Abstract

Large and good-optical-quality crystals of gadolinium and calcium oxoborate, Ca4GdO(BO3)3 (GdCOB) have been grown from a melt by the Czochralski pulling method. The crystal is absolutely insensitive to moisture. Linear- and quadratic nonlinear-optical properties of this new monoclinic biaxial borate crystal are reported. The crystal is transparent in the visible and the near IR (from 0.32 to 2.7 µm), with favorable phase matching conditions for second-harmonic generation. Experimental phase-matching results, measured with a femtosecond broadband pulse parametric generator source tunable from 0.8 to 2.100 µm, are compared with theoretical predictions. The effective nonlinear coefficients are determined, leading to deff=1 pm/V for type I crystals in the ZX plane. The damage threshold is as high as 1 GW/cm2 at 0.532 µm. The second-harmonic generation conversion efficiency of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser with a 15-mm long crystal is greater than 50%. These values together with the possibility of growing large crystals make GdCOB an excellent candidate for the next generation of crystals for frequency conversion and parametric processes.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new-type ultraviolet SHG crystal: β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. B 28, 235–243 (1985).
  2. C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear-optical crystal: lithium borate (LiB3O5),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
    [Crossref]
  3. G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.
  4. T. N. Khamaganova, V. K. Trunov, and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “The crystal structure of calcium samarium oxide borate Ca8Sm2O2(BO3)6,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 36, 484–485 (1991).
  5. R. Norrestam, M. Nygren, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigations of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RO(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).
  6. A. B. Ilyukhin and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “Crystal structure of binary oxoborates LnCa4O(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 38, 847–850 (1993).
  7. Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).
  8. J. G. Fletcher, F. P. Glasse, and A. Howie, “Pentacalcium triborate fluorate and its relationship to fluoroapatite,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 47, 12–14 (1991).
  9. See, for example, R. R. Alfano, ed., The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).
  10. F. Salin, G. Rey, F. Estable, and F. Saviot, “High power femtosecond optical parametric generator,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. T. Bruce and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 187–190.
  11. M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365–4371 (1967).
    [Crossref]
  12. H. Ito, H. Naito, and H. Inaba, “Generalized study on angular dependence of induced second-order nonlinear optical polarizations and phase matching in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3992–3998 (1975).
    [Crossref]
  13. D. Yu. Steanov, V. D. Shigorin, and G. P. Shipulo, “Phase matching directions in optical mixing in biaxial crystals having quadratic susceptibility,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1315–1320 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  14. Jianquan Yao, Weidong Shereq, and Weiqiang Shi, “Accurate calculation of the optimum phase-matching parameters in three-wave interactions with biaxial nonlinear-optical crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 891–902 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  15. V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 17–21.
  16. G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.
  17. A. Hariharan, M. E. Fermann, M. L. Stock, D. J. Harter, and J. Squier, “Alexandrite-pumped alexendrite regenerative amplifier for femtosecond pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 21, 128–130 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  18. G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

1996 (2)

A. Hariharan, M. E. Fermann, M. L. Stock, D. J. Harter, and J. Squier, “Alexandrite-pumped alexendrite regenerative amplifier for femtosecond pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 21, 128–130 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

1993 (1)

A. B. Ilyukhin and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “Crystal structure of binary oxoborates LnCa4O(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 38, 847–850 (1993).

1992 (2)

R. Norrestam, M. Nygren, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigations of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RO(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).

Jianquan Yao, Weidong Shereq, and Weiqiang Shi, “Accurate calculation of the optimum phase-matching parameters in three-wave interactions with biaxial nonlinear-optical crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 9, 891–902 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (2)

T. N. Khamaganova, V. K. Trunov, and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “The crystal structure of calcium samarium oxide borate Ca8Sm2O2(BO3)6,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 36, 484–485 (1991).

J. G. Fletcher, F. P. Glasse, and A. Howie, “Pentacalcium triborate fluorate and its relationship to fluoroapatite,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 47, 12–14 (1991).

1989 (2)

Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear-optical crystal: lithium borate (LiB3O5),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[Crossref]

1985 (1)

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new-type ultraviolet SHG crystal: β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

1984 (1)

D. Yu. Steanov, V. D. Shigorin, and G. P. Shipulo, “Phase matching directions in optical mixing in biaxial crystals having quadratic susceptibility,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1315–1320 (1984).
[Crossref]

1975 (1)

H. Ito, H. Naito, and H. Inaba, “Generalized study on angular dependence of induced second-order nonlinear optical polarizations and phase matching in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3992–3998 (1975).
[Crossref]

1967 (1)

M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365–4371 (1967).
[Crossref]

Aidong, Jiang

Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).

Aka, G.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.

Benitez, J. M.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

Bloch, L.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.

Bovin, J. O.

R. Norrestam, M. Nygren, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigations of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RO(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).

Chen, C.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear-optical crystal: lithium borate (LiB3O5),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new-type ultraviolet SHG crystal: β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Chuangtian, Chen

Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).

Colin, D.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

Coquelin, P.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

Crochet, P.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

Dimitriev, V. G.

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 17–21.

Dzhurinskii, B. F.

A. B. Ilyukhin and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “Crystal structure of binary oxoborates LnCa4O(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 38, 847–850 (1993).

T. N. Khamaganova, V. K. Trunov, and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “The crystal structure of calcium samarium oxide borate Ca8Sm2O2(BO3)6,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 36, 484–485 (1991).

Estable, F.

F. Salin, G. Rey, F. Estable, and F. Saviot, “High power femtosecond optical parametric generator,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. T. Bruce and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 187–190.

Fermann, M. E.

Fletcher, J. G.

J. G. Fletcher, F. P. Glasse, and A. Howie, “Pentacalcium triborate fluorate and its relationship to fluoroapatite,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 47, 12–14 (1991).

Glasse, F. P.

J. G. Fletcher, F. P. Glasse, and A. Howie, “Pentacalcium triborate fluorate and its relationship to fluoroapatite,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 47, 12–14 (1991).

Godard, J.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.

Gurzadyan, G. G.

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 17–21.

Hariharan, A.

Harter, D. J.

Hobden, M. V.

M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365–4371 (1967).
[Crossref]

Howie, A.

J. G. Fletcher, F. P. Glasse, and A. Howie, “Pentacalcium triborate fluorate and its relationship to fluoroapatite,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 47, 12–14 (1991).

Ilyukhin, A. B.

A. B. Ilyukhin and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “Crystal structure of binary oxoborates LnCa4O(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 38, 847–850 (1993).

Inaba, H.

H. Ito, H. Naito, and H. Inaba, “Generalized study on angular dependence of induced second-order nonlinear optical polarizations and phase matching in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3992–3998 (1975).
[Crossref]

Ito, H.

H. Ito, H. Naito, and H. Inaba, “Generalized study on angular dependence of induced second-order nonlinear optical polarizations and phase matching in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3992–3998 (1975).
[Crossref]

Jiang, A.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear-optical crystal: lithium borate (LiB3O5),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new-type ultraviolet SHG crystal: β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Kahn-Harari, A.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.

Khamaganova, T. N.

T. N. Khamaganova, V. K. Trunov, and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “The crystal structure of calcium samarium oxide borate Ca8Sm2O2(BO3)6,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 36, 484–485 (1991).

Li, R.

Lin, S.

Naito, H.

H. Ito, H. Naito, and H. Inaba, “Generalized study on angular dependence of induced second-order nonlinear optical polarizations and phase matching in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3992–3998 (1975).
[Crossref]

Nikogosyan, D. N.

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 17–21.

Norrestam, R.

R. Norrestam, M. Nygren, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigations of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RO(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).

Nygren, M.

R. Norrestam, M. Nygren, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigations of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RO(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).

Qingzhen, Huang

Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).

Rey, G.

F. Salin, G. Rey, F. Estable, and F. Saviot, “High power femtosecond optical parametric generator,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. T. Bruce and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 187–190.

Salin, F.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.

F. Salin, G. Rey, F. Estable, and F. Saviot, “High power femtosecond optical parametric generator,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. T. Bruce and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 187–190.

Saviot, F.

F. Salin, G. Rey, F. Estable, and F. Saviot, “High power femtosecond optical parametric generator,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. T. Bruce and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 187–190.

Shereq, Weidong

Shi, Weiqiang

Shigorin, V. D.

D. Yu. Steanov, V. D. Shigorin, and G. P. Shipulo, “Phase matching directions in optical mixing in biaxial crystals having quadratic susceptibility,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1315–1320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Shipulo, G. P.

D. Yu. Steanov, V. D. Shigorin, and G. P. Shipulo, “Phase matching directions in optical mixing in biaxial crystals having quadratic susceptibility,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1315–1320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Shirong, Lei

Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).

Squier, J.

Steanov, D. Yu.

D. Yu. Steanov, V. D. Shigorin, and G. P. Shipulo, “Phase matching directions in optical mixing in biaxial crystals having quadratic susceptibility,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 14, 1315–1320 (1984).
[Crossref]

Stock, M. L.

Trunov, V. K.

T. N. Khamaganova, V. K. Trunov, and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “The crystal structure of calcium samarium oxide borate Ca8Sm2O2(BO3)6,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 36, 484–485 (1991).

Vivien, D.

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.

Wu, B.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear-optical crystal: lithium borate (LiB3O5),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new-type ultraviolet SHG crystal: β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Wu, Y.

Yao, Jianquan

Yifan, Zheng

Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).

You, G.

C. Chen, Y. Wu, A. Jiang, B. Wu, G. You, R. Li, and S. Lin, “New nonlinear-optical crystal: lithium borate (LiB3O5),” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 616–621 (1989).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, B. Wu, A. Jiang, and G. You, “A new-type ultraviolet SHG crystal: β-BaB2O4,” Sci. Sin. B 28, 235–243 (1985).

Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C (2)

Lei Shirong, Huang Qingzhen, Zheng Yifan, Jiang Aidong, and Chen Chuangtian, “The structure of calcium fluoroborate, Ca5(BO3)3F,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 45, 1861–1863 (1989).

J. G. Fletcher, F. P. Glasse, and A. Howie, “Pentacalcium triborate fluorate and its relationship to fluoroapatite,” Acta Crystallogr. Sect. C 47, 12–14 (1991).

Chem. Mater. (1)

R. Norrestam, M. Nygren, and J. O. Bovin, “Structural investigations of new calcium-rare earth (R) oxyborates with the composition Ca4RO(BO3)3,” Chem. Mater. 4, 737–743 (1992).

Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. (1)

G. Aka, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, J. M. Benitez, F. Salin, and J. Godard, “A new nonlinear and neodymium laser self-frequency doubling crystal with congruent melting Ca4GdO(BO3)3(GdCOB),” Eur. J. Solid State Inorg. Chem. 33, 727–736 (1996).

J. Appl. Phys. (2)

M. V. Hobden, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 38, 4365–4371 (1967).
[Crossref]

H. Ito, H. Naito, and H. Inaba, “Generalized study on angular dependence of induced second-order nonlinear optical polarizations and phase matching in biaxial crystals,” J. Appl. Phys. 46, 3992–3998 (1975).
[Crossref]

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Opt. Lett. (1)

Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. (2)

A. B. Ilyukhin and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “Crystal structure of binary oxoborates LnCa4O(BO3)3,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 38, 847–850 (1993).

T. N. Khamaganova, V. K. Trunov, and B. F. Dzhurinskii, “The crystal structure of calcium samarium oxide borate Ca8Sm2O2(BO3)6,” Russ. J. Inorg. Chem. 36, 484–485 (1991).

Sci. Sin. B (1)

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[Crossref]

Other (5)

V. G. Dimitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Crystals, Vol. 64 of Springer Series in Optical Science (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1991), pp. 17–21.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. M. Benitez, P. Crochet, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, F. Salin, P. Coquelin, and D. Colin, “A new nonlinear oxoborate crystal, characterized by using femtosecond broadband pulses,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, S. A. Payne and C. Pollock, eds., Vol. 1 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1996), pp. 336–340.

G. Aka, L. Bloch, J. Godard, A. Kahn-Harari, D. Vivien, and F. Salin, and the CRISMATEC company, “Cristaux non linéaires et leur applications,” French patentFR 95/01963 (February21, 1995); European patent extension 96904152. 4-2205 (February16, 1996); international patent extension pending.

See, for example, R. R. Alfano, ed., The Supercontinuum Laser Source (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989).

F. Salin, G. Rey, F. Estable, and F. Saviot, “High power femtosecond optical parametric generator,” in Advanced Solid State Lasers, H. T. Bruce and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 187–190.

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Crystal structure of GdCOB.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

GdCOB single crystals elaborated by the Czochralski pulling method: (a) GdCOB boule, (b) GdCOB pieces cut and polished.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Optical transmission spectrum of a 7 mm×7 mm×7 mm GdCOB crystal.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Details of GdCOB absorption spectra: (a) in the UV range, (b) in the 2000–3300-nm range, (c) in the 3000–6000-nm range.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Relative orientation of crystallographic (X, Y, Z) axes with regard to crystallograhpic axes (a, b, c) of monoclinic GdCOB.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Refractive-index dispersion curves. The points are experimental values; curves are the fits given by the single-pole Sellmeier equation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Dependence of refractive indices on the light-propagation direction in the first octant of GdCOB in the crystallophysic coordinate system (X,Y,Z).

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Phase-matching curves for propagation of the fundamental wavelength in the GdCOB XY, YZ, and ZX principal planes. Dashed curve, type I phase matching; solid curve, type II phase matching.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Experimental setup for phase-matching angle measurements.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Experimental and theoretical phase-matching curves for type I second-harmonic generation in the YZ plane.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental and theoretical phase-matching curves for type I second-harmonic generation in the ZX plane.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Experimental and theoretical phase-matching curves for type I second-harmonic generation in the XY plane.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Second-harmonic generation (SHG) conversion efficiency with a 1.064 Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (6 ns; crystal length, L=15 mm).

Tables (5)

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Table 1 Experimental and Calculated Values for GdCOB Refractive Indices

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Table 2 Sellmeier Equation Coefficients

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Table 3 Equations for Calculating Phase-Matching Angles in Biaxial Crystal on Light Propagation in Principal Planes (nX<nY<nZ)

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Table 4 Expression of deff in Nonlinear Crystal for m Point Group

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Table 5 Experimental Values of Effective Nonlinear Coefficients deff

Equations (14)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

HK(kg/mm2)=1423P/L2.
bY:(a, Z)=26°,(c, X)=15°,β=101.26°.
n2=A+Bλ2-C-Dλ2,
n2=A+Bλ2-C+Dλ2-E.
Px(2ω)Py(2ω)Pz(2ω)=2d11d12d130d150000d240d26d31d32d330d350×Ex2(ω)Ey2(ω)Ez2(ω)2Ey(ω)Ez(ω)2Ex(ω)Ez(ω)2Ex(ω)Ey(ω),
jk:11223332, 2332, 1312, 21l:123 4 5 6.
dil=1/2χil(2).
d12d122=d212d26,
d13d133=d313d35,
d15d131=d311d31,
d24d232=d322d32.
VZ=arcsinnZnYnY2-nX2nZ2-nX21/2.
PSHdeff2L2n12n2A,
PSHdeff2L2n12n2Acos θcos3 r,

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