Abstract

The splitting and steering of ultrashort pulses propagating through a Kerr medium are investigated. This investigation extends earlier ones of cw spatial soliton Y junctions into the area of subpicosecond solitonlike pulse propagation. Besides that of the all-optical steering process, the influence of normal group-velocity dispersion and two-photon absorption is discussed. It is found that both processes modify the transmission characteristics of the system (i.e., output versus input beam intensity) in a similar way. However, two-photon absorption inhibits the steering property of Y junctions, whereas normal group-velocity dispersion enhances it. A model based on an adiabatic propagation approximation is used to explain this behavior qualitatively.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

Full Article  |  PDF Article

References

  • View by:
  • |
  • |
  • |

  1. S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, and C. Froehly, “Stable self-trapping of laser beams: observation in nonlinear planar waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 65, 193–198 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  2. J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Learid, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Spatial optical solitons in planar glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1290–1297 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  3. J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  4. G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Anderson, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, “Spatial dark-soliton stripes and grids in self-defocusing materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583–1586 (1991); G. R. Allan, S. R. Skinner, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Observation of fundamental dark spatial solitons in semiconductors using picosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 156–158 (1991).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. E. M. Wright, ed., “Special issue on all-optical switching using solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1215–1336 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  6. B. Luther-Davies and X. P. Yang, “Waveguides and Y junctions formed in bulk media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 496–498 (1992); “Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1755–1757 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. Z. Chen, M. Mitchell, and M. Segev, “Steady-state photorefractive soliton-induced Y-junction waveguides and high-order dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 21, 716–718 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. W. Krolikowski, X. Yang, B. Luther-Davies, and J. Breslin, “Dark soliton steering in saturable nonlinear medium,” Opt. Commun. 105, 219–225 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. X. D. Cao, D. D. Meyerhofer, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of optical beam steering in nonlinear Kerr media by spatial phase modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2224–2231 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  10. P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Steerable optical waveguides formed by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs,” Electron. Lett. 30, 726–727 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  11. N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, “Spatial soliton X-junctions and couplers,” Opt. Commun. 100, 186–192 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  12. G. E. Torres-Cisneros, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragón, and V. A. Vysloukh, “Asymmetric optical Y-junctions and switching of weak beams by using bright spatial-soliton collisions,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1299–1301 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  13. A. W. Snyder and A. P. Sheppard, “Collisions, steering and guidance with spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 18, 482–485 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  14. D. Burak, “Steerable bright soliton Y-junctions from second-order Hermite-Gaussians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 613–620 (1996); “Steering properties of bright soliton pairs excited by symmetric and real initial profiles,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4054–4058 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. D. Burak and W. Nasalski, “Spatial solitons excited by the second-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Opt. Appl. 24, 209–212 (1994).
  16. S. Blair, K. Wagner, and R. McLeod, “Asymmetric spatial soliton dragging,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1943–1945 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. S. Blair, K. Wagner, and R. McLeod, “Material figures of merit for spatial soliton interactions in the presence of absorption,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 2141–2153 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  18. V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1140–1142 (1989); K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823–1825 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  19. C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Effects of three-photon absorption on nonlinear directional coupling,” Opt. Lett. 17, 710–712 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  20. K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  21. S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  22. S. Etmand, G. L. Baker, and Z. Soos, “Third-order NLO processes in polydiacetylenes: physics, materials and devices,” in Molecular Nonlinear Optics, J. Zyss, ed. (Academic, New York, 1994), pp. 433–465.
  23. B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  24. Y. Silberberg, “Solitons and two-photon absorption,” Opt. Lett. 15, 1005–1007 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. V. V. Afanasjev, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Splitting of high-order spatial solitons under the action of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 116, 331–338 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  26. M. J. Potasek, G. P. Agrawal, and S. C. Pinault, “Analytic and numerical study of pulse broadening in nonlinear dispersive optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 3, 205–211 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  27. V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118–134 (1971).
  28. L. Berge and J. J. Rasmussen, “Multisplitting and collapse of self-focusing anisotropic beams in normal/anomalous dispersive media,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 824–843 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  29. G. G. Luther, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, “Self-focusing threshold in normally dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 862–864 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  30. A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, and S. Wabnitz, “Nonlinear dynamics of induced modulational instability in a self-focusing slab waveguide with normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1758–1760 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  31. S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2211–2219 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  32. Y. S. Kivshar, “Dark solitons in nonlinear optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 250–264 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  33. D. Burak, “Gaussian beam propagation in nonlinear Kerr medium,” Opt. Appl. 21, 3–8 (1991).

1996 (3)

1995 (2)

S. Blair, K. Wagner, and R. McLeod, “Asymmetric spatial soliton dragging,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1943–1945 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. V. Afanasjev, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Splitting of high-order spatial solitons under the action of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 116, 331–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (6)

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, X. Yang, B. Luther-Davies, and J. Breslin, “Dark soliton steering in saturable nonlinear medium,” Opt. Commun. 105, 219–225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. D. Cao, D. D. Meyerhofer, and G. P. Agrawal, “Optimization of optical beam steering in nonlinear Kerr media by spatial phase modulation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2224–2231 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Steerable optical waveguides formed by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs,” Electron. Lett. 30, 726–727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. G. Luther, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, “Self-focusing threshold in normally dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 862–864 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (5)

Y. S. Kivshar, “Dark solitons in nonlinear optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 250–264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, “Spatial soliton X-junctions and couplers,” Opt. Commun. 100, 186–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

G. E. Torres-Cisneros, J. J. Sanchez-Mondragón, and V. A. Vysloukh, “Asymmetric optical Y-junctions and switching of weak beams by using bright spatial-soliton collisions,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1299–1301 (1993).
[CrossRef]

A. W. Snyder and A. P. Sheppard, “Collisions, steering and guidance with spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 18, 482–485 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Effects of three-photon absorption on nonlinear directional coupling,” Opt. Lett. 17, 710–712 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

E. M. Wright, ed., “Special issue on all-optical switching using solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1215–1336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. B. Aceves, C. De Angelis, and S. Wabnitz, “Nonlinear dynamics of induced modulational instability in a self-focusing slab waveguide with normal dispersion,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1758–1760 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (2)

1990 (1)

1988 (1)

S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, and C. Froehly, “Stable self-trapping of laser beams: observation in nonlinear planar waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 65, 193–198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

1971 (1)

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118–134 (1971).

Aceves, A. B.

Afanasjev, V. V.

V. V. Afanasjev, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Splitting of high-order spatial solitons under the action of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 116, 331–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Agrawal, G. P.

Aitchison, J. S.

V. V. Afanasjev, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Splitting of high-order spatial solitons under the action of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 116, 331–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Steerable optical waveguides formed by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs,” Electron. Lett. 30, 726–727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Effects of three-photon absorption on nonlinear directional coupling,” Opt. Lett. 17, 710–712 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, Y. Silberberg, A. M. Weiner, D. E. Learid, M. K. Oliver, J. L. Jackel, E. M. Vogel, and P. W. E. Smith, “Spatial optical solitons in planar glass waveguides,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 8, 1290–1297 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N.

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, “Spatial soliton X-junctions and couplers,” Opt. Commun. 100, 186–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Al-hemyari, K.

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Allan, G. R.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Andersen, D. R.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ankiewicz, A.

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, “Spatial soliton X-junctions and couplers,” Opt. Commun. 100, 186–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Baker, C.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Berge, L.

L. Berge and J. J. Rasmussen, “Multisplitting and collapse of self-focusing anisotropic beams in normal/anomalous dispersive media,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 824–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Binder, R.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Blair, S.

Breslin, J.

W. Krolikowski, X. Yang, B. Luther-Davies, and J. Breslin, “Dark soliton steering in saturable nonlinear medium,” Opt. Commun. 105, 219–225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cao, X. D.

Cha, M.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

De Angelis, C.

Desailly, R.

S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, and C. Froehly, “Stable self-trapping of laser beams: observation in nonlinear planar waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 65, 193–198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Etemad, S.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Froehly, C.

S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, and C. Froehly, “Stable self-trapping of laser beams: observation in nonlinear planar waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 65, 193–198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Gibbs, H. M.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Grant, R. S.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ironside, C. N.

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Jackel, J. L.

Jin, R.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kang, J. U.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Khitrova, G.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kivshar, Y. S.

V. V. Afanasjev, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Splitting of high-order spatial solitons under the action of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 116, 331–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kivshar, “Dark solitons in nonlinear optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 250–264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Koch, S. W.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Krolikowski, W.

W. Krolikowski, X. Yang, B. Luther-Davies, and J. Breslin, “Dark soliton steering in saturable nonlinear medium,” Opt. Commun. 105, 219–225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lawrence, B. L.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Learid, D. E.

Lee, S. G.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Luther, G. G.

Luther-Davies, B.

W. Krolikowski, X. Yang, B. Luther-Davies, and J. Breslin, “Dark soliton steering in saturable nonlinear medium,” Opt. Commun. 105, 219–225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Mamyshev, P. V.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Steerable optical waveguides formed by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs,” Electron. Lett. 30, 726–727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Maneuf, S.

S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, and C. Froehly, “Stable self-trapping of laser beams: observation in nonlinear planar waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 65, 193–198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

McGinnis, B. P.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

McLeod, R.

Meth, J.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Meyerhofer, D. D.

Mitchell, M.

Moloney, J. V.

Newell, A. C.

Oliver, M. K.

Peyghambarian, N.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pinault, S. C.

Potasek, M. J.

Rasmussen, J. J.

L. Berge and J. J. Rasmussen, “Multisplitting and collapse of self-focusing anisotropic beams in normal/anomalous dispersive media,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 824–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Sanchez-Mondragón, J. J.

Segev, M.

Shabat, A. B.

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118–134 (1971).

Sheppard, A. P.

Sibbet, W.

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Silberberg, Y.

Skinner, S. R.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smirl, A. L.

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. W. E.

Snyder, A. W.

Stegeman, G.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Stegeman, G. I.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Steerable optical waveguides formed by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs,” Electron. Lett. 30, 726–727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Effects of three-photon absorption on nonlinear directional coupling,” Opt. Lett. 17, 710–712 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Torres-Cisneros, G. E.

Toruellas, W.

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Villeneuve, A.

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Steerable optical waveguides formed by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs,” Electron. Lett. 30, 726–727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. C. Yang, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Effects of three-photon absorption on nonlinear directional coupling,” Opt. Lett. 17, 710–712 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vogel, E. M.

Vysloukh, V. A.

Wabnitz, S.

Wagner, K.

Weiner, A. M.

Wright, E. M.

G. G. Luther, J. V. Moloney, A. C. Newell, and E. M. Wright, “Self-focusing threshold in normally dispersive media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 862–864 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

E. M. Wright, ed., “Special issue on all-optical switching using solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1215–1336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Yang, C. C.

Yang, X.

W. Krolikowski, X. Yang, B. Luther-Davies, and J. Breslin, “Dark soliton steering in saturable nonlinear medium,” Opt. Commun. 105, 219–225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Yumoto, J.

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zakharov, V. E.

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118–134 (1971).

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

K. Al-hemyari, A. Villeneuve, J. U. Kang, J. S. Aitchison, C. N. Ironside, and G. I. Stegeman, “Ultrafast all-optical switching in AlGaAs directional couplers at 1.55 μm without multiphoton absorption,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3562–3564 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. G. Lee, B. P. McGinnis, R. Jin, J. Yumoto, G. Khitrova, H. M. Gibbs, R. Binder, S. W. Koch, and N. Peyghambarian, “Subpicosecond switching in a current injected GaAs/AlGaAs multiple-quantum-well nonlinear directional coupler,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 454–456 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (3)

B. L. Lawrence, M. Cha, J. U. Kang, W. Toruellas, G. Stegeman, C. Baker, J. Meth, and S. Etemad, “Large purely refractive nonlinear index of single crystal p-toluene sulfonate (PTS) at 1600 nm,” Electron. Lett. 30, 447–448 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Aitchison, K. Al-Hemyari, C. N. Ironside, R. S. Grant, and W. Sibbet, “Observation of spatial solitons in AlGaAs waveguides,” Electron. Lett. 28, 1879–1880 (1992).
[CrossRef]

P. V. Mamyshev, A. Villeneuve, G. I. Stegeman, and J. S. Aitchison, “Steerable optical waveguides formed by bright spatial solitons in AlGaAs,” Electron. Lett. 30, 726–727 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (2)

S. R. Skinner, G. R. Allan, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Dark soliton propagation in bulk ZnSe,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 27, 2211–2219 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Y. S. Kivshar, “Dark solitons in nonlinear optics,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 250–264 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Opt. Commun. (4)

V. V. Afanasjev, J. S. Aitchison, and Y. S. Kivshar, “Splitting of high-order spatial solitons under the action of two-photon absorption,” Opt. Commun. 116, 331–338 (1995).
[CrossRef]

S. Maneuf, R. Desailly, and C. Froehly, “Stable self-trapping of laser beams: observation in nonlinear planar waveguide,” Opt. Commun. 65, 193–198 (1988).
[CrossRef]

W. Krolikowski, X. Yang, B. Luther-Davies, and J. Breslin, “Dark soliton steering in saturable nonlinear medium,” Opt. Commun. 105, 219–225 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. Akhmediev and A. Ankiewicz, “Spatial soliton X-junctions and couplers,” Opt. Commun. 100, 186–192 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (8)

Opt. Quantum Electron. (1)

E. M. Wright, ed., “Special issue on all-optical switching using solitons,” Opt. Quantum Electron. 24, 1215–1336 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Plasmas (1)

L. Berge and J. J. Rasmussen, “Multisplitting and collapse of self-focusing anisotropic beams in normal/anomalous dispersive media,” Phys. Plasmas 3, 824–843 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. (1)

V. E. Zakharov and A. B. Shabat, “Exact theory of two-dimensional self-focusing and one-dimensional self-modulation of waves in nonlinear media,” Zh. Exp. Teor. Fiz. 61, 118–134 (1971).

Other (7)

D. Burak, “Gaussian beam propagation in nonlinear Kerr medium,” Opt. Appl. 21, 3–8 (1991).

S. Etmand, G. L. Baker, and Z. Soos, “Third-order NLO processes in polydiacetylenes: physics, materials and devices,” in Molecular Nonlinear Optics, J. Zyss, ed. (Academic, New York, 1994), pp. 433–465.

B. Luther-Davies and X. P. Yang, “Waveguides and Y junctions formed in bulk media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 496–498 (1992); “Steerable optical waveguides formed in self-defocusing media by using dark spatial solitons,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1755–1757 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. A. Swartzlander, D. R. Anderson, J. J. Regan, H. Yin, and A. E. Kaplan, “Spatial dark-soliton stripes and grids in self-defocusing materials,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 1583–1586 (1991); G. R. Allan, S. R. Skinner, D. R. Andersen, and A. L. Smirl, “Observation of fundamental dark spatial solitons in semiconductors using picosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 156–158 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

D. Burak, “Steerable bright soliton Y-junctions from second-order Hermite-Gaussians,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 13, 613–620 (1996); “Steering properties of bright soliton pairs excited by symmetric and real initial profiles,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 4054–4058 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Burak and W. Nasalski, “Spatial solitons excited by the second-order Hermite–Gaussian beams,” Opt. Appl. 24, 209–212 (1994).

V. Mizrahi, K. W. Delong, G. I. Stegeman, M. A. Saifi, and M. J. Andrejco, “Two-photon absorption as a limitation to all-optical switching,” Opt. Lett. 14, 1140–1142 (1989); K. W. DeLong, K. B. Rochford, and G. I. Stegeman, “Effect of two-photon absorption on all-optical guided-wave devices,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1823–1825 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cited By

OSA participates in CrossRef's Cited-By Linking service. Citing articles from OSA journals and other participating publishers are listed here.

Alert me when this article is cited.


Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Spatiotemporal intensity distribution for Gaussian beam propagation in a Kerr medium under the influence of NGVD and TPA. Results are plotted for propagation distances (a) ζ=0, (b) ζ=0.1 mm, (c) ζ1 mm, and (d) ζ=5 mm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Peak intensity and (b) its location at the output plane after 5-mm propagation distance in a planar glass waveguide as a function of input Gaussian beam intensity. The results are shown for the pulse center (τ=0).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Time-integrated, normalized intensity distribution of the output beam after 5-mm propagation in a glass waveguide. The input beam intensities are I010.3×1012 W/cm2 (A=1.25), Icr1012 W/cm2 (A=2.3), and I021.44×1012 W/cm2 (A=2.75). The TPA and NGVD coefficients are K0.033 and σ0.007, respectively. The dotted–dashed curve in the center shows the initial intensity profile.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Soliton amplitudes 2ηi (left vertical axis, solid curves) and transverse velocities 2ξi (right vertical axis, dotted curves) as a function of initial amplitude A. Inset: real (solid curve) and imaginary (dotted curve) part of the initial condition.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Geometrical wave fronts in the nonlinear medium after an initial propagation distance δζ0 of the initial condition U0(x) for a=50 and a=0.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Influence of phase-jump location x0 and phase-jump smearing parameter a on the threshold parameters for soliton excitation: (a) normalized initial beam amplitude, (b) transverse velocity, and (c) normalized real part of the beam area. The crosses indicate the positions in parameter space corresponding to a=10, x00.675.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

(a) Peak intensity and (b) its location at the output plane after a propagation distance of ζ3zF. The parameter γ is given by γ=n0/(n2k2w02). The results for a given K were obtained for the dispersionless case (σ=0). Circles, squares, and crosses correspond to the absorptionless case (K=0) but with dispersion parameters calculated according to Eq. (6), that is, σ0.007 (K0.01), σ0.014 (K0.02), and σ0.027 (K0.04), respectively.

Equations (12)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

iUζ+122Ux2-σ2Uτ2+(1+iK)|U|2U=0.
U(ζ, x)=2η(ζ)sech[2η(ζ)x],
2η2ηTPA(ζ)=2η01+323η02Kζ1/2.
T(ζ)T0=[1+42πη02σζ+1+64π233η04σ2ζ2]1/2.
2ηNGVD(ζ)=2η0T(ζ).
σ=832πK.
U(0, x, τ)=A exp[-x2/2+iφa(x)]exp[-τ2/2),
φa(x)=(π/2){tanh[a(x+x0)]-tanh[a(x-x0)]}
U(x,δζ0)|U0(x)|exp[i|U0(x)|2δζ0+iφa(x)].
A0(thr)=1/2π/2,Q0(thr)-U0(x)dx=π/2.
An(thr)=A(thr)A0(thr),Qn(thr)=Q(thr)Q0(thr).
U(x,δζ0)|U0(x)|T(δζ0)expi|U0(x)|2T2(δζ0)δζ0+iφa(x),

Metrics