Abstract

When the outer electron of an alkali atom in an electric field is laser excited just above the field-induced ionization threshold, the electron ejection will not be instantaneous. Calculations show there are a number of energy regions where, upon short-pulse laser excitation, the atom will eject a train of electron probability pulses with the pulses being nearly equally spaced in time. This system can be the source of a picosecond pulsed electron gun. We show that it is possible to coherently control the electron pulse frequency while the pulse train is being emitted.

© 1998 Optical Society of America

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References

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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  2. G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1784 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. C. Raman, T. C. Weinacht, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. A 55, R3995 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  4. F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4154 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. A 56, 278 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  6. H. E. Elsayed-Ali and J. W. Hermann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1636 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  7. J. C. Williamson, M. Dantus, S. B. Kim, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 529 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  8. D. M. Riffe, X. Y. Wang, M. C. Downer, D. L. Fisher, T. Tajima, J. L. Erskine, and R. M. More, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 1424 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  9. G. Farkas and C. Toth, Phys. Rev. A 41, 4123 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. V. G. Minogin, M. V. Fedorov, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 140, 250 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  11. D. A. Harmin, Phys. Rev. A 24, 2491 (1981); 26, 2656 (1982).
    [CrossRef]
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    [CrossRef]
  13. G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 129, 361 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  14. G. M. Lankhuijzen, M. Drabbels, F. Robicheaux, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).
  15. U. Emmerichs, S. Woutersen, and H. J. Bakker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1480 (1997).
    [CrossRef]
  16. L. D. Noordam and T. F. Gallagher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 882 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  17. A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, Science 247, 1317 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1997 (4)

C. Raman, T. C. Weinacht, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. A 55, R3995 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. A 56, 278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

V. G. Minogin, M. V. Fedorov, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 140, 250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

U. Emmerichs, S. Woutersen, and H. J. Bakker, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1480 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (3)

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 129, 361 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1784 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2016 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1992 (1)

J. C. Williamson, M. Dantus, S. B. Kim, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 529 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (1)

1990 (3)

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, Science 247, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Farkas and C. Toth, Phys. Rev. A 41, 4123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

H. E. Elsayed-Ali and J. W. Hermann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1636 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

U. Fano, Phys. Rev. A 24, 619 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bakker, H. J.

Bucksbaum, P. H.

C. Raman, T. C. Weinacht, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. A 55, R3995 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Dantus, M.

J. C. Williamson, M. Dantus, S. B. Kim, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 529 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Downer, M. C.

Elsayed-Ali, H. E.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali and J. W. Hermann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1636 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Emmerichs, U.

Erskine, J. L.

Fano, U.

U. Fano, Phys. Rev. A 24, 619 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Farkas, G.

G. Farkas and C. Toth, Phys. Rev. A 41, 4123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fedorov, M. V.

V. G. Minogin, M. V. Fedorov, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 140, 250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Fisher, D. L.

Gallagher, T. F.

Hermann, J. W.

H. E. Elsayed-Ali and J. W. Hermann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1636 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kim, S. B.

J. C. Williamson, M. Dantus, S. B. Kim, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 529 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Lankhuijzen, G. M.

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1784 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 129, 361 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2016 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leaird, D. E.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, Science 247, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. G. Minogin, M. V. Fedorov, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 140, 250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Minogin, V. G.

V. G. Minogin, M. V. Fedorov, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 140, 250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

More, R. M.

Nelson, K. A.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, Science 247, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Noordam, L. D.

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1784 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 129, 361 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2016 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

L. D. Noordam and T. F. Gallagher, J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 882 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Raman, C.

C. Raman, T. C. Weinacht, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. A 55, R3995 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Riffe, D. M.

Robicheaux, F.

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. A 56, 278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shaw, J.

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. A 56, 278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Tajima, T.

Toth, C.

G. Farkas and C. Toth, Phys. Rev. A 41, 4123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wang, X. Y.

Weinacht, T. C.

C. Raman, T. C. Weinacht, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. A 55, R3995 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, A. M.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, Science 247, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wiederrecht, G. P.

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, Science 247, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Williamson, J. C.

J. C. Williamson, M. Dantus, S. B. Kim, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 529 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Woutersen, S.

Zewail, A. H.

J. C. Williamson, M. Dantus, S. B. Kim, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 529 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

J. C. Williamson, M. Dantus, S. B. Kim, and A. H. Zewail, Chem. Phys. Lett. 196, 529 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. G. Minogin, M. V. Fedorov, and V. S. Letokhov, Opt. Commun. 140, 250 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Opt. Commun. 129, 361 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (5)

U. Fano, Phys. Rev. A 24, 619 (1981).
[CrossRef]

G. Farkas and C. Toth, Phys. Rev. A 41, 4123 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. A 56, 278 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A 52, 2016 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. Raman, T. C. Weinacht, and P. H. Bucksbaum, Phys. Rev. A 55, R3995 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (2)

F. Robicheaux and J. Shaw, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4154 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. M. Lankhuijzen and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1784 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

H. E. Elsayed-Ali and J. W. Hermann, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 61, 1636 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

A. M. Weiner, D. E. Leaird, G. P. Wiederrecht, and K. A. Nelson, Science 247, 1317 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (2)

G. M. Lankhuijzen, M. Drabbels, F. Robicheaux, and L. D. Noordam, Phys. Rev. A (to be published).

D. A. Harmin, Phys. Rev. A 24, 2491 (1981); 26, 2656 (1982).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Schematic representation of a coherent electron gun. A short optical pulse excites a sample of gas-phase atoms in an electric field to an autoionizing wave packet. The electron ejection after the laser excitation occurs in bursts. The time separation of the coherent electron wave packets is determined by the angular-momentum oscillation time.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Solid curve: the photoionization cross section of Na in a static 1.2-kV/cm electric field with the laser polarized perpendicular to the static field direction. Dashed curve: spectrum of the laser pulse.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Electron flux as a function of time for excitation with the laser spectrum shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Solid curve: the photoionization cross section of Na in a static 1.6-kV/cm electric field with the laser polarized perpendicular to the static field direction. Dashed curve: spectrum of the laser pulse.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Electron flux as a function of time for excitation with the laser spectrum shown in Fig. 4.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Outgoing electron flux for a state initially in a 1.5-kV/cm field. The electric field is slowly ramped at a rate of 0.5 V/(cm ps), which changes the time spacing of the electron pulses from 14 ps to 40 ps. The insets show the spectra at 1.5 kV/cm and 1.7 kV/cm (solid curves) and the spectrum of the laser pulse (dashed curve). The energy scale is in 10-4 a.u.

Equations (2)

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i t-H(t)ψ(r, t)=A(t)xψg(r),
H(t)=Hatom-E0+F(t)z.

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