadenne, C. Julien, and G. Deutscher, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2503 (1992);P. Gadenne, A. Beghadi, and J. Lafait, Opt. Commun. 65, 17 (1988).
[Crossref]

F. Brouers, D. Rauw, J. P. Clerc, and G. Giraud, Phys. Rev. B 49, 14582 (1994);J. P. Clerc, G. Giraud, and J. M. Luck, Adv. Phys. 39, 191 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. K. Sarychev, D. J. Bergman, and Y. Yagil, Phys. Rev. B 51, 5366 (1995).
[Crossref]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

K. Kneipp, Y. Wang, H. Kneip, L. Perelman, I. Itzkan, R. R. Dasari, and M. S. Feld, Phys. Rev. Lett. 78, 1667 (1997).
[Crossref]

D. P. Tsai, J. Kovacs, Z. Wang, M. Moskovits, V. M. Shalaev, J. Suh, and R. Botet, Phys. Rev. Lett. 72, 4149 (1994);V. M. Shalaev and M. Moskovits, Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 2451 (1995);S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and A. V. Zayats, Phys. Rev. B 51, 17916 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rev. Mod. Phys. (1)

M. Moskovits, Rev. Mod. Phys. 57, 783 (1985);A. Otto, I. Mrozek, H. Grabhorn, and W. Akemann, J. Phys. C 4, 1143 (1992); R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982); M. I. Stockman, V. M. Shalaev, M. Moskovits, R. Botet, and T. F. George, Phys. Rev. B 46, 2821 (1992).
[Crossref]

Science (3)

S. Nie and S. R. Emory, Science 275, 1102 (1997).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. Betzig and J. K. Trautman, Science 257, 189 (1992);T. L. Ferrel, S. L. Sharp, and R. J. Warmack, Ultramicroscopy 42–44, 408 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. P. Ambrose, P. M. Goodwin, J. C. Martin, and R. A. Keller, Science 265, 364 (1994);W. E. Moerner, T. Plakhotnik, T. Irngartinger, U. P. Wild, D. W. Pohl, and B. Hecht, Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2764 (1994);C. Girard and A. Dereux, Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Solid State Phys. (1)

D. J. Bergman and D. Stroud, Solid State Phys. 46, 147 (1992); D. Stauffer and A. Aharony, Introduction to Percolation Theory (Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, 1991).

Sov. Phys. JETP (1)

A. M. Dykhne, Sov. Phys. JETP 32, 348 (1971).

Other (1)

F. Brouers, S. Blacher, and A. K. Sarychev, in Fractals in the Natural and Applied Sciences (Chapman & Hall, London, 1995), Chap. 24; F. Brouers, S. Blacher, A. N. Lagarkov, A. K. Sarychev, P. Gadenne, and V. M. Shalaev, Phys. Rev. B 55, 13234 (1997).
[Crossref]

Cited By

OSA participates in Crossref's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (3)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Distributions of the local enhancements of Raman scattering on a silver semicontinuous film at the percolation threshold for different wavelengths: (a) λ=0.36 μm, (b) λ =0.5 μm, (c) λ=1.5 μm, (d) λ=10 μm, and (e) λ=20 μm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Normalized SERS A¯=A/A0 as a function of the metal concentration, Δp=p-pc, on a silver semicontinuous film. (The curve indicates theoretical calculations; the points indicate experimental data.)

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

SERS scaling function, F(x), as a function of x=(p -pc)/Δ* [see Eq. (4)], for different wavelengths: λ=0.9 μm (#), λ=1.1 μm (+), λ=1.3 μm (*), λ=1.5 μm (@), λ =1.7 μm (x), and λ=1.9 μm (○).

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

A=|T(p)|2IR(x, y)dxdy/(|E0|4εd2),
A(p=pc)=A0(|εm|/εd)2νp/(t+s)(|εm|/εm).
A0|εm|3/(εdεm2)(ωpτ)2/εd,
A(p, ω)=A0(ω)F(Δp/Δ*).

Metrics