Abstract

Starting from general principles of near-field optical microscopy, I demonstrate that an optical image obtained with any near-field microscope operating in a constant (probe–surface) distance mode contains pure topographical artifacts, topographically induced features, and pure optical contrast. Scanning a sharp topographical step at an otherwise homogeneous sample surface is shown to provide a sensitivity window that determines the scale on which the near-field optical image would represent mostly pure optical contrast. I suggest that the sensitivity window can be regarded as the upper limit of optical resolution of a near-field microscope.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).
  2. O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Photons and Local Probes (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).
  3. M. Nieto-Vesperinas and N. Garcı́a, eds., Optics at the Nanometer Scale (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996).
  4. J.-M. Vigoureux, C. Girard, and D. Courjon, “General principles of scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1039–1041 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  7. A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, and A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. E. Betzig, “Principles and applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” Ref. 1, pp. 7–15.
  9. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and O. Keller, “Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3793–3799 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. C. Girard and A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  12. C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14467–14473 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. M. Vaez-Iravani and R. Toledo-Crow, “Amplitude, phase contrast, and polarization imaging in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ref. 1, pp. 25–34.
  17. R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of dielectric contrast and topography on the near field scattered by an inhomogeneous surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2716–2725 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  18. O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  19. Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  20. H. Furukawa and S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  21. R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989); D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989); F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, and E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  22. D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, “Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193–2201 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  23. S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, “Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381–2392 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  24. B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (5)

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. Furukawa and S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, B. Vohnsen, E. A. Bozhevolnaya, and S. Berntsen, “Self-consistent model for photon scanning tunneling microscopy: implications for image formation and light scattering near a phase-conjugating mirror,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 2381–2392 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard and A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (4)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Carminati and J.-J. Greffet, “Influence of dielectric contrast and topography on the near field scattered by an inhomogeneous surface,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 2716–2725 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. I. Bozhevolnyi, I. I. Smolyaninov, and O. Keller, “Correlation between optical and topographical images from an external reflection near-field microscope with shear force feedback,” Appl. Opt. 34, 3793–3799 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (3)

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14467–14473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, and A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. Van Labeke and D. Barchiesi, “Probes for scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 2193–2201 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (2)

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1989 (2)

J.-M. Vigoureux, C. Girard, and D. Courjon, “General principles of scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1039–1041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989); D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989); F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, and E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Bainier, C.

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Barchiesi, D.

Berntsen, S.

Betzig, E.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Bielefeldt, H.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Bozhevolnaya, E. A.

Bozhevolnyi, S. I.

Carminati, R.

Chen, Y.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Courjon, D.

D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Vigoureux, C. Girard, and D. Courjon, “General principles of scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1039–1041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dereux, A.

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard and A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14467–14473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Devel, M.

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14467–14473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Ferrel, T. L.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989); D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989); F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, and E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Finn, P. L.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Furukawa, H.

H. Furukawa and S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Girard, C.

C. Girard and A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14467–14473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J.-M. Vigoureux, C. Girard, and D. Courjon, “General principles of scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1039–1041 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Greffet, J.-J.

Hecht, B.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Inouye, Y.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kawata, S.

H. Furukawa and S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Keller, O.

Lewis, A.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, and A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Lieberman, K.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, and A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Martin, O. J. F.

O. J. F. Martin, C. Girard, and A. Dereux, “Dielectric versus topographic contrast in near-field microscopy,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 13, 1801–1808 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14467–14473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Martin, Y.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

O’Boyle, M. P.

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D. W.

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Reddick, R. C.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989); D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989); F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, and E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rudman, M.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, and A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Shchemelin, A.

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, and A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Smolyaninov, I. I.

Toledo-Crow, R.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Vaez-Iravani, M.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Van Labeke, D.

Vigoureux, J.-M.

Vohnsen, B.

Warmack, R. J.

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989); D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989); F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, and E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Weiner, J. S.

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wickramasinghe, H. K.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yang, P. C.

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Zenhausern, F.

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (4)

E. Betzig, P. L. Finn, and J. S. Weiner, “Combined shear force and near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2484–2486 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Toledo-Crow, P. C. Yang, Y. Chen, and M. Vaez-Iravani, “Near-field differential scanning optical microscope with atomic force regulation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2957–2959 (1992).
[CrossRef]

F. Zenhausern, M. P. O’Boyle, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Apertureless near-field optical microscope,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1623–1625 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Y. Martin, F. Zenhausern, and H. K. Wickramasinghe, “Scattering spectroscopy of molecules at nanometer resolution,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 2475–2477 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

B. Hecht, H. Bielefeldt, Y. Inouye, and D. W. Pohl, “Facts and artifacts in near-field optical microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 81, 2492–2498 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Microsc. (1)

D. Courjon, “Near-field imaging: some attempts to define an apparatus function,” J. Microsc. 177, 180–185 (1995).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (4)

Opt. Commun. (1)

H. Furukawa and S. Kawata, “Analysis of image formation in near-field scanning optical microscope: effects of multiple scattering,” Opt. Commun. 132, 170–178 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (1)

Phys. Rev. B (3)

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Generation of optical standing waves around mesoscopic surface structures: scattering and light confinement,” Phys. Rev. B 52, 2889–2898 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard, A. Dereux, O. J. F. Martin, and M. Devel, “Importance of confined fields in near-field optical imaging of subwavelength objects,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 14467–14473 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Reddick, R. J. Warmack, and T. L. Ferrel, “New form of scanning optical microscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 767–770 (1989); D. Courjon, K. Sarayeddine, and M. Spajer, “Scanning tunneling optical microscopy,” Opt. Commun. 71, 23–28 (1989); F. de Fornel, J. P. Goudonnet, L. Salomon, and E. Lesniewska, “An evanescent field optical microscope,” in Optical Storage and Scanning Technology, T. Wilson, ed., Proc. SPIE1139, 77–84 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Rep. Prog. Phys. (2)

D. Courjon and C. Bainier, “Near field microscopy and near field optics,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 57, 989–1028 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Girard and A. Dereux, “Near-field optics theories,” Rep. Prog. Phys. 59, 657–699 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

A. Shchemelin, M. Rudman, K. Lieberman, and A. Lewis, “A simple lateral force sensing technique for near-field micropattern generation,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 64, 3538–3541 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Other (5)

E. Betzig, “Principles and applications of near-field scanning optical microscopy (NSOM),” Ref. 1, pp. 7–15.

D. W. Pohl and D. Courjon, eds., Near Field Optics (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993).

O. Marti and R. Möller, eds., Photons and Local Probes (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1995).

M. Nieto-Vesperinas and N. Garcı́a, eds., Optics at the Nanometer Scale (Kluwer, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1996).

M. Vaez-Iravani and R. Toledo-Crow, “Amplitude, phase contrast, and polarization imaging in near-field scanning optical microscopy,” Ref. 1, pp. 25–34.

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Figures (4)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

General configuration of the probe–sample system.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Possible conditions for detection of an optical signal when a step is scanned.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Possible conditions for detection of an optical signal when two different stripes are scanned (see text) in low-resolution (LR) and high-resolution (HR) limits.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Total field intensity distributions at a 1-nm distance from the sample surface calculated across a 4-nm-thick stripe with a refractive index nob of (a) 1.5 and (b) 2 for several stripe widths w. The scan coordinate is normalized with respect to the stripe width. Distributions for w=600, 60, and 6 nm are displaced down in the vertical direction (for better visual perception) by 0.3, 0.6, and 0.9 (in arbitrary units), respectively.

Equations (4)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

E(r)=E0(r)+ G(r, r)·χ(r)·E(r)dr,
E1(r, zpr)=E0(r)+ G(r, r)χpr(r, zpr)·E1(r, zpr)dr,
I1(zpr)=I1(xs, ys)=I1(z0)+dI1dzprzpr=z0S(xs, ys),
E(r)=E1(r, zpr)+ G(r, r)·χobs(r)·E(r)dr+ G(r, r)·δχob(r)·E(r)dr+ G(r, r)·χpr(r, zpr)·δE1(r)dr,

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