Abstract

Second-harmonic generation together with linear dichroism has been studied on monolayer assemblies of 4-octadecylamino- and 4-docosylamino-4-nitro-tolan. These amphiphiles form condensed monolayers at the air–water interface. Using the conventional Langmuir–Blodgett and the horizontal lifting methods, we obtained the alternating Y-type and the nonalternating X-type multilayers, respectively, and the considerably anisotropic second-harmonic generation of both types was observed, depending on the dipping direction of solid substrates or the monolayer compression.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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  20. P. Stroeve, D. D. Sperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “Studies on molecular orientation and order of interleaved Langmuir–Blodgett films of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 179, 529 (1989).
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  21. T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231 (1988).
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  22. G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
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    [CrossRef]
  24. G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  25. K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  28. A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  29. M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  30. D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  31. K. Kondo, T. Fujitani, and N. Ohnishi, “Synthesis and nonlinear properties of disubstituted diphenylacetylene and related compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 429 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  35. See, e.g., A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

1997 (1)

K. Kondo, T. Fujitani, and N. Ohnishi, “Synthesis and nonlinear properties of disubstituted diphenylacetylene and related compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (2)

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature 368, 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

1992 (1)

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Geisler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Linear and non-linear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (4)

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

1989 (1)

P. Stroeve, D. D. Sperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “Studies on molecular orientation and order of interleaved Langmuir–Blodgett films of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 179, 529 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (4)

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

F. Kajzar, I. R. Girlig, and I. R. Peterson, “Third-order hyperpolarizability of centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films of stilbazolium dyes,” Thin Solid Films 160, 209 (1988).
[CrossRef]

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

G. R. Desiraju and T. S. R. Krishna, “Non-centrosymmetry in organic crystals: a study of molecular conformation in some substituted tolans,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1987 (1)

A. E. Stiegman, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, “A series of donor–acceptor molecules of the form NH2(C6H4)(C≡C)n(C6H4)NO2. Unusual effects of varying n,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 5884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1985 (2)

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valint, Jr., and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

1979 (1)

H. Nakahara and K. Fukuda, “Studies on molecular orientation in multilayers of long-chain anthraquinone derivatives by polarized infrared spectra,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

J. M. Robertson and I. Woodward, “X-ray analysis of the dibenzyl series V. Tolane and the triple bond,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 164, 436 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Asgharian, B.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Geisler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Linear and non-linear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ashwell, G. J.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature 368, 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bahra, G. S.

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barzoukas, M.

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Bijl, M. J.

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Bock, J.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valint, Jr., and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boeglin, A.

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Brown, C. R.

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Bucknall, D. G.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cade, N. A.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Charters, R. B.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.-T.

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Coulter, D. R.

A. E. Stiegman, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, “A series of donor–acceptor molecules of the form NH2(C6H4)(C≡C)n(C6H4)NO2. Unusual effects of varying n,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 5884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cross, G. H.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Crossland, W. A.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature 368, 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Davies, S. G.

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Dawnay, E. J. C.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Desiraju, G. R.

G. R. Desiraju and T. S. R. Krishna, “Non-centrosymmetry in organic crystals: a study of molecular conformation in some substituted tolans,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Earls, J. D.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Fort, A.

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Fujitani, T.

K. Kondo, T. Fujitani, and N. Ohnishi, “Synthesis and nonlinear properties of disubstituted diphenylacetylene and related compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, A.

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Fukuda, K.

H. Nakahara and K. Fukuda, “Studies on molecular orientation in multilayers of long-chain anthraquinone derivatives by polarized infrared spectra,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Geisler, T.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Geisler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Linear and non-linear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

George, C. D.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girlig, I. R.

F. Kajzar, I. R. Girlig, and I. R. Peterson, “Third-order hyperpolarizability of centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films of stilbazolium dyes,” Thin Solid Films 160, 209 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Girling, I. R.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Gongda, Y.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Graham, E.

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Hagting, J. G.

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Hamilton, D. G.

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hill, K.

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jackson, P. D.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature 368, 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jasper, C.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jefferies, G.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jungbauer, D.

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kajikawa, K.

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Kajzar, F.

F. Kajzar, I. R. Girlig, and I. R. Peterson, “Third-order hyperpolarizability of centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films of stilbazolium dyes,” Thin Solid Films 160, 209 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Karna, S. P.

Kauranen, M.

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kennard, C. H. L.

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khundkar, L. R.

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kigata, K.

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Kim, M. W.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valint, Jr., and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klap, R. D.

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klein, G.

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kolinsky, P. V.

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kondo, K.

K. Kondo, T. Fujitani, and N. Ohnishi, “Synthesis and nonlinear properties of disubstituted diphenylacetylene and related compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Krishna, T. S. R.

G. R. Desiraju and T. S. R. Krishna, “Non-centrosymmetry in organic crystals: a study of molecular conformation in some substituted tolans,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Kuczynski, A. P.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lahav, M.

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Landau, E. M.

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Leiserowitz, L.

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Lochun, D.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lynch, D. E.

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, E. D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Miskowski, V. M.

A. E. Stiegman, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, “A series of donor–acceptor molecules of the form NH2(C6H4)(C≡C)n(C6H4)NO2. Unusual effects of varying n,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 5884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Munn, R. W.

R. W. Munn and M. M. Shabat, “Calculation of linear and nonlinear optical response of model Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 10059 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nakahara, H.

H. Nakahara and K. Fukuda, “Studies on molecular orientation in multilayers of long-chain anthraquinone derivatives by polarized infrared spectra,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Nicoud, J. F.

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Nolte, R. J. M.

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Novak, V. R.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Ohnishi, N.

K. Kondo, T. Fujitani, and N. Ohnishi, “Synthesis and nonlinear properties of disubstituted diphenylacetylene and related compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Oswald, L.

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Perry, J. W.

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Stiegman, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, “A series of donor–acceptor molecules of the form NH2(C6H4)(C≡C)n(C6H4)NO2. Unusual effects of varying n,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 5884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Perry, K. J.

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Persoons, A.

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peterson, I. R.

F. Kajzar, I. R. Girlig, and I. R. Peterson, “Third-order hyperpolarizability of centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films of stilbazolium dyes,” Thin Solid Films 160, 209 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Polywka, M. E. C.

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Popovitz-Biro, P.

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Prasad, P. N.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Geisler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Linear and non-linear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Rabolt, J. F.

P. Stroeve, D. D. Sperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “Studies on molecular orientation and order of interleaved Langmuir–Blodgett films of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 179, 529 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ranjan, R.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rasing, Th.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valint, Jr., and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Reck, B.

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Richardson, T.

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, G. G.

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Roberts, M. P. S.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Robertson, J. M.

J. M. Robertson and I. Woodward, “X-ray analysis of the dibenzyl series V. Tolane and the triple bond,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 164, 436 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Rosenkilde, S.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Geisler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Linear and non-linear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sagiv, J.

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Schouten, A. J.

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Serbutoviez, C.

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shabat, M. M.

R. W. Munn and M. M. Shabat, “Calculation of linear and nonlinear optical response of model Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 10059 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valint, Jr., and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Sperstein, D. D.

P. Stroeve, D. D. Sperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “Studies on molecular orientation and order of interleaved Langmuir–Blodgett films of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 179, 529 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Stiegman, A. E.

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Stiegman, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, “A series of donor–acceptor molecules of the form NH2(C6H4)(C≡C)n(C6H4)NO2. Unusual effects of varying n,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 5884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stroeve, P.

P. Stroeve, D. D. Sperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “Studies on molecular orientation and order of interleaved Langmuir–Blodgett films of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 179, 529 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Takezoe, H.

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Talapatra, G. B.

Tatam, R. P.

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teerenstra, M. N.

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Teraoka, I.

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, P. A.

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R.

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Valint Jr., P.

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valint, Jr., and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Verbiest, T.

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Wijekoon, W. M. K. P.

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, S. P. Karna, G. B. Talapatra, and P. N. Prasad, “Second-harmonic generation studies of differences in molecular orientation of Langmuir–Blodgett films fabricated by vertical and horizontal dipping techniques,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 213 (1993).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Geisler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Linear and non-linear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Willson, C. G.

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Woodward, I.

J. M. Robertson and I. Woodward, “X-ray analysis of the dibenzyl series V. Tolane and the triple bond,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 164, 436 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Yoon, D. Y.

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. (1)

M. Barzoukas, A. Fort, G. Klein, A. Boeglin, C. Serbutoviez, L. Oswald, and J. F. Nicoud, “Conformational dependence of the quadratic hyperpolarisabilities of a series of push–pull diaryl acetylenes: an experimental and computational investigation,” Chem. Phys. 153, 457 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (3)

A. E. Stiegman, V. M. Miskowski, J. W. Perry, and D. R. Coulter, “A series of donor–acceptor molecules of the form NH2(C6H4)(C≡C)n(C6H4)NO2. Unusual effects of varying n,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 109, 5884 (1987).
[CrossRef]

A. E. Stiegman, E. Graham, K. J. Perry, L. R. Khundkar, L.-T. Cheng, and J. W. Perry, “The electronic structure and second-order nonlinear optical properties of donor–acceptor acetylenes: a detailed investigation of structure–property relationships,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 7658 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Popovitz-Biro, K. Hill, E. M. Landau, M. Lahav, L. Leiserowitz, and J. Sagiv, “A new class of stable head-to-tail (Z-type) Langmuir–Blodgett films. A second harmonic generation study,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 110, 2672 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

D. Jungbauer, I. Teraoka, D. Y. Yoon, B. Reck, J. D. Swalen, R. Twieg, and C. G. Willson, “Second-order nonlinear optical properties and relaxation characteristics of poled linear epoxy polymers with tolane chromophores,” J. Appl. Phys. 69, 8011 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. W. Munn and M. M. Shabat, “Calculation of linear and nonlinear optical response of model Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Chem. Phys. 99, 10059 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. (1)

G. R. Desiraju and T. S. R. Krishna, “Non-centrosymmetry in organic crystals: a study of molecular conformation in some substituted tolans,” J. Chem. Soc. Chem. Commun. 192 (1988).
[CrossRef]

J. Colloid Interface Sci. (1)

H. Nakahara and K. Fukuda, “Studies on molecular orientation in multilayers of long-chain anthraquinone derivatives by polarized infrared spectra,” J. Colloid Interface Sci. 69, 27 (1979).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Chem. (4)

K. Kondo, T. Fujitani, and N. Ohnishi, “Synthesis and nonlinear properties of disubstituted diphenylacetylene and related compounds,” J. Mater. Chem. 7, 429 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, E. J. C. Dawnay, A. P. Kuczynski, D. E. Lynch, Y. Gongda, and D. G. Bucknall, “Linear and Non-linear optical properties of the different Langmuir–Blodgett phases of CnH2n+1-Q3CNQ,” J. Mater. Chem. 5, 975 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, D. G. Hamilton, C. H. L. Kennard, and D. E. Lynch, “2, 4-Bis[4(N, N-dibutylamino)phenyl]squaraine: x-ray crystal structure of a centrosymmetric dye and the second-order non-linear optical properties of its non-centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 23 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, C. D. George, R. Ranjan, R. B. Charters, and R. P. Tatam, “Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett film structures: surface plasmon resonance, second harmonic generation and fibre optic devices,” J. Mater. Chem. 6, 131 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” JETP Lett. 37, 207 (1983).

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. (1)

K. Kajikawa, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Symmetry and second-order susceptibility of hemicyanine monolayer studied by surface second-harmonic generation,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 30, 1050 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

M. N. Teerenstra, R. D. Klap, M. J. Bijl, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Preparation of Langmuir–Blodgett mono- and multilayers of copolymers of isocyanides with NLO-active side chains. Effect of a spacer group between the NLO chromophore and the polymer backbone,” Macromolecules 29, 4871 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. N. Teerenstra, J. G. Hagting, A. J. Schouten, R. J. M. Nolte, M. Kauranen, T. Verbiest, and A. Persoons, “Second-harmonic generation from floating monolayers and Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of poly(isocyanide)s,” Macromolecules 29, 4876 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (1)

K. Kajikawa, K. Kigata, H. Takezoe, and A. Fukuda, “Second harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett films in various optical geometries,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 91 (1990).

Nature (1)

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, and W. A. Crossland, “Non-centrosymmetry and second-harmonic generation in Z-type Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Nature 368, 438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nature (London) (1)

G. J. Ashwell, G. Jefferies, D. G. Hamilton, D. E. Lynch, M. P. S. Roberts, G. S. Bahra, and C. R. Brown, “Strong second-harmonic generation from centrosymmetric dyes,” Nature (London) 375, 385 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Th. Rasing, Y. R. Shen, M. W. Kim, P. Valint, Jr., and J. Bock, “Orientation of surfactant molecules at a liquid–air interface measured by optical second-harmonic generation,” Phys. Rev. A 31, 537 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Proc. R. Soc. London A (2)

G. J. Ashwell, P. D. Jackson, D. Lochun, P. A. Thompson, W. A. Crossland, G. S. Bahra, C. R. Brown, and C. Jasper, “Second harmonic generation from alternate-layer LB films: quadratic enhancement with film thickness,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 445, 385 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. M. Robertson and I. Woodward, “X-ray analysis of the dibenzyl series V. Tolane and the triple bond,” Proc. R. Soc. London A 164, 436 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (5)

F. Kajzar, I. R. Girlig, and I. R. Peterson, “Third-order hyperpolarizability of centrosymmetric Langmuir–Blodgett films of stilbazolium dyes,” Thin Solid Films 160, 209 (1988).
[CrossRef]

I. R. Girling, N. A. Cade, P. V. Kolinsky, J. D. Earls, G. H. Cross, and I. R. Peterson, “Observation of second-harmonic generation from Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 132, 101 (1985).
[CrossRef]

P. Stroeve, D. D. Sperstein, and J. F. Rabolt, “Studies on molecular orientation and order of interleaved Langmuir–Blodgett films of a hemicyanine dye,” Thin Solid Films 179, 529 (1989).
[CrossRef]

T. Richardson, G. G. Roberts, M. E. C. Polywka, and S. G. Davies, “Preparation and characterization of organotransition metal Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 160, 231 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. M. K. P. Wijekoon, B. Asgharian, P. N. Prasad, T. Geisler, and S. Rosenkilde, “Linear and non-linear optical studies of mono- and multilayer Langmuir–Blodgett films of N-docosanoyl para-nitroaniline,” Thin Solid Films 208, 137 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

M. M. Ahmad, W. J. Feast, D. B. Neal, M. C. Petty, and G. G. Roberts, “4-n-Heptadecylamido-4-nitrostilbene, a new Langmuir–Blodgett film material for non-linear optics,” J. Mol. Electron. 2, 129 (1986).

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991).

A. Ulman, An Introduction to Ultra Thin Organic Films from Langmuir–Blodgett to Self-Assemblies (Academic, San Diego, Calif., 1991).

G. G. Roberts, ed., Langmuir–Blodgett Films (Plenum, New York, 1990).

D. S. Chemla and J. Zyss, eds., Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Molecules and Crystals (Academic, New York, 1987), Vols. 1 and 2.

See, e.g., A. Yariv, Quantum Electronics (Wiley, New York, 1975).

K. Sonogashira, Y. Tohda, and N. Hagihara, “A convenient synthesis of acetylenes: catalytic substitutions of acetylenic hydrogen with bromoalkenes, iodoarenes, and bromopyridines,” Tetrahedron Lett. 50, 4467 (1975).

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Surface pressure–area isotherms for monolayers of (a) ANT18 and (b) ANT22 at 10, 20 and 30 °C, together with the limiting areas (Aπ0).

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

BAM images of ANT22 monolayer spread from toluene solution (10-5 M) at zero pressure, 30 °C. After spreading: (a) 10 min, (b) 20 min, (c) 30 min, (d) 40 min, (e) 50 min, and (f) 60 min.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polarized UV–visible spectra for ANT22 LB film (6 layers on only one side, deposited at 10 mN/m) at normal incidence.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Polarized UV–visible spectra for the ANT22 LB film at 45° incidence as compared with the solution spectrum, together with an illustration of the molecular arrangements in the film.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Polarization dependence of SHG signal for ANT22 LB film (6 layers on only one side, deposited at 10 mN/m).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarization dependence of SHG signal for ANT18 LB film (8 layers on only one side, deposited at 10 mN/m). The film was rotated around (a) the axis perpendicular to both the surface normal and the dipping direction, and (b) the dipping axis.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Polarized UV–visible spectra at 45° incidence for ANT18 film (12 layers on only one side) prepared at 10 mN/m by the horizontal lifting method, together with illustration of the molecular arrangements in the film.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Polarization dependence of SHG signal for (a) ANT18 and (b) ANT22 films, prepared at 10 mN/m by the horizontal lifting method. L, layers.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Square root of SHG intensity plotted against the number of layers for (a) ANT18 and (b) ANT22 films prepared at 10 mN/m by the horizontal lifting method.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

For SHG intensity of ANT22 films prepared at 10 mN/m by the horizontal lifting method: (a) 4 layers, (b) 8 layers and (c) 4 layers plus 4 layers deposited in an antiparallel fashion to the previous 4 layers.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Stability of ANT18 film (15 layers prepared at 10 mN/m by the horizontal lifting method) against photobleaching for (a) 0 s, (b) 10 min, (c) 30 min, (d) 60 min, (e) 120 min, and (f) 180 min.  

Equations (1)

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I2ω=2ω2deff2l2c3ε0(nω)2(n2ω) (Iω)2 sinc2Δkl2,

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