Abstract

We experimentally investigated the temporal and spectral profiles of the four-wave mixing (FWM) signals from 350-µm-thick undoped InP at various temperatures when the laser was tuned from the exciton resonance to 100 meV below the band gap. The temporal and spectral shapes of the observed FWM signals well below the band gap were nearly consistent with those of the excitation laser pulse and exhibited significantly different behavior from the excitonic properties in thin samples. Furthermore, we observed temperature-independent large blue shifts of the spectrally resolved FWM signals far below the band gap with respect to the excitation laser spectrum when the time delay moved from positive to negative. Based on our experimental observations, we conclude that this behavior can be explained not simply by the excitonic effects but by the instantaneously created virtual states and the frequency-broadening effect.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  7. K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
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  8. D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
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    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. T. Rappen, G. Mohs, and M. Wegener, “Polariton dynamics in quantum wells studied by femtosecond four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9658–9662 (1993).
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  17. D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. P. Schillak and I. Balslev, “Theory of propagation effects in time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 9426–9433 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785–2788 (1993).
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    [CrossRef]
  22. T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. A. Maruani and D. S. Chemla, “Active nonlinear spectroscopy of biexcitons in semiconductors: propagation effects and Fano interferences,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 841–860 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  24. S. Wu, “Line shape analysis of higher order nonlinear processes in time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 8035–8040 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  25. S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  26. U. Siegner, M.-A. Mycek, S. Glutch, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470–473 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  27. M.-A. Mycek, J.-Y. Bigot, I. E. Perakis, and D. S. Chemla, “Measuring the ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlation effects: dephasing in nonequilibrium Fermi seas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1284–1290 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

M.-A. Mycek, J.-Y. Bigot, I. E. Perakis, and D. S. Chemla, “Measuring the ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlation effects: dephasing in nonequilibrium Fermi seas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1284–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (3)

U. Siegner, M.-A. Mycek, S. Glutch, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470–473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (4)

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker and H. Kurz, “Polariton effects in four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 7805–7808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (6)

S. Wu, “Line shape analysis of higher order nonlinear processes in time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 8035–8040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Rappen, G. Mohs, and M. Wegener, “Polariton dynamics in quantum wells studied by femtosecond four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9658–9662 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Schillak and I. Balslev, “Theory of propagation effects in time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 9426–9433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785–2788 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

C. Dörnfeld and J. M. Hvam, “Optical nonlinearities and phase coherence in CdSe studied by transient four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 904–912 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, and A. Honold, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1981 (1)

A. Maruani and D. S. Chemla, “Active nonlinear spectroscopy of biexcitons in semiconductors: propagation effects and Fano interferences,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 841–860 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

R. G. Ulbrich and G. W. Fehrenbach, “Polariton wave packet propagation in the exciton resonance of a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 963–966 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Anthony, C.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bakker, H. J.

H. J. Bakker and H. Kurz, “Polariton effects in four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 7805–7808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Balslev, I.

P. Schillak and I. Balslev, “Theory of propagation effects in time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 9426–9433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Bigot, J.-Y.

Bott, K.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Brown de Colstoun, F.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chemla, D. S.

M.-A. Mycek, J.-Y. Bigot, I. E. Perakis, and D. S. Chemla, “Measuring the ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlation effects: dephasing in nonequilibrium Fermi seas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1284–1290 (1996).
[CrossRef]

U. Siegner, M.-A. Mycek, S. Glutch, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470–473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Maruani and D. S. Chemla, “Active nonlinear spectroscopy of biexcitons in semiconductors: propagation effects and Fano interferences,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 841–860 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chu, J. H.

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Cundiff, S. T.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cunningham, J. E.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Damen, T. C.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Dörnfeld, C.

C. Dörnfeld and J. M. Hvam, “Optical nonlinearities and phase coherence in CdSe studied by transient four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 904–912 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Eason, D. B.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Eccleston, R.

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Elsaesser, T.

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Fehrenbach, G. W.

R. G. Ulbrich and G. W. Fehrenbach, “Polariton wave packet propagation in the exciton resonance of a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 963–966 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Feldmann, J.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Feuerbacher, B. F.

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Fischer, A. J.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fröhlich, D.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Furdyna, J. K.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ganser, P.

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Glutch, S.

U. Siegner, M.-A. Mycek, S. Glutch, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470–473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Göbel, E. O.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Harten, P. A.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hartmann, M.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hays, J.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Heuckeroth, V.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hey, R.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Honold, A.

L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, and A. Honold, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hvam, J. M.

K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Khitrova, G.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kim, D. S.

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
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A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Klem, J. F.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Knorr, A.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, M.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, S. W.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kock, S. W.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Kuhl, J.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, and A. Honold, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kühler, K.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kuhn, T.

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
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Kulik, A.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
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H. J. Bakker and H. Kurz, “Polariton effects in four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 7805–7808 (1994).
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D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lee, C. R.

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. H.

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, J. I.

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lee, S. G.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Leem, J. Y.

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Leisching, P.

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Leitenstorfer, A.

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lohner, A.

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

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A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lyssenlo, V. G.

K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
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A. Maruani and D. S. Chemla, “Active nonlinear spectroscopy of biexcitons in semiconductors: propagation effects and Fano interferences,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 841–860 (1981).
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T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785–2788 (1993).
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E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Meier, T.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Miller, D. A. B.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, T.

T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785–2788 (1993).
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Müller, J. F.

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
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M.-A. Mycek, J.-Y. Bigot, I. E. Perakis, and D. S. Chemla, “Measuring the ultrafast dynamics of Coulomb correlation effects: dephasing in nonequilibrium Fermi seas,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 1284–1290 (1996).
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U. Siegner, M.-A. Mycek, S. Glutch, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470–473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mysyrowicz, A.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pantke, K.-H.

K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Perakis, I. E.

Peyghambarian, N.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pfeiffer, L. N.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Ploog, K.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Rappen, T.

T. Rappen, G. Mohs, and M. Wegener, “Polariton dynamics in quantum wells studied by femtosecond four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9658–9662 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Razbirin, B. S.

K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rick, K.

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Rossi, F.

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Schäfer, W.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schetzina, J. F.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schillak, P.

P. Schillak and I. Balslev, “Theory of propagation effects in time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 9426–9433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schmitt-Rink, S.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schultheis, L.

L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, and A. Honold, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schulze, A.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Shah, J.

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Shan, W.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Siegner, U.

U. Siegner, M.-A. Mycek, S. Glutch, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470–473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Smith, G. O.

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sokoloff, J. P.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Song, J. J.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stolz, H.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stroucken, T.

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uebbing, B.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ulbrich, R. G.

R. G. Ulbrich and G. W. Fehrenbach, “Polariton wave packet propagation in the exciton resonance of a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 963–966 (1979).
[CrossRef]

von der Osten, W.

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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T. Rappen, G. Mohs, and M. Wegener, “Polariton dynamics in quantum wells studied by femtosecond four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9658–9662 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wright, E. M.

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. Wu, “Line shape analysis of higher order nonlinear processes in time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 8035–8040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

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A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yu, S. K.

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zhu, Z. Q.

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

S. K. Yu, J. H. Chu, J. I. Lee, D. Kim, Y. H. Yee, D. S. Kim, J. Y. Leem, C. R. Lee, and J. H. Lee, “Strong instantaneous contribution in femtosecond degenerate four-wave mixing from 350 μm InP due to virtual excitation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 79–81 (1996).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

C. Dörnfeld and J. M. Hvam, “Optical nonlinearities and phase coherence in CdSe studied by transient four-wave mixing,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 25, 904–912 (1989).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

S. Wu, “Line shape analysis of higher order nonlinear processes in time-resolved degenerate four-wave mixing in GaAs,” J. Appl. Phys. 72, 8035–8040 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

M. Wegener, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, and W. Schäfer, “Line shape of time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5675–5683 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (9)

K. Leo, E. O. Göbel, T. C. Damen, J. Shah, D. S. Chemla, S. Schmitt-Rink, W. Schäfer, J. F. Müller, K. Köhler, and P. Ganser, “Subpicosecond four-wave mixing in GaAs/AlxGa1−xAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 5726–5737 (1991).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, L. N. Pfeiffer, and K. Kühler, “Instantaneous contribution in timeresolved four-wave mixing from GaAs quantum wells near zero time delay,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 15086–15094 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Leitenstorfer, A. Lohner, K. Rick, P. Leisching, T. Elsaesser, T. Kuhn, F. Rossi, W. Stolz, and K. Ploog, “Excitonic and free-carrier polarizations of bulk GaAs studied by femtosecond coherent spectroscopy,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 16372–16380 (1994).
[CrossRef]

E. J. Mayer, G. O. Smith, V. Heuckeroth, J. Kuhl, K. Bott, A. Schulze, T. Meier, S. W. Koch, P. Thomas, R. Hey, and K. Ploog, “Polarization dependence of beating phenomena at the energetically lowest exciton transition in GaAs quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 51, 10909–10914 (1995).
[CrossRef]

T. Rappen, G. Mohs, and M. Wegener, “Polariton dynamics in quantum wells studied by femtosecond four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 9658–9662 (1993).
[CrossRef]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, D. A. B. Miller, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, and L. N. Pfeiffer, “Femtosecond-pulse distortion in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 17902–17905 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Schillak and I. Balslev, “Theory of propagation effects in time-resolved four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 48, 9426–9433 (1993).
[CrossRef]

H. J. Bakker and H. Kurz, “Polariton effects in four-wave mixing,” Phys. Rev. B 50, 7805–7808 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Maruani and D. S. Chemla, “Active nonlinear spectroscopy of biexcitons in semiconductors: propagation effects and Fano interferences,” Phys. Rev. B 23, 841–860 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (10)

L. Schultheis, J. Kuhl, and A. Honold, “Ultrafast phase relaxation of excitons via exciton-exciton and exciton-electron collisions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 1635–1638 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Stroucken, A. Knorr, C. Anthony, A. Schulze, P. Thomas, S. W. Kock, M. Koch, S. T. Cundiff, J. Feldmann, and E. O. Göbel, “Light propagation and disorder effects in semiconductor multiple quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2391–2394 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Siegner, M.-A. Mycek, S. Glutch, and D. S. Chemla, “Ultrafast coherent dynamics of Fano resonances in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 470–473 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K.-H. Pantke, P. Schillak, B. S. Razbirin, V. G. Lyssenlo, and J. M. Hvam, “Nonlinear quantum beats of propagating polaritons,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 327–330 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Mishina and Y. Masumoto, “Coherent propagation of femtosecond optical pulses in a monoclinic ZnP2 single crystal,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2785–2788 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. G. Ulbrich and G. W. Fehrenbach, “Polariton wave packet propagation in the exciton resonance of a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 43, 963–966 (1979).
[CrossRef]

D. Fröhlich, A. Kulik, B. Uebbing, A. Mysyrowicz, V. Langer, H. Stolz, and W. von der Osten, “Coherent propagation and quantum beats of quadrupole polaritons in Cu2O,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 2343–2346 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Harten, A. Knorr, J. P. Sokoloff, F. Brown de Colstoun, S. G. Lee, R. Jin, E. M. Wright, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Propagation-induced escape from adiabatic following in a semiconductor,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 852–855 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. J. Fischer, D. S. Kim, J. Hays, W. Shan, J. J. Song, D. B. Eason, J. F. Schetzina, H. Luo, J. K. Furdyna, Z. Q. Zhu, T. Yao, J. F. Klem, and W. Schäfer, “Femtosecond coherent spectroscopy of bulk ZnSe and ZnCdSe/ZnSe quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2368–2371 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. S. Kim, J. Shah, J. E. Cunningham, T. C. Damen, W. Schäfer, M. Hartmann, and S. Schmitt-Rink, “Giant exciton resonance in time-resolved four-wave mixing in quantum wells,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 1006–1009 (1992).
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Solid State Commun. (1)

B. F. Feuerbacher, J. Kuhl, R. Eccleston, and K. Ploog, “Quantum beats between the light and heavy hole excitons in quantum wells,” Solid State Commun. 74, 1279–1283 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

R. T. Phillips, Coherent Optical Interactions in Semiconductors (Plenum, New York, 1994).

J. Shah, Ultrafast Spectroscopy of Semiconductors and Semiconductor Nanostructures (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1996).

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Figures (13)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical laser spectrum used in this experiment (solid curve). The absorption spectrum of 350-µm-thick undoped InP at 10 K is shown as a dotted curve.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Peak intensities of the third-, fifth-, and seventh-order diffracted signals at 10 K plotted as a function of detuning from the band gap (the approximate band gap of undoped InP is 1.4208 eV at 10 K), with the incident laser power kept constant. The solid curves are the fitting curves for the third- and fifth-order diffracted signals by the function of the Lorentzian line shape, 1/[δE2+Γ2], and the cube of the Lorentzian, 1/[δE2+Γ2]3, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Third-, fifth-, and seventh-order diffracted signals at 10 K at the excitation energy of 1.4089 eV (12-meV detuning) as a function of time delay.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Third-, fifth-, and seventh-order SR diffracted signals at 10 K and time delay T=0 fs at a detuning of 12 meV (solid curves). The spectra of the excitation laser pulse are shown as dashed curves.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Peak intensities of the third-order TI FWM signal corrected by keeping the transmitted intensity constant in direction k2 at various temperatures as a function of detuning.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Temporal profiles of the third-order FWM signals at detunings of 12 and 43.2 meV at various temperatures (solid curves). The autocorrelation traces of the excitation pulse are shown as dotted curves. The decay times of the FWM signals at a detuning of 12 meV are 200, 180, 164, 126, 105, and 70 fs at 10, 50, 75, 100, 125, and 150 K, respectively.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Third-order TI FWM signals at 10 K and various detunings (solid curves). The autocorrelation trace of the excitation pulse is shown as a dotted curve.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Decay rates of third-order TI FWM signals at detunings of 43.2 and 12 meV as a function of temperature. The solid curve is a fitting curve by the equation 1/τ=A+BTL +C/[exp(ELO/kBTL)-1], which corresponds to A =4.7 ps-1, B=0.016 ps-1/K, and C=190 ps-1.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Peak intensities of the third-order TI FWM signals at detunings of 43.2 and 12 meV at 10 K versus the excitation laser intensities.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Third-order SR FWM signals (solid curves) at detunings of 12 and 88 meV at 10 K. The spectra of the excitation laser pulse are shown as dotted curves. The spectral profiles of the FWM signals at 88-meV detuning exhibit remarkably different behaviors from those at 12-meV detuning.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Third-order SR FWM signals (solid curves) at a detuning of 43.2 meV at 10 and 150 K. The spectra of the excitation laser pulse are shown as dotted curves. The spectral profiles of the FWM signals at a detuning of 43.2 meV are nearly independent of temperature.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

The overlap area (interaction area) of the two incident laser pulses as a function of time delay will play a major role in the FWM signal far below the band gap. The interaction area at time delay T=-60 fs is bigger than that at T=-120 fs, and thus the FWM signal at T=-60 fs is larger than that at T =-120 fs.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Central energies of the third-order SR FWM signals (filled circles) at a detuning of 88 meV and 10 K. The solid curve is a fitting curve by the equation ω=ωexc[1-AT ×exp(-4T2/δτ2)], which corresponds to δτ=200 fs and A =2.74×10-4 fs-1.

Equations (3)

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dω/ω=(n2l/c)(dE2/dt),
E=E0 exp[-2t2/δτ2]exp[i(k·r-ωt)].
ω=ωexc[1-AT exp(-4T2/δτ2)],

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