Abstract

The optically nonlinear dye [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl)ethenyl)quinolinium]+-(octadecylsulfate-)x(bromide-)1-x forms noncentrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films. The second-harmonic intensity increases quadratically with the number of layers in the range investigated, i.e., as I2ω(N)=I2ω(1)N2 for 2N100, and shows long-term stability. Films of the dye are almost transparent, with an absorbance of 3×10-4 layer-1 at the second-harmonic wavelength, but, nonetheless, the equivalent monolayer intensity, I2ω(N)/N2, is 30% of the resonantly enhanced signal from monolayer films of the colored hemicyanine dye reported by Girling et al. [J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 950 (1987)]. The second-order susceptibility, film thickness, and chromophore tilt angle relative to the normal to the substrate are χzzz(2)=26 pm V-1 at 1.064 μm, l=5.0 nm layer-1, and ϕ=30°, respectively, for x=0.5.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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  1. I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, R. J. Jones, I. R. Peterson, M. M. Ahmad, D. B. Neal, M. C. Petty, G. G. Roberts, and W. J. Feast, “Second-harmonic generation in mixed hemicyanine-fatty acid Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 950–955 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  2. B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  4. T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. G. J. Ashwell, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, and P. J. Martin, “The highest observed second-harmonic intensity from a multilayered Langmuir–Blodgett film structure,” in Physical Concepts of Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications. I. Materials Growth and Characterization, M. Razeghi, ed., Proc. SPIE 1361, 589–598 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  6. P. Hodge, Z. Ali-Adib, D. West, and T. A. King, “Efficient second-harmonic generation from thick all-polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Macromolecules 26, 1789–1792 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  7. G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).
  10. T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231–239 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  11. S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  13. G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature (London) 368438–440 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  15. G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  17. G. J. Ashwell, D. Lochun, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Non-centrosymmetric alignment of optically nonlinear dyes,” Supramolec. Sci. 2, 131–134 (1995).
  18. G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933–934 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  19. G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor-acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193–207 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  20. G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, and D. G. Hamilton, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of a benzothiazolium dye,” Colloids Surf. A 102, 133–136 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  21. G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, T. W. Walker, M. R. Bryce, and A. M. Grainger, “Langmuir–Blodgett deposition and nonlinear optical properties of a two-legged dye,” Supramolec. Sci. 4, 219–222 (1997).
  22. H. M. Wang, “Reflection-transmission measurements of anisotropic films with one of the principal axes in the direction of columnar growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 497–505 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  23. K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182, 91–101 (1990).

1996

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, and D. G. Hamilton, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of a benzothiazolium dye,” Colloids Surf. A 102, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. M. Wang, “Reflection-transmission measurements of anisotropic films with one of the principal axes in the direction of columnar growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 497–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature (London) 368438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993

P. Hodge, Z. Ali-Adib, D. West, and T. A. King, “Efficient second-harmonic generation from thick all-polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Macromolecules 26, 1789–1792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992

S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991

T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, and P. J. Martin, “The highest observed second-harmonic intensity from a multilayered Langmuir–Blodgett film structure,” in Physical Concepts of Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications. I. Materials Growth and Characterization, M. Razeghi, ed., Proc. SPIE 1361, 589–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182, 91–101 (1990).

1989

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor-acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193–207 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933–934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231–239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987

1985

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).

Ahmad, M. M.

Akhmediev, N. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).

Ali-Adib, Z.

P. Hodge, Z. Ali-Adib, D. West, and T. A. King, “Efficient second-harmonic generation from thick all-polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Macromolecules 26, 1789–1792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, B. L.

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Armstrong, N. J.

T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, and D. G. Hamilton, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of a benzothiazolium dye,” Colloids Surf. A 102, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature (London) 368438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, and P. J. Martin, “The highest observed second-harmonic intensity from a multilayered Langmuir–Blodgett film structure,” in Physical Concepts of Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications. I. Materials Growth and Characterization, M. Razeghi, ed., Proc. SPIE 1361, 589–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bahra, G. S.

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Baranova, I. M.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).

Bosshard, C.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor-acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193–207 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933–934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. R.

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bucknall, D. G.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cade, N. A.

Charters, R. B.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature (London) 368438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davies, S. G.

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231–239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dawnay, E. J. C.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, and P. J. Martin, “The highest observed second-harmonic intensity from a multilayered Langmuir–Blodgett film structure,” in Physical Concepts of Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications. I. Materials Growth and Characterization, M. Razeghi, ed., Proc. SPIE 1361, 589–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Decher, G.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor-acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193–207 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933–934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Era, M.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Feast, W. J.

Foran, G. J.

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, A.

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182, 91–101 (1990).

Gentle, I. R.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

George, C. D.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girling, I. R.

Günter, P.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor-acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193–207 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933–934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Hall, R. C.

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. G.

G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, and D. G. Hamilton, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of a benzothiazolium dye,” Colloids Surf. A 102, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Handa, T.

G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, and D. G. Hamilton, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of a benzothiazolium dye,” Colloids Surf. A 102, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Higgins, B. G.

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Hodge, P.

P. Hodge, Z. Ali-Adib, D. West, and T. A. King, “Efficient second-harmonic generation from thick all-polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Macromolecules 26, 1789–1792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Isomura, K.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, P. D.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature (London) 368438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jasper, C.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jefferies, G.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, and D. G. Hamilton, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of a benzothiazolium dye,” Colloids Surf. A 102, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. J.

Kajikawa, K.

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182, 91–101 (1990).

Kennard, C. H. L.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kigata, K.

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182, 91–101 (1990).

King, T. A.

P. Hodge, Z. Ali-Adib, D. West, and T. A. King, “Efficient second-harmonic generation from thick all-polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Macromolecules 26, 1789–1792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Klimkans, A. B.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kolinsky, P. V.

Kowell, S. T.

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kuczynski, A. P.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, and P. J. Martin, “The highest observed second-harmonic intensity from a multilayered Langmuir–Blodgett film structure,” in Physical Concepts of Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications. I. Materials Growth and Characterization, M. Razeghi, ed., Proc. SPIE 1361, 589–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lando, J. B.

S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Liberts, G.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lindquist, S. E.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lindsay, G. A.

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Lochun, D.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. E.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mann, J. A.

S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Martin, P. J.

G. J. Ashwell, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, and P. J. Martin, “The highest observed second-harmonic intensity from a multilayered Langmuir–Blodgett film structure,” in Physical Concepts of Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications. I. Materials Growth and Characterization, M. Razeghi, ed., Proc. SPIE 1361, 589–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, E. D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).

Mukhtar, E.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Nakamura, K.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Neal, D. B.

Niino, H.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Novak, V. R.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).

Ou, S. H.

S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Penner, T. L.

T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, I. R.

Petty, M. C.

Polywka, M. E. C.

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231–239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Ranjan, R.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, T.

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231–239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Robello, D. R.

T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, G. G.

Rutkis, M. A.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Saito, S.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Schildkraut, J. S.

T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Silinsh, E. A.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Stroeve, P.

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Takehara, K.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182, 91–101 (1990).

Taniguchi, H.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Tatam, R. P.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, P. A.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Tieke, B.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor-acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193–207 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933–934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Tsutsui, T.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Walker, T. W.

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wang, H. M.

H. M. Wang, “Reflection-transmission measurements of anisotropic films with one of the principal axes in the direction of columnar growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 497–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

West, D.

P. Hodge, Z. Ali-Adib, D. West, and T. A. King, “Efficient second-harmonic generation from thick all-polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Macromolecules 26, 1789–1792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Willand, C. S.

T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wistus, E.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, G.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Zauls, V. A.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhou, L.

S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron.

M. A. Rutkis, E. Wistus, S. E. Lindquist, E. Mukhtar, G. Liberts, V. A. Zauls, A. B. Klimkans, and E. A. Silinsh, “Langmuir–Blodgett films of indandione-1, 3-pyridinium betaine. III. Linear dichroism and nonlinear optical properties,” Adv. Mater. Opt. Electron. 6, 39–50 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett.

S. H. Ou, J. A. Mann, J. B. Lando, L. Zhou, and K. D. Singer, “Nonlinear optical studies of polar polymeric Langmuir–Schaefer films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 61, 2284–2286 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Colloids Surf. A

G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, and D. G. Hamilton, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films of a benzothiazolium dye,” Colloids Surf. A 102, 133–136 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferroelectrics

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of novel donor-acceptor substituted pyridine and benzene derivatives,” Ferroelectrics 91, 193–207 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun.

G. Decher, B. Tieke, C. Bosshard, and P. Günter, “Optical second-harmonic generation in Langmuir–Blodgett films of 2-docosylamino-5-nitropyridine,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 933–934 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, G. Yu, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and nonlinear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1–Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975–980 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second-harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131–136 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, G. Jefferies, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Controlling the structure of transparent Langmuir–Blodgett films for nonlinear optical applications,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 137–141 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, T. W. Walker, I. R. Gentle, G. J. Foran, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Molecular zips: evidence of the interdigitation of layers in Langmuir–Blodgett films of an optically nonlinear dye and a compatible spacer,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 969–974 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Mod. Opt.

H. M. Wang, “Reflection-transmission measurements of anisotropic films with one of the principal axes in the direction of columnar growth,” J. Mod. Opt. 42, 497–505 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys.

M. Era, K. Nakamura, T. Tsutsui, S. Saito, H. Niino, K. Takehara, K. Isomura, and H. Taniguchi, “Aggregation structure and second-order nonlinear optical effects in non-centrosymmetric LB film of phenylpyrazine derivative,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L2261–L2263 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules

P. Hodge, Z. Ali-Adib, D. West, and T. A. King, “Efficient second-harmonic generation from thick all-polymeric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Macromolecules 26, 1789–1792 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182, 91–101 (1990).

Nature (London)

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature (London) 368438–440 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, W. A. Crossland, P. A. Thompson, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second-harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 445, 385–398 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE

T. L. Penner, N. J. Armstrong, C. S. Willand, J. S. Schildkraut, and D. R. Robello, “Langmuir–Blodgett films for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials IV, K. D. Singer, ed., Proc. SPIE 1360, 377–386 (1991).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, and P. J. Martin, “The highest observed second-harmonic intensity from a multilayered Langmuir–Blodgett film structure,” in Physical Concepts of Materials for Novel Optoelectronic Device Applications. I. Materials Growth and Characterization, M. Razeghi, ed., Proc. SPIE 1361, 589–598 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Multilayer Langmuir films for optoelectronics,” Soviet Tech. Phys. Lett. 11, 249–250 (1985).

Synth. Met.

B. L. Anderson, R. C. Hall, B. G. Higgins, G. A. Lindsay, P. Stroeve, and S. T. Kowell, “Quadratically enhanced second-harmonic generation in polymer-dye Langmuir–Blodgett films: a new bilayer architecture,” Synth. Met. 28, D683–D688 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231–239 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Other

G. J. Ashwell, D. Lochun, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, I. R. Gentle, and C. H. L. Kennard, “Non-centrosymmetric alignment of optically nonlinear dyes,” Supramolec. Sci. 2, 131–134 (1995).

G. J. Ashwell, T. Handa, G. Jefferies, T. W. Walker, M. R. Bryce, and A. M. Grainger, “Langmuir–Blodgett deposition and nonlinear optical properties of a two-legged dye,” Supramolec. Sci. 4, 219–222 (1997).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Molecular structure of [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4 docosyloxyphenyl)ethenyl)quinolinium]+(octadecylsulfate)-.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Surface pressure versus area isotherms of [E-N dodecyl-4-(2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl)-ethenyl)quinolinium]+(octadecylsulfate-)x(bromide-)1-x at 20 °C. From left to right in the low-pressure regime, x=0 (bromide salt), x =0.33, x=0.5, x=0.75, x=1 (octadecylsulfate salt).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Reflectance of polarized light (λ=543.5 nm) from a 25-layer LB film of [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl) ethenyl) quinolinium]+(octadecylsulfate-)1/2(bromide-)1/2 upon a silicon wafer. The curves represent theoretical fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Reflectance of polarized light (λ=632.8 nm) from a 25-layer LB film of [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl) ethenyl)quinolinium]+(octadecylsulfate-)1/2 (bromide-)1/2 upon a silicon wafer. The curves represent theoretical fits.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Variation of the square root of the second-harmonic intensity of [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl)ethenyl) quinolinium]+(octadecylsulfate-)1/2(bromide-)1/2 with the number of deposited layers.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the second-harmonic intensity from a 100-layer film of [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl)ethenyl) quinolinium]+(octadecylsulfate-)1/2(bromide-)1/2 on the angle of incidence of the laser beam.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Absorption spectrum of a 100-layer LB film of [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl)ethenyl)quinolinium]+(octa decylsulfate-)1/2(bromide-)1/2 upon a glass substrate. The residual absorbance at the higher-wavelength end of the spectrum is attributed in part to the substrate.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Variation of the second-harmonic intensity with the number of layers: filled circles; [E-N-dodecyl-4-(2-(4 docosyloxyphenyl)ethenyl)quinolinium]+(octadecylsulfate-)1/2 (bromide-)1/2; crosses, mixed monolayers of [E-N-dodecyl-4 (2-(4-docosyloxyphenyl)ethenyl)quinolinium]+(bromide)- and stearic acid in a 1:1 mole ratio.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Refractive Indices (n), Extinction Coefficients (k), and Thicknesses (l) Obtained from Analysis of the Reflection from a 25-Layer LB Film of the Mixed Anion Dye (x=1/2)

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Table 2 Comparison of the Properties of 100-Layer LB Films of the Mixed Anion Salt (x=1/2) and Bromide Salt (x=0) a

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