Abstract

We report on light-induced linear and second- and third-order nonlinear optical effects in high-glass-transition-temperature (Tg) photosensitive nonlinear optical azo polyimides. We present evidence of light-induced orientation of azo chromophores at room temperature in very high-Tg polyimides (Tg up to 350 °C) even though the chromophore is firmly embedded into the polymer backbone. We show that the isomerization reaction and the light-induced polar and nonpolar orientation depend on the molecular structure of the unit building blocks of the polymer. The mechanism of the photoassisted poling process is clarified, and it is shown how the linear and second- and third-order nonlinear optical effects can be controlled by light.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]
  19. Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second-order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of polar azo dyes in polymeric films: theoretical study of steady-state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Z. Sekkat, C.-S. Kang, E. F. Aust, G. Wegner, and W. Knoll, “Room-temperature photoinduced poling and thermal poling of a rigid main chain polymer with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” Chem. Mater. 7, 142 (1995).
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  22. Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, V. Y. Lee, and R. D. Miller, “Observation of reversible photochemical blowout of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability of push–pull azo dye in high glass transition temperature polyimides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4733 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  23. T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
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  27. R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  28. D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  29. S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  31. P. M. Blanchard and G. R. Mitchell, “A comparison of photoinduced poling and thermal poling of azo-dye-doped polymer films for second order nonlinear applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2038 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  32. S. Ylmaz, S. Bauer, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Photothermal poling of nonlinear optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2770 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. W. Haase, S. Grossmann, S. Saal, T. Weyrauch, and L. M. Blinov, “Efficiency of photoassisted poling of azobenzene, stilbene and biphenyl dyes as studied by Stark spectroscopy,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PD5–1.
  34. R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. R. Yankelevich, “Reversible optical storage utilizing pulsed, photoinduced, electric-field-assisted reorientation of azobenzenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  35. L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  36. J. Chauvin, K. Nakatani, and J. A. Delaire, “Photoassisted poling versus thermal poling in copolyimides for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 205 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  37. R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, P. M. Lindquist, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbiest, Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, and W. Knoll, “High temperature NLO chromophores and polymers,” in Polymers for Advanced Optical Applications, K. H. Wynne and A. S. Jenekhe, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. (to be published).
  38. I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. Moore, “Femtosecond time resolved UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  39. B. F. Levine and C. G. Beteha, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 63, 2666 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  40. L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  41. M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, and C. W. Dirk, “Mechanisms of quadratic electro-optic modulation of dye-doped polymer systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 842 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  42. M. Amano and T. Kaino, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 352 (1990).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (3)

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Light-induced orientation in azo-polyimide polymers 325 °C below the glass transition temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, V. Y. Lee, and R. D. Miller, “Observation of reversible photochemical blowout of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability of push–pull azo dye in high glass transition temperature polyimides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Chauvin, K. Nakatani, and J. A. Delaire, “Photoassisted poling versus thermal poling in copolyimides for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. Moore, “Femtosecond time resolved UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

N. Böhm, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, H. Steins, M. M. Müller, and G. Schottner, “Spectroscopic investigation of the thermal cis–trans isomerization of Disperse Red 1 in hybrid polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 2599 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (10)

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second-order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of polar azo dyes in polymeric films: theoretical study of steady-state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, C.-S. Kang, E. F. Aust, G. Wegner, and W. Knoll, “Room-temperature photoinduced poling and thermal poling of a rigid main chain polymer with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” Chem. Mater. 7, 142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, Y. Geerts, and W. Knoll, “A smart ultrathin photochromic layer,” Langmuir 11, 2856 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. R. Yankelevich, “Reversible optical storage utilizing pulsed, photoinduced, electric-field-assisted reorientation of azobenzenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Ylmaz, S. Bauer, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Photothermal poling of nonlinear optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burland, ed., special issue on optical nonlinearities in chemistry, Chem. Rev. 94, 1–278 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

F. Charra, F. Kajzar, J. M. Nunzi, P. Raimond, and E. Idiart, “Light-induced second harmonic generation in azo dye polymers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 941 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Seki, M. Skuragi, Y. Kawanishi, Y. Suzuki, T. Tamaki, R. Fukuda, and K. Ichimura, “Command surfaces of Langmuir–Blodgett films. Photoregulation of liquid crystal alignment by molecularly tailored surface azobenzene layers,” Langmuir 9, 211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. M. Blanchard and G. R. Mitchell, “A comparison of photoinduced poling and thermal poling of azo-dye-doped polymer films for second order nonlinear applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2038 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (3)

A. Knoesen, N. E. Molau, D. R. Yankelevich, and M. A. Mortazavi, “Corona poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 1, 73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Shen, and L. R. Dalton, “Large photoinduced birefrengence in an optically nonlinear polyester polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. G. Kuzyk, J. E. Sohn, and C. W. Dirk, “Mechanisms of quadratic electro-optic modulation of dye-doped polymer systems,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 842 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Amano and T. Kaino, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

1980 (1)

C. D. Eisenbach, “Relation between photochromism and free volume theory in bulk polymers,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 680 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1975 (1)

B. F. Levine and C. G. Beteha, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 63, 2666 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Amano, M.

M. Amano and T. Kaino, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Anneser, H.

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Aust, E. F.

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, C.-S. Kang, E. F. Aust, G. Wegner, and W. Knoll, “Room-temperature photoinduced poling and thermal poling of a rigid main chain polymer with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” Chem. Mater. 7, 142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Bauer, S.

S. Ylmaz, S. Bauer, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Photothermal poling of nonlinear optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beteha, C. G.

B. F. Levine and C. G. Beteha, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 63, 2666 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Blanchard, P. M.

P. M. Blanchard and G. R. Mitchell, “A comparison of photoinduced poling and thermal poling of azo-dye-doped polymer films for second order nonlinear applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2038 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blinov, L. M.

S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Böhm, N.

N. Böhm, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, H. Steins, M. M. Müller, and G. Schottner, “Spectroscopic investigation of the thermal cis–trans isomerization of Disperse Red 1 in hybrid polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 2599 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Boldt, P.

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bowden, C. M.

C. M. Bowden and J. Haus, Feature on Nonlinear Optical Properties of Materials, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 561–847 (1989), and references therein..

Bräuchel, C.

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Büchel, M.

M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Burland, D. M.

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burland, ed., special issue on optical nonlinearities in chemistry, Chem. Rev. 94, 1–278 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Charra, F.

Chauvin, J.

J. Chauvin, K. Nakatani, and J. A. Delaire, “Photoassisted poling versus thermal poling in copolyimides for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Cheng, L.-T.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Shen, and L. R. Dalton, “Large photoinduced birefrengence in an optically nonlinear polyester polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Delaire, J. A.

J. Chauvin, K. Nakatani, and J. A. Delaire, “Photoassisted poling versus thermal poling in copolyimides for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Dienes, A.

Dirk, C. W.

Dreher, S.

R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. R. Yankelevich, “Reversible optical storage utilizing pulsed, photoinduced, electric-field-assisted reorientation of azobenzenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dumont, M.

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Efron, U.

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T. Seki, M. Skuragi, Y. Kawanishi, Y. Suzuki, T. Tamaki, R. Fukuda, and K. Ichimura, “Command surfaces of Langmuir–Blodgett films. Photoregulation of liquid crystal alignment by molecularly tailored surface azobenzene layers,” Langmuir 9, 211 (1993).
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D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
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Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Light-induced orientation in azo-polyimide polymers 325 °C below the glass transition temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 829 (1997).
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Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, V. Y. Lee, and R. D. Miller, “Observation of reversible photochemical blowout of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability of push–pull azo dye in high glass transition temperature polyimides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4733 (1997).
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Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713 (1996).
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Z. Sekkat, C.-S. Kang, E. F. Aust, G. Wegner, and W. Knoll, “Room-temperature photoinduced poling and thermal poling of a rigid main chain polymer with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” Chem. Mater. 7, 142 (1995).
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M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
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Kreuzer, F. H.

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
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Kumar, J.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
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Kuzyk, M. G.

Lednev, I. K.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. Moore, “Femtosecond time resolved UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338 (1996).
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Lee, V. Y.

Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, V. Y. Lee, and R. D. Miller, “Observation of reversible photochemical blowout of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability of push–pull azo dye in high glass transition temperature polyimides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
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H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
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D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
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Lösche, M.

S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
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R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
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Marder, S. R.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
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Materny, A.

N. Böhm, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, H. Steins, M. M. Müller, and G. Schottner, “Spectroscopic investigation of the thermal cis–trans isomerization of Disperse Red 1 in hybrid polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 2599 (1996).
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Menzel, H.

M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
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Meredith, G. R.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, V. Y. Lee, and R. D. Miller, “Observation of reversible photochemical blowout of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability of push–pull azo dye in high glass transition temperature polyimides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Light-induced orientation in azo-polyimide polymers 325 °C below the glass transition temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
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A. Knoesen, N. E. Molau, D. R. Yankelevich, and M. A. Mortazavi, “Corona poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 1, 73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Moore, J.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. Moore, “Femtosecond time resolved UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Mortazavi, M. A.

A. Knoesen, N. E. Molau, D. R. Yankelevich, and M. A. Mortazavi, “Corona poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 1, 73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. A. Mortazavi, A. Knoesen, S. T. Kowel, B. Higgins, and A. Dienes, “Second-harmonic generation and absorption studies of polymer dye films oriented by corona onset poling at elevated temperatures,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 733 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moylan, C. R.

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Müller, M. M.

N. Böhm, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, H. Steins, M. M. Müller, and G. Schottner, “Spectroscopic investigation of the thermal cis–trans isomerization of Disperse Red 1 in hybrid polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 2599 (1996).
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Nakatani, K.

J. Chauvin, K. Nakatani, and J. A. Delaire, “Photoassisted poling versus thermal poling in copolyimides for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 205 (1997).
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R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Nunzi, J. M.

Palto, S. P.

S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Paul, S.

M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Petri, A.

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Raimond, P.

Rikken, G.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Salovey, R.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schönhoff, M.

S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Schottner, G.

N. Böhm, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, H. Steins, M. M. Müller, and G. Schottner, “Spectroscopic investigation of the thermal cis–trans isomerization of Disperse Red 1 in hybrid polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 2599 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Seki, T.

T. Seki, M. Skuragi, Y. Kawanishi, Y. Suzuki, T. Tamaki, R. Fukuda, and K. Ichimura, “Command surfaces of Langmuir–Blodgett films. Photoregulation of liquid crystal alignment by molecularly tailored surface azobenzene layers,” Langmuir 9, 211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sekkat, Z.

Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, V. Y. Lee, and R. D. Miller, “Observation of reversible photochemical blowout of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability of push–pull azo dye in high glass transition temperature polyimides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Light-induced orientation in azo-polyimide polymers 325 °C below the glass transition temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Creation of second-order nonlinear optical effects by photoisomerization of polar azo dyes in polymeric films: theoretical study of steady-state and transient properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1855 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, C.-S. Kang, E. F. Aust, G. Wegner, and W. Knoll, “Room-temperature photoinduced poling and thermal poling of a rigid main chain polymer with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” Chem. Mater. 7, 142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, Y. Geerts, and W. Knoll, “A smart ultrathin photochromic layer,” Langmuir 11, 2856 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shen, M.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Shen, and L. R. Dalton, “Large photoinduced birefrengence in an optically nonlinear polyester polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Shen, and L. R. Dalton, “Large photoinduced birefrengence in an optically nonlinear polyester polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shivshankar, V.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Skuragi, M.

T. Seki, M. Skuragi, Y. Kawanishi, Y. Suzuki, T. Tamaki, R. Fukuda, and K. Ichimura, “Command surfaces of Langmuir–Blodgett films. Photoregulation of liquid crystal alignment by molecularly tailored surface azobenzene layers,” Langmuir 9, 211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

Steier, W. H.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Shen, and L. R. Dalton, “Large photoinduced birefrengence in an optically nonlinear polyester polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Steins, H.

N. Böhm, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, H. Steins, M. M. Müller, and G. Schottner, “Spectroscopic investigation of the thermal cis–trans isomerization of Disperse Red 1 in hybrid polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 2599 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stevenson, S. H.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Suzuki, Y.

T. Seki, M. Skuragi, Y. Kawanishi, Y. Suzuki, T. Tamaki, R. Fukuda, and K. Ichimura, “Command surfaces of Langmuir–Blodgett films. Photoregulation of liquid crystal alignment by molecularly tailored surface azobenzene layers,” Langmuir 9, 211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Tam, W.

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tamaki, T.

T. Seki, M. Skuragi, Y. Kawanishi, Y. Suzuki, T. Tamaki, R. Fukuda, and K. Ichimura, “Command surfaces of Langmuir–Blodgett films. Photoregulation of liquid crystal alignment by molecularly tailored surface azobenzene layers,” Langmuir 9, 211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Thackara, J.

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tripathy, S. K.

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Verbiest, T.

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Volksen, W.

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, R. D. Miller, and A. Knoesen, “Light-induced orientation in azo-polyimide polymers 325 °C below the glass transition temperature,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 829 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, W. Knoll, W. Volksen, and R. D. Miller, “Light-induced orientation in a high glass transition temperature polyimide with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1713 (1996).
[CrossRef]

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Walsh, C. A.

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wegner, G.

Z. Sekkat, C.-S. Kang, E. F. Aust, G. Wegner, and W. Knoll, “Room-temperature photoinduced poling and thermal poling of a rigid main chain polymer with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” Chem. Mater. 7, 142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weichart, B.

M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Weitzel, H. P.

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wood, J.

Wu, J.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Yankelevich, D. R.

R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. R. Yankelevich, “Reversible optical storage utilizing pulsed, photoinduced, electric-field-assisted reorientation of azobenzenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Knoesen, N. E. Molau, D. R. Yankelevich, and M. A. Mortazavi, “Corona poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 1, 73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ye, T.-Q.

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. Moore, “Femtosecond time resolved UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ylmaz, S.

S. Ylmaz, S. Bauer, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Photothermal poling of nonlinear optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L.

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Shen, and L. R. Dalton, “Large photoinduced birefrengence in an optically nonlinear polyester polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Yudin, S. G.

S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, J.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

ACS Symp. Ser. (1)

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. Thackara, T. Verbiest, W. Volksen, and C. A. Walsh, “High temperature nonlinear polyimides for χ(2) applications,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 130–146 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Adv. Mater. (1)

H. Anneser, F. Feiner, A. Petri, C. Bräuchel, H. Leigeber, H. P. Weitzel, F. H. Kreuzer, O. Haak, and P. Boldt, “Photoinduced generation of noncentrosymmetric structures in glassy liquid crystalline polysiloxanes for second harmonic generation,” Adv. Mater. 5, 556 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

P. M. Blanchard and G. R. Mitchell, “A comparison of photoinduced poling and thermal poling of azo-dye-doped polymer films for second order nonlinear applications,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 2038 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Ylmaz, S. Bauer, and R. Gerhard-Multhaupt, “Photothermal poling of nonlinear optical films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 2770 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. A. Hill, S. Dreher, A. Knoesen, and D. R. Yankelevich, “Reversible optical storage utilizing pulsed, photoinduced, electric-field-assisted reorientation of azobenzenes,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2156 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, L. Yu, M. Shen, and L. R. Dalton, “Large photoinduced birefrengence in an optically nonlinear polyester polymer,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 59, 2935 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. (1)

C. D. Eisenbach, “Relation between photochromism and free volume theory in bulk polymers,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 84, 680 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (2)

R. Loucif-Saibi, K. Nakatani, J. A. Delaire, M. Dumont, and Z. Sekkat, “Photoisomerization and second harmonic generation in Disperse Red 1-doped and-functionalized poly(methyl methacrylate) films,” Chem. Mater. 5, 229 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, C.-S. Kang, E. F. Aust, G. Wegner, and W. Knoll, “Room-temperature photoinduced poling and thermal poling of a rigid main chain polymer with polar azo dyes in the side chain,” Chem. Mater. 7, 142 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (2)

S. P. Palto, L. M. Blinov, S. G. Yudin, G. Grewer, M. Schönhoff, and M. Lösche, “Photoinduced optical anisotropy in organic molecular films controlled by an electric field,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 202, 308 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Amano and T. Kaino, “Third-order nonlinear optical properties of azo dye attached polymers,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 170, 352 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (2)

D. M. Burland, R. D. Miller, and C. A. Walsh, “Second-order nonlinearity in poled-polymer systems,” Chem. Rev. 94, 31 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. M. Burland, ed., special issue on optical nonlinearities in chemistry, Chem. Rev. 94, 1–278 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. (1)

A. Knoesen, N. E. Molau, D. R. Yankelevich, and M. A. Mortazavi, “Corona poled nonlinear polymeric films: in situ electric field measurement, characterization and ultrashort-pulse applications,” J. Nonlinear Opt. Phys. Mater. 1, 73 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (6)

J. Phys. Chem. (4)

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, and W. Knoll, “Reorientation mechanism of azobenzenes within the trans⇒cis photoisomerization,” J. Phys. Chem. 99, 17226 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. K. Lednev, T.-Q. Ye, R. E. Hester, and J. Moore, “Femtosecond time resolved UV–visible absorption spectroscopy of trans-azobenzene in solution,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 13338 (1996).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Levine and C. G. Beteha, “Second and third order hyperpolarizabilities of organic molecules,” J. Phys. Chem. 63, 2666 (1975).
[CrossRef]

L.-T. Cheng, W. Tam, S. H. Stevenson, G. R. Meredith, G. Rikken, and S. R. Marder, “Experimental investigations of organic molecular nonlinear optical polarizabilities. 1. Methods and results on benzene and stilbene derivatives,” J. Phys. Chem. 95, 10, 631 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. Chem. B (1)

Z. Sekkat, A. Knoesen, V. Y. Lee, and R. D. Miller, “Observation of reversible photochemical blowout of the third-order molecular hyperpolarizability of push–pull azo dye in high glass transition temperature polyimides,” J. Phys. Chem. B 101, 4733 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Langmuir (3)

Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, Y. Geerts, and W. Knoll, “A smart ultrathin photochromic layer,” Langmuir 11, 2856 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Büchel, Z. Sekkat, S. Paul, B. Weichart, H. Menzel, and W. Knoll, “Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayers of polyglutamates with azobenzene moities: investigations of photoinduced changes in the optical properties and structure of the films,” Langmuir 11, 4460 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Seki, M. Skuragi, Y. Kawanishi, Y. Suzuki, T. Tamaki, R. Fukuda, and K. Ichimura, “Command surfaces of Langmuir–Blodgett films. Photoregulation of liquid crystal alignment by molecularly tailored surface azobenzene layers,” Langmuir 9, 211 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Macromolecules (2)

D. Y. Kim, L. Li, X. L. Jiang, V. Shivshankar, J. Kumar, and S. K. Tripathy, “Polarized laser induced holographic surface relief gratings on polymer films,” Macromolecules 28, 8835 (1995).
[CrossRef]

N. Böhm, A. Materny, W. Kiefer, H. Steins, M. M. Müller, and G. Schottner, “Spectroscopic investigation of the thermal cis–trans isomerization of Disperse Red 1 in hybrid polymers,” Macromolecules 29, 2599 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Proc. SPIE (2)

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, J. Zhu, W. H. Steier, R. Salovey, J. Wu, and U. Efron, “Ultrastructure synthesis of special architectures for photonic applications: high frequency electro-optic modulators and high density optical memories,” in Optical and Photonic Applications of Electroactive and Conducting Polymers, S. C. Yang and P. Chandrasekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2528, 106 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Chauvin, K. Nakatani, and J. A. Delaire, “Photoassisted poling versus thermal poling in copolyimides for second-order nonlinear optics,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 205 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

T. Verbiest, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, R. D. Miller, and W. Volksen, “Exceptionally thermally stable polyimides for second-order nonlinear optical applications,” Science 268, 1604 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (8)

R. D. Miller, D. M. Burland, M. C. Jurich, V. Y. Lee, P. M. Lindquist, C. R. Moylan, R. J. Twieg, J. I. Thackara, T. Verbiest, Z. Sekkat, J. Wood, E. F. Aust, and W. Knoll, “High temperature NLO chromophores and polymers,” in Polymers for Advanced Optical Applications, K. H. Wynne and A. S. Jenekhe, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. (to be published).

W. Haase, S. Grossmann, S. Saal, T. Weyrauch, and L. M. Blinov, “Efficiency of photoassisted poling of azobenzene, stilbene and biphenyl dyes as studied by Stark spectroscopy,” in Organic Thin Films, Vol. 21 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), paper PD5–1.

Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoinduced orientation of azo dyes in polymeric films. Characterization of molecular angular mobility,” Synth. Met. 54, 373 (1993); “Dynamical study of photoinduced anisotropy and orientational relaxation of azo dyes in polymeric films. Poling at room temperature,” in Nonconducting Photopolymers and Applications, R. A. Lessard, ed., Proc. SPIE 1774, 188 (1992).
[CrossRef]

S. Xie, A. Natansohn, and P. Rochon, “Recent development in aromatic azo polymers research,” Chem. Mater. 5, 403 (1993); “Azo-polymers for reversible optical storage. 2. Poly-(4((2-(acryloyloxy)ethyl)ethylamino)-2-chloro-4-nitro- azobenzene,” Macromolecules 25, 5531 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat and W. Knoll, “Photoreactive organic thin films in the light of bound electromagnetic waves,” in Advances in Photochemistry, D. C. Neckers, D. H. Volman, and G. von Bunau, eds. (Wiley, New York, 1997), Vol. 22, pp. 117–195; “Photosensitive organized organic films in the light of bound electromagnetic waves,” in Photosensitive Optical Materials and Devices, M. P. Andrews, ed., Proc. SPIE 2998, 164 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Z. Sekkat, “Création d’anisotropie et d’effets non linéaires du second ordre par photoisomérisation de dérivés de l’azobenzène dans des films de polymères,” Ph.D. dissertation (Paris-Sud University, Orsay, France, 1992); Z. Sekkat and M. Dumont, “Photoassisted poling of azo dyes doped polymeric films at room temperature,” Appl. Phys. B 54, 486 (1992); “Poling of polymer films by photoisomerization of azo dye chromophores,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 2, 359 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Sawodny, A. Schmidt, M. Stamm, W. Knoll, C. Urban, and H. Ringsdorf, “Photoreactive Langmuir–Blodgett–Kuhn multilayer assemblies from functionalized liquid crystalline side chain polymers. I. Homopolymers containing azobenzene chromophores,” Polym. Adv. Technol. 2, 127 (1991).

H. Rau, “Photoisomerization of azobenzenes,” in Photochemistry and Photophysics, F. J. Rabeck, ed. (CRC, Boca Raton, Fla., 1990), Vol. II, Chap. 4, pp. 119–141. This paper contains a large bibliography on photoisomerization.

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Figures (12)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Chemical structures of the azo dye containing polyimide polymers.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

TE and TM waveguide modes coupled into PI-1.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Polar plots depicting the absorbance of PI-1 (left) and PI-2 (right) versus the angle between irradiation and probe beam polarizations. The markers are experimental data points, and the dotted curves are second-order Legendre polynomial theoretical fits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Logarithmic plots of the long-time cistrans thermal backreaction of PI-1 and PI-2 with insets that show expanded views of the initial parts of the plots. Markers indicate the experimental points, and the solid curves are triexponential theoretical fits with the given time constants. Time t=0 corresponds to the state of the system approximately 2 min after the irradiation is turned off.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Mean absorbance and dichroic ratio of PI-1 versus time after the end of irradiation.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Change of reflectivity of a TM mode at fixed large incidence angle θ in (a) PI-1 and in (b) PI-2 under linearly polarized green-light irradiation. These curves represent the evolution of the index of refraction in the direction perpendicular to the polarization of irradiating beam, e.g., Δn. The moments when the irradiating light is turned on and off are indicated.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Real-time variation of parallel (Apar) and perpendicular (Aper) absorbance of (a) PI-1 and (b) PI-3a under linearly polarized irradiation. The on and off times for this irradiation are indicated, and the mean absorbance (Am) and the dichroic ratio (plots at left) are as defined for UV–visible dichroism.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

PAP cycles of the PI-1 and the PI-3a polymers. HV Off indicates the moment when the corona voltage was turned off.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

PID cycle of the PI-2 polymer with TM-polarized probe and irradiation beams.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

All-optical light modulation of the SH signal of the PI-2 polymer. The on and off times for the irradiating light are shown.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Hyperbolic fits of the SH intensity at the photostationary state of irradiation versus the irradiating light intensity for (a) the PI-1 and (b) PI-2 polymers. The functions corresponding to the fits are given.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

SH intensity from (a) quartz and from (b) a PI-3a film versus the angle of incidence. Filled symbols are experimental data, and the curves represent theoretical fits.25

Equations (2)

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χ3333(3)=Nγ15+47 A2+835 A4,
χ1133(3)=χ2233(3)=Nγ115+121 A2-435 A4.

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