Abstract

We study transmission through a composite thin film of coated spherical particles with a metallic core and a nonlinear dielectric shell. Near the surface-plasmon resonance, the optical nonlinearity can be enormously enhanced. We demonstrate that a several order of magnitude reduction in the threshold intensity can be achieved by tuning the microstructure parameters of the composite.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. For a review, see D. Ricard, in Nonlinear Optical Materials: Principles and Applications, Course CXXVI of the Proceedings of the International School of Physics V. Degiorgio and C. Flytzanis, eds., (IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 289–333; see also C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and Ph. Roussignol, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” Prog. Opt. 29, 321–411 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. Y. Q. Li, C. C. Sung, R. Inguva, and C. M. Bowden, “Nonlinear-optical properties of semiconductor composite materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 814–817 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. Kalyaniwalla, J. W. Haus, R. Inguva, and M. H. Birnboim, “Intrinsic optical bistability for coated spheroidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5613–5621 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Optical response of a nonlinear dielectric film,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 524–532 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. M. Leung, “Exact results for the scattering of electromagnetic waves with a nonlinear film,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3590–3598 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  6. Th. Peschel, P. Dannberg, U. Langbein, and F. J. Lederer, “Investigation of optical tunneling through nonlinear films,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 5, 29–36 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  7. K. L. Stokes and A. Puri, “Mirrorless optical bistability in a nonlinear absorbing dielectric film,” Opt. Lett. 15, 986–988 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. R. Neuendorf, M. Quinten, and U. Kreibig, “Optical bistability of small heterogeneous clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6348–6354 (1996).
    [CrossRef]
  9. H. W. Schurmann and R. Schmoldt, “Optical response of a nonlinear absorbing dielectric film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 387–389 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. K. W. Yu, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective dielectric response of nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14150–14156 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  11. X. Zhang and D. Stroud, “Numerical studies of the nonlinear properties of composites,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 944–955 (1994).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. Neuendorf, M. Quinten, and U. Kreibig, “Optical bistability of small heterogeneous clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6348–6354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

H. W. Schurmann and R. Schmoldt, “Optical response of a nonlinear absorbing dielectric film,” Opt. Lett. 21, 387–389 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (1)

X. Zhang and D. Stroud, “Numerical studies of the nonlinear properties of composites,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

K. W. Yu, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective dielectric response of nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14150–14156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

N. Kalyaniwalla, J. W. Haus, R. Inguva, and M. H. Birnboim, “Intrinsic optical bistability for coated spheroidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5613–5621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. L. Stokes and A. Puri, “Mirrorless optical bistability in a nonlinear absorbing dielectric film,” Opt. Lett. 15, 986–988 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

K. M. Leung, “Exact results for the scattering of electromagnetic waves with a nonlinear film,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3590–3598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Y. Q. Li, C. C. Sung, R. Inguva, and C. M. Bowden, “Nonlinear-optical properties of semiconductor composite materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 814–817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

1987 (1)

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Optical response of a nonlinear dielectric film,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 524–532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Birnboim, M. H.

N. Kalyaniwalla, J. W. Haus, R. Inguva, and M. H. Birnboim, “Intrinsic optical bistability for coated spheroidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5613–5621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Bowden, C. M.

Chen, W.

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Optical response of a nonlinear dielectric film,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 524–532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Dannberg, P.

Haus, J. W.

N. Kalyaniwalla, J. W. Haus, R. Inguva, and M. H. Birnboim, “Intrinsic optical bistability for coated spheroidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5613–5621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hui, P. M.

K. W. Yu, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective dielectric response of nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14150–14156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Inguva, R.

N. Kalyaniwalla, J. W. Haus, R. Inguva, and M. H. Birnboim, “Intrinsic optical bistability for coated spheroidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5613–5621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Q. Li, C. C. Sung, R. Inguva, and C. M. Bowden, “Nonlinear-optical properties of semiconductor composite materials,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 814–817 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kalyaniwalla, N.

N. Kalyaniwalla, J. W. Haus, R. Inguva, and M. H. Birnboim, “Intrinsic optical bistability for coated spheroidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5613–5621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kreibig, U.

R. Neuendorf, M. Quinten, and U. Kreibig, “Optical bistability of small heterogeneous clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6348–6354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Langbein, U.

Lederer, F. J.

Leung, K. M.

K. M. Leung, “Exact results for the scattering of electromagnetic waves with a nonlinear film,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3590–3598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Li, Y. Q.

Mills, D. L.

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Optical response of a nonlinear dielectric film,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 524–532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Neuendorf, R.

R. Neuendorf, M. Quinten, and U. Kreibig, “Optical bistability of small heterogeneous clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6348–6354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Peschel, Th.

Puri, A.

Quinten, M.

R. Neuendorf, M. Quinten, and U. Kreibig, “Optical bistability of small heterogeneous clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6348–6354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Schmoldt, R.

Schurmann, H. W.

Stokes, K. L.

Stroud, D.

X. Zhang and D. Stroud, “Numerical studies of the nonlinear properties of composites,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Yu, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective dielectric response of nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14150–14156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Sung, C. C.

Yu, K. W.

K. W. Yu, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective dielectric response of nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14150–14156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Zhang, X.

X. Zhang and D. Stroud, “Numerical studies of the nonlinear properties of composites,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

R. Neuendorf, M. Quinten, and U. Kreibig, “Optical bistability of small heterogeneous clusters,” J. Chem. Phys. 104, 6348–6354 (1996).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

Opt. Lett. (2)

Phys. Rev. A (1)

N. Kalyaniwalla, J. W. Haus, R. Inguva, and M. H. Birnboim, “Intrinsic optical bistability for coated spheroidal particles,” Phys. Rev. A 42, 5613–5621 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (4)

W. Chen and D. L. Mills, “Optical response of a nonlinear dielectric film,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 524–532 (1987).
[CrossRef]

K. M. Leung, “Exact results for the scattering of electromagnetic waves with a nonlinear film,” Phys. Rev. B 39, 3590–3598 (1989).
[CrossRef]

K. W. Yu, P. M. Hui, and D. Stroud, “Effective dielectric response of nonlinear composites,” Phys. Rev. B 47, 14150–14156 (1993).
[CrossRef]

X. Zhang and D. Stroud, “Numerical studies of the nonlinear properties of composites,” Phys. Rev. B 49, 944–955 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Other (1)

For a review, see D. Ricard, in Nonlinear Optical Materials: Principles and Applications, Course CXXVI of the Proceedings of the International School of Physics V. Degiorgio and C. Flytzanis, eds., (IOS Press, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1995), pp. 289–333; see also C. Flytzanis, F. Hache, M. C. Klein, D. Ricard, and Ph. Roussignol, “Nonlinear optics in composite materials,” Prog. Opt. 29, 321–411 (1991).
[CrossRef]

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Figures (2)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Real and imaginary parts of the effective linear response Re(e) and Im(e), and the ratio of real to imaginary effective nonlinear response Re(χe)/Im(χe), are plotted against the thickness parameter y. A strong resonance occurs at y0.52.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

(a) Transmittance is plotted against the incident intensity χs|E0|2. As y approaches resonance, bistable behavior becomes less pronounced because of the concomitant increase of absorption. The transmittance for a lossless film is also plotted for comparison. Absorption has shifted the peak positions and has reduced the maximum values of the transmittance. (b) Similar to (a), the reflectance is plotted against χs|E0|2.

Equations (12)

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e=m+3pms-m+(m+2s)xys+2m+2(s-m)xy,
x=c-sc+2s.
χe=p5χsf2|f|2(1-y)(5+18x2y+2x3y+18|x|2y+6x|x|2y+8x2|x|2y+2x3y2+6x|x|2y2+8x2|x|2y2+8x2|x|2y3),
f=3ms+2m+2(s-m)xy.
d2Edz2+k02(e+χe|E|2)E=0,
d2Adz2-Adϕdz2+k02[Re(e)+Re(χe)A2]A=0,
Ad2ϕdz2+2 dϕdzdAdz+k02[Im(e)+Im(χe)A2]A=0,
Et exp(ik0d)=A(d)exp[iϕ(d)],
ik0Et exp(ik0d)=[A(d)+iϕ(d)]exp[iϕ(d)],
E0+Er=A(0+)exp[iϕ(0+)],
ik0(E0-Er)=[A(0+)+iϕ(0+)]exp[iϕ(0+)],
R=|Er/E0|2,T=|A(d)/E0|2.

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