Abstract

It has been commonly assumed that electrostatic interactions between chromophores that exhibit large second hyperpolarizabilities β can be neglected in estimating electro-optic and second-harmonic coefficients, which can be achieved by electric-field poling of chromophore-containing polymers. Macroscopic optical nonlinearity has been assumed to scale as μβ/molecular weight, where μ is the dipole moment. Synthesis of chromophores with μβ values of the order of 10-44 esu has led to expectations of electro-optic coefficients for organic materials that substantially exceed those of lithium niobate. Expected values have not been easily realized; thus the utility of the above-mentioned scaling factor or chromophore figure of merit has been brought into question. We demonstrate that macroscopic optical nonlinearities are attenuated at high chromophore loading for chromophores characterized by electrostatic interactions that, at close approach distances, exceed thermal energies (kT) and poling energies (μF), where F is the effective electric field.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. G. P. Agrawal and C. Flytzanis, “Delocalization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one-dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–370 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  2. P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 1–307.
  3. A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Kharmiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  5. J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  6. I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.
  7. D. R. Kanis, M. A. Ratner, and T. J. Marks, “Design and construction of molecular assemblies with large second-order optical nonlinearities. Quantum chemical aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 195–242 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  8. L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  9. C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. C. Flipse, J. M. Van der Vorst, J. W. Hofstraat, R. H. Woudenberg, R. A. P. Van Gassel, J. C. Lamers, G. M. Van der Linden, W. J. Veenis, M. B. J. Diemeer, and M. C. J. M. Donckers, “Recent progress in polymer based electro-optic modulators: materials and technology,” in Photoactive Organic Materials: Science and Application, F. Kajzar, V. M. Agranovich, and C. Y. C. Lee, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 237–246.
  12. D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  13. R. H. Page, M. C. Jurich, B. Reck, A. Sen, R. J. Twieg, J. D. Swalen, G. C. Bjorklund, and C. G. Wilson, “Electrochromic and optical waveguide studies of corona-poled electro-optic polymer films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1239–1250 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. L. Onsager, “Electric moments of molecules in liquids,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486–1493 (1936).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Healy, P. R. Thomas, M. Szablewski, and G. H. Cross, “Molecular μβ figure-of-merit studies of solid solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 32–40 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  16. C. S. Willand and D. J. Williams, “Nonlinear optical properties of polymeric materials,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 91, 1304–1310 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968–976 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  18. K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and G. E. Washington, “Solution-phase dielectric characterization of the 4-amino-4-dicyanovinyl-azobenzene nonlinear-optical chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 309–312 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  20. T. Watanabe and S. Miyata, “Effect of crystallization process on the second harmonic generation of poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline systems,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 101–107 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  22. K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. M. Amano, T. Kaino, F. Yamamoto, and Y. Takeuchi, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of polymers containing mesogenic side chains,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 81–90 (1990).
  24. B. N. Khare, S. S. Mitra, and G. Lengyel, “Infrared and dielectric studies of chloroform as proton donor in hydrogen-bond formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5173–5179 (1967).
    [CrossRef]
  25. F. London, “The general theory of molecular forces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 8–26 (1937).
    [CrossRef]
  26. J. N. Isrealachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic, London, 1985).
  27. J. P. Hansen and I. R. McDonald, Theory of Simple Liquids (Academic, London, 1976), pp. 1–395.
  28. R. H. Fowler, “A theory of the rotations of molecules in solids and of the dielectric constant of solids and liquids,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 149, 1–28 (1935).
    [CrossRef]
  29. P. Debye, “Molecular rotation in liquids,” Phys. Z. 36, 100–101 (1935).
  30. A. Piekara, “The existence of intermolecular coupling of the second kind in liquids,” Z. Phys. 108, 395–400 (1938).
    [CrossRef]
  31. A. Piekara, “A theory of electric polarization. Electro-optic Kerr effect and electrical saturation in liquids and solutions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 172, 360–383 (1939).
    [CrossRef]
  32. M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  33. C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  34. Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).
  35. V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  36. M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  37. S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  38. C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  39. M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  40. S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  41. S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  42. S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  43. A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  44. A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (2)

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (7)

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.

D. Healy, P. R. Thomas, M. Szablewski, and G. H. Cross, “Molecular μβ figure-of-merit studies of solid solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 32–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

D. R. Kanis, M. A. Ratner, and T. J. Marks, “Design and construction of molecular assemblies with large second-order optical nonlinearities. Quantum chemical aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 195–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (1)

M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1990 (4)

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and G. E. Washington, “Solution-phase dielectric characterization of the 4-amino-4-dicyanovinyl-azobenzene nonlinear-optical chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

M. Amano, T. Kaino, F. Yamamoto, and Y. Takeuchi, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of polymers containing mesogenic side chains,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 81–90 (1990).

R. H. Page, M. C. Jurich, B. Reck, A. Sen, R. J. Twieg, J. D. Swalen, G. C. Bjorklund, and C. G. Wilson, “Electrochromic and optical waveguide studies of corona-poled electro-optic polymer films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1239–1250 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (3)

T. Watanabe and S. Miyata, “Effect of crystallization process on the second harmonic generation of poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline systems,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 101–107 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

1986 (3)

A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Kharmiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

G. P. Agrawal and C. Flytzanis, “Delocalization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one-dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1967 (1)

B. N. Khare, S. S. Mitra, and G. Lengyel, “Infrared and dielectric studies of chloroform as proton donor in hydrogen-bond formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5173–5179 (1967).
[CrossRef]

1939 (1)

A. Piekara, “A theory of electric polarization. Electro-optic Kerr effect and electrical saturation in liquids and solutions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 172, 360–383 (1939).
[CrossRef]

1938 (1)

A. Piekara, “The existence of intermolecular coupling of the second kind in liquids,” Z. Phys. 108, 395–400 (1938).
[CrossRef]

1937 (1)

F. London, “The general theory of molecular forces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 8–26 (1937).
[CrossRef]

1936 (1)

L. Onsager, “Electric moments of molecules in liquids,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486–1493 (1936).
[CrossRef]

1935 (2)

R. H. Fowler, “A theory of the rotations of molecules in solids and of the dielectric constant of solids and liquids,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 149, 1–28 (1935).
[CrossRef]

P. Debye, “Molecular rotation in liquids,” Phys. Z. 36, 100–101 (1935).

Agrawal, G. P.

G. P. Agrawal and C. Flytzanis, “Delocalization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one-dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Albert, I. D. L.

I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.

Amano, M.

M. Amano, T. Kaino, F. Yamamoto, and Y. Takeuchi, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of polymers containing mesogenic side chains,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 81–90 (1990).

Becker, M. W.

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Beeson, K. W.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bjorklund, G. C.

Bredas, J. L.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cahill, P. A.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Cai, Y. M.

A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chastaing, E.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chen, A.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, D.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chen, G.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chen, J.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Chen, M.

M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chollet, P. A.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

Chuyanov, V.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Cross, G. H.

D. Healy, P. R. Thomas, M. Szablewski, and G. H. Cross, “Molecular μβ figure-of-merit studies of solid solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 32–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Dalton, L. R.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Debye, P.

P. Debye, “Molecular rotation in liquids,” Phys. Z. 36, 100–101 (1935).

Dentan, V.

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

di Bella, S.

I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.

Dumont, M.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Ermer, S.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ferm, P. M.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Fetterman, H. R.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Flytzanis, C.

G. P. Agrawal and C. Flytzanis, “Delocalization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one-dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Fowler, R. H.

R. H. Fowler, “A theory of the rotations of molecules in solids and of the dielectric constant of solids and liquids,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 149, 1–28 (1935).
[CrossRef]

Gadret, G.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

Garito, A. F.

A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
[CrossRef]

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Kharmiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Garner, S. M.

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ghosen, R.

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ghosn, R.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Goddard III, W. A.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Harper, A. W.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Healy, D.

D. Healy, P. R. Thomas, M. Szablewski, and G. H. Cross, “Molecular μβ figure-of-merit studies of solid solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 32–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Heflin, J. R.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Kharmiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Horn, K. A.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Jalali, B.

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Jen, A. K.-Y.

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jurich, M. C.

Kaino, T.

M. Amano, T. Kaino, F. Yamamoto, and Y. Takeuchi, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of polymers containing mesogenic side chains,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 81–90 (1990).

Kajzar, F.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

Kalluri, S.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kanis, D. R.

I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.

D. R. Kanis, M. A. Ratner, and T. J. Marks, “Design and construction of molecular assemblies with large second-order optical nonlinearities. Quantum chemical aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 195–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Katz, H. E.

H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and G. E. Washington, “Solution-phase dielectric characterization of the 4-amino-4-dicyanovinyl-azobenzene nonlinear-optical chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kaviani, K.

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Khare, B. N.

B. N. Khare, S. S. Mitra, and G. Lengyel, “Infrared and dielectric studies of chloroform as proton donor in hydrogen-bond formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5173–5179 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Knapp, C. W.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Kuzyk, M. G.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968–976 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lalama, S. J.

R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Lee, V. Y.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lengyel, G.

B. N. Khare, S. S. Mitra, and G. Lengyel, “Infrared and dielectric studies of chloroform as proton donor in hydrogen-bond formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5173–5179 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Leung, D. S.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Levy, Y.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liang, Z.

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lliang, Z.

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

London, F.

F. London, “The general theory of molecular forces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 8–26 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Lovejoy, S. M.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Lu, D.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Man, H. T.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Marder, S. R.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Marks, T. J.

I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.

D. R. Kanis, M. A. Ratner, and T. J. Marks, “Design and construction of molecular assemblies with large second-order optical nonlinearities. Quantum chemical aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 195–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Marti-Carrera, F. I.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

McComb, I. H.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

McFarland, M. J.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Meyers, F.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, R. D.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mitra, S. S.

B. N. Khare, S. S. Mitra, and G. Lengyel, “Infrared and dielectric studies of chloroform as proton donor in hydrogen-bond formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5173–5179 (1967).
[CrossRef]

Miyata, S.

T. Watanabe and S. Miyata, “Effect of crystallization process on the second harmonic generation of poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline systems,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 101–107 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Moylan, C. R.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Mustacich, R. V.

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nahata, A.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Onsager, L.

L. Onsager, “Electric moments of molecules in liquids,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486–1493 (1936).
[CrossRef]

Page, R. H.

Perry, J. W.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Piekara, A.

A. Piekara, “A theory of electric polarization. Electro-optic Kerr effect and electrical saturation in liquids and solutions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 172, 360–383 (1939).
[CrossRef]

A. Piekara, “The existence of intermolecular coupling of the second kind in liquids,” Z. Phys. 108, 395–400 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Pierce, B. M.

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ranon, P. M.

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ratner, M. A.

I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.

D. R. Kanis, M. A. Ratner, and T. J. Marks, “Design and construction of molecular assemblies with large second-order optical nonlinearities. Quantum chemical aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 195–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Reck, B.

Remple, A.

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Robin, P.

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sapochak, L. S.

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schilling, M. L.

H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and G. E. Washington, “Solution-phase dielectric characterization of the 4-amino-4-dicyanovinyl-azobenzene nonlinear-optical chromophore,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 309–312 (1990).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Sen, A.

Shan, J.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shi, Y. Q.

M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Singer, K. D.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968–976 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Small, R. D.

R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Sohn, J. E.

K. D. Singer, M. G. Kuzyk, and J. E. Sohn, “Second-order nonlinear optical processes in orientationally ordered materials: relationship between molecular and macroscopic properties,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 4, 968–976 (1987).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Steier, W. H.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Sun, S.

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Swalen, J. D.

Szablewski, M.

D. Healy, P. R. Thomas, M. Szablewski, and G. H. Cross, “Molecular μβ figure-of-merit studies of solid solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 32–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Takeuchi, Y.

M. Amano, T. Kaino, F. Yamamoto, and Y. Takeuchi, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of polymers containing mesogenic side chains,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 81–90 (1990).

Teng, C. C.

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Thomas, P. R.

D. Healy, P. R. Thomas, M. Szablewski, and G. H. Cross, “Molecular μβ figure-of-merit studies of solid solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 32–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Todorowa, O.

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Twieg, R. J.

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Page, M. C. Jurich, B. Reck, A. Sen, R. J. Twieg, J. D. Swalen, G. C. Bjorklund, and C. G. Wilson, “Electrochromic and optical waveguide studies of corona-poled electro-optic polymer films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 7, 1239–1250 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Wang, W.

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Washington, G. E.

Watanabe, T.

T. Watanabe and S. Miyata, “Effect of crystallization process on the second harmonic generation of poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline systems,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 101–107 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Willand, C. S.

C. S. Willand and D. J. Williams, “Nonlinear optical properties of polymeric materials,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 91, 1304–1310 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Williams, D. J.

C. S. Willand and D. J. Williams, “Nonlinear optical properties of polymeric materials,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 91, 1304–1310 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Wilson, C. G.

Wolk, G. L.

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Wong, K. Y.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Kharmiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Wu, B.

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Xu, C.

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yamamoto, F.

M. Amano, T. Kaino, F. Yamamoto, and Y. Takeuchi, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of polymers containing mesogenic side chains,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 81–90 (1990).

Yardley, J. T.

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Yu, L. P.

M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zamani-Khamiri, O.

A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zamani-Kharmiri, O.

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Kharmiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, C.

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ziari, M.

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

ACS Symp. Ser. (2)

J. W. Perry, S. R. Marder, F. Meyers, D. Lu, G. Chen, W. A. Goddard III, J. L. Bredas, and B. M. Pierce, “Hyperpolarizabilities of push–pull polyenes,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 45–56 (1995).
[CrossRef]

I. D. L. Albert, S. di Bella, D. R. Kanis, T. J. Marks, and M. A. Ratner, “Solvent effects on the molecular quadratic hyperpolarizabilities,” in Polymers for Second-Order Nonlinear Optics, G. F. Lindsay and K. D. Singer, eds., ACS Symp. Ser. 601, 21–25 (1995), pp. 57–65.

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

C. C. Teng and H. T. Man, “Simple reflection technique for measuring the electro-optic coefficient of poled polymers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 56, 1734–1736 (1990).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, S. Garner, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, and L. R. Dalton, “Simple two-slit interference electrooptic coefficients measurement technique and efficient coplanar electrode poling of polymer thin films,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 275–277 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. (1)

C. S. Willand and D. J. Williams, “Nonlinear optical properties of polymeric materials,” Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 91, 1304–1310 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Mater. (3)

L. R. Dalton, A. W. Harper, R. Ghosn, W. H. Steier, M. Ziari, H. R. Fetterman, Y. Shi, and R. V. Mustacich, “Synthesis and processing of improved organic second-order nonlinear optical materials for applications in photonics,” Chem. Mater. 7, 1060–1081 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. W. Becker, L. S. Sapochak, R. Ghosen, C. Xu, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, W. H. Steier, and A. K.-Y. Jen, “Large and stable nonlinear optical effects observed for a polyimide covalently incorporating a nonlinear optical chromophore,” Chem. Mater. 6, 104–106 (1994).
[CrossRef]

S. Sun, C. Zhang, L. R. Dalton, S. M. Garner, A. Chen, and W. H. Steier, “1, 3-Bis(dicyanomethylene)indane based second order NLO materials,” Chem. Mater. 8, 2539–2541 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

G. P. Agrawal and C. Flytzanis, “Delocalization and superalternation effects in the nonlinear susceptibilities of one-dimensional systems,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 44, 366–370 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Rev. (1)

D. R. Kanis, M. A. Ratner, and T. J. Marks, “Design and construction of molecular assemblies with large second-order optical nonlinearities. Quantum chemical aspects,” Chem. Rev. 94, 195–242 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

S. Kalluri, M. Ziari, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, W. H. Steier, D. Chen, B. Jalali, H. R. Fetterman, and L. R. Dalton, “Monolithic integration of waveguide polymer electrooptic modulators on VLSI circuitry,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 644–656 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Am. Chem. Soc. (1)

L. Onsager, “Electric moments of molecules in liquids,” J. Am. Chem. Soc. 58, 1486–1493 (1936).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

B. N. Khare, S. S. Mitra, and G. Lengyel, “Infrared and dielectric studies of chloroform as proton donor in hydrogen-bond formation,” J. Chem. Phys. 47, 5173–5179 (1967).
[CrossRef]

J. Electrochem. Soc. (1)

A. Chen, K. Kaviani, A. Remple, S. Kalluri, W. H. Steier, Y. Shi, Z. Lliang, and L. R. Dalton, “Optimized oxygen plasma etching of polyurethane based electrooptic polymers for low loss waveguide fabrication,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 143, 3648–3651 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Macromolecules (2)

C. Xu, B. Wu, O. Todorowa, L. R. Dalton, Y. Shi, P. M. Ranon, and W. H. Steier, “Stabilization of the dipole alignment of poled nonlinear optical polymers by ultrastructure synthesis,” Macromolecules 26, 5303–5309 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Chen, L. R. Dalton, L. P. Yu, Y. Q. Shi, and W. H. Steier, “Thermosetting polyurethanes with stable and large second-order optical nonlinearity,” Macromolecules 25, 4032–4035 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. (2)

C. R. Moylan, I. H. McComb, R. D. Miller, V. Y. Lee, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical materials,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 283, 115–118 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M. Amano, T. Kaino, F. Yamamoto, and Y. Takeuchi, “Second order nonlinear optical properties of polymers containing mesogenic side chains,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. 182A, 81–90 (1990).

Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B (1)

Y. Levy, M. Dumont, E. Chastaing, P. Robin, P. A. Chollet, G. Gadret, and F. Kajzar, “Reflection method for electro-optical coefficient determination in stratified thin film structures,” Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst. Sci. Technol. B 4, 1–19 (1993).

Opt. Commun. (1)

V. Dentan, Y. Levy, M. Dumont, P. Robin, and E. Chastaing, “Electrooptic properties of a ferroelectric polymer studied by attenuated total reflection,” Opt. Commun. 69, 379–383 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. R. Heflin, K. Y. Wong, O. Zamani-Kharmiri, and A. F. Garito, “Nonlinear optical properties of linear chains and electron-correlation effects,” Phys. Rev. B 38, 1573–1576 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Z. (1)

P. Debye, “Molecular rotation in liquids,” Phys. Z. 36, 100–101 (1935).

Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A (2)

R. H. Fowler, “A theory of the rotations of molecules in solids and of the dielectric constant of solids and liquids,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 149, 1–28 (1935).
[CrossRef]

A. Piekara, “A theory of electric polarization. Electro-optic Kerr effect and electrical saturation in liquids and solutions,” Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 172, 360–383 (1939).
[CrossRef]

Proc. SPIE (11)

A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, F. I. Marti-Carrera, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, J. Chen, S. Sun, and L. R. Dalton, “Integrated power waveguide mode size transformer with a vertical taper for improved fiber coupling,” in Opto-Electronic Interconnects and Packaging IV, R. T. Chen and P. S. Guilfoyle, eds., Proc. SPIE 3005, 65–76 (1997).
[CrossRef]

S. Kalluri, A. Chen, V. Chuyanov, M. Ziari, W. H. Steier, and L. R. Dalton, “Integration of polymer electrooptic devices on non-planar silicon integrated circuits,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 375–383 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Ziari, S. Kalluri, S. Garner, W. H. Steier, Z. Liang, L. R. Dalton, and Y. Shi, “Novel electro-optic measurement technique for coplanar electrode poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 218–227 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Watanabe and S. Miyata, “Effect of crystallization process on the second harmonic generation of poly(oxyethylene)/p-nitroaniline systems,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 101–107 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. D. Small, K. D. Singer, J. E. Sohn, M. G. Kuzyk, and S. J. Lalama, “Thin film processing of polymers for nonlinear optics,” in Molecular and Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 160–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Beeson, P. M. Ferm, K. A. Horn, C. W. Knapp, M. J. McFarland, A. Nahata, J. Shan, C. Wu, and J. T. Yardley, “Polymeric electro-optic materials and devices: meeting the challenges of practical applications,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VI, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2025, 488–498 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. F. Garito, K. Y. Wong, Y. M. Cai, H. T. Man, and O. Zamani-Khamiri, “Fundamental nonlinear optics issues in organic and polymer systems,” in Molecular Polymeric Optoelectronic Materials: Fundamentals and Applications, G. Khanarian, ed., Proc. SPIE 682, 2–11 (1986).
[CrossRef]

C. R. Moylan, R. D. Miller, R. J. Twieg, S. Ermer, S. M. Lovejoy, and D. S. Leung, “Defeating tradeoffs for nonlinear optical chromophores,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, S. C. Yang and P. Chandresekhar, eds., Proc. SPIE 2527, 150–162 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Chen, H. R. Fetterman, A. Chen, W. H. Steier, L. R. Dalton, W. Wang, and Y. Shi, “High-bandwidth polymer modulators,” in Optoelectronic Integrated Circuits, Y. Park and R. V. Ramaswamy, eds., Proc. SPIE 3006, 314–317 (1997).
[CrossRef]

K. D. Singer, W. R. Holland, M. G. Kuzyk, G. L. Wolk, H. E. Katz, M. L. Schilling, and P. A. Cahill, 1989. “Second-order nonlinear optical devices in poled polymers,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials II, H. R. Schlossberg and R. V. Wick, eds., Proc. SPIE 1147, 233–244 (1989).
[CrossRef]

D. Healy, P. R. Thomas, M. Szablewski, and G. H. Cross, “Molecular μβ figure-of-merit studies of solid solutions,” in Nonlinear Optical Properties of Organic Materials VIII, G. R. Moehlmann, ed., Proc. SPIE 2527, 32–40 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trans. Faraday Soc. (1)

F. London, “The general theory of molecular forces,” Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 8–26 (1937).
[CrossRef]

Z. Phys. (1)

A. Piekara, “The existence of intermolecular coupling of the second kind in liquids,” Z. Phys. 108, 395–400 (1938).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

J. N. Isrealachvili, Intermolecular and Surface Forces (Academic, London, 1985).

J. P. Hansen and I. R. McDonald, Theory of Simple Liquids (Academic, London, 1976), pp. 1–395.

M. C. Flipse, J. M. Van der Vorst, J. W. Hofstraat, R. H. Woudenberg, R. A. P. Van Gassel, J. C. Lamers, G. M. Van der Linden, W. J. Veenis, M. B. J. Diemeer, and M. C. J. M. Donckers, “Recent progress in polymer based electro-optic modulators: materials and technology,” in Photoactive Organic Materials: Science and Application, F. Kajzar, V. M. Agranovich, and C. Y. C. Lee, eds. (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996), pp. 237–246.

P. N. Prasad and D. J. Williams, Introduction to Nonlinear Optical Effects in Molecules and Polymers (Wiley, New York, 1991), pp. 1–307.

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Representative high μβ chromophores. Chromophores studied extensively here are denoted DR, ISX, and TCI and defined in text.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Coordinate system defined by an electric poling field and two interacting chromophores. Two chromophores are related to each other either by the Euler rotation matrix R(Ω) or by the angle ϕ. The approximations of London lead to the latter case, whereas the former permits explicit consideration of molecules of nonspherical shape. The rotation matrix R(Ω1) or the angle θ relates a chromophore to the applied poling field (laboratory axis coordinate system). R is the distance between the center of mass of two chromophores; when the averaging approximations of London are employed, it also represents the average separation of chromophores in an ensemble of chromophores.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Top, theoretical plots of [1-L2(W/kT)] versus average chromophore separation R. Calculations are for μ values of 5.0 (diamonds), 7.5 (squares), and 10.0 (crosses) D and for α=3.8 10-23 cm3 and I=8.3×10-19 J. The calculations assume spherically symmetrical chromophores. Bottom, theoretical plots of normalized electro-optic coefficients versus chromophore number density. The symbols have the same meaning as those above.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized electro-optic coefficient versus chromophore number density. Theoretical (curve) and experimental (symbols) data for the DR chromophore of Fig. 1. See text for discussion.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Normalized electro-optic coefficient versus chromophore number density. Theoretical (curve) and experimental (symbols) data for the ISX chromophore of Fig. 1 are given. See text for discussion.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Synthesis of derivatized TCI.

Equations (16)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

r33=[2wρNAf(0)2f(ω)2Ep(μβ/MW)]/(15kTn4),
r33=|2Nβf(ω1)f(ω2)f(ω3)cos3 θ/(ne)4|,
G(Ω, Ep)=exp[-U(Ω, Ep)/kT],
cosn θ=Ln[μf(0)Ep/kT]=exp[-μf(0)Ep cos θ/kT]cosnθ sin θdθ/
 exp[-μf(0)Ep cos θ/kT]sin θdθ,
cos θ=L1(x)=coth(x)-(1/x)=P1(cos θ),
cos2 θ=L2(x)=1+(2/x2)-(2/x)coth(x)=(1/3)(2P2(cos θ)+1),
cos3 θ=L3(x)=(1+6/x2)coth(x)-(3/x)(1+2/x2)
=(1/5)(2P3(cos θ)+3(P1(cos θ)).
L1(x)=(x/3)-(x3/45)+(2x5/945),
L3(x)=L1(x)(1-6/x2)-(2/x)=(x/5)-(x3/105).
cos3 θ=μf(0)Ep/5kT,
cos3 θ=μf(0)Ep/5kT-(1/105){[μf(0)Ep/5kT]3+8[μf(0)Ep/5kT][Δα(Ep)2/2kT]}.
W=(1/R6)[(2μ4/3kT)+2μ2α+3Iα2/4],
U(Ω, Ep)=-μf(0)Ep cos θ-W cos ϕ.
cos3 θ=[μEpf(0)/5kT][1-L2(W/kT)],

Metrics