Abstract

A classical model of radiation reaction is applied to an enhanced molecular-fluorescence system incorporating an optical waveguide. The mechanisms responsible for the enhanced-fluorescence phenomena are identified, and the magnitude and guide-thickness dependence of the enhancement are determined numerically and shown to be in good agreement with previously reported experimental results.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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References

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  1. See, for example, S. Haroche and D. Kleppner, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Today 42(1), 24–30 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).
  3. W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Waveguide mode enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 10, 414–416 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, and D. H. Olson, “Interaction of metal particles with adsorbed dye molecules: absorption and luminescence,” Opt. Lett. 5, 368–370 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  5. R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole transition near a partially reflecting surface,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448–1452 (1975).
    [CrossRef]
  6. W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. H. Weber and C. F. Eagen, “Energy transfer from an excited dye molecule to the surface plasmons of an adjacent metal,” Opt. Lett. 4, 236–238 (1979).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  8. I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, and D. Möbius, “Nonradiative decay of excited molecules near a metal surface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499–504 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  9. K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, “Enhancement and inhibition of electromagnetic radiation in plane-layered media. I. Plane-wave-spectrum approach to modeling classical effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1150–1160 (1997).
  10. K. G. Sullivan, O. King, C. Sigg, and D. G. Hall, “Directional, enhanced fluorescence from molecules near a periodic surface,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2447–2454 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. See, for example, H. Kogelnik, “Theory of dielectric waveguides,” in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 2.
  12. I. P. Kaminow, W. L. Mammel, and H. P. Weber, “Metal-clad optical waveguides: analytical and experimental study,” Appl. Opt. 13, 396–405 (1974).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195–287 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  14. As discussed in Ref. 13, the use of Fresnel coefficients is not rigorously correct when the dielectric film thickness of a metal-clad waveguide is much smaller than the wavelength of light. For this case a nonlocal model must be employed to describe reflection from a metal. By restricting the integration regime in the calculation of an effective radiative-damping rate, the use of a nonlocal model is not required because the use of Fresnel coefficients produces the same field spectra for the range of normalized transverse wave numbers examined.

1997

K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, “Enhancement and inhibition of electromagnetic radiation in plane-layered media. I. Plane-wave-spectrum approach to modeling classical effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1150–1160 (1997).

1994

1989

See, for example, S. Haroche and D. Kleppner, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Today 42(1), 24–30 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1985

1984

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1980

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, and D. Möbius, “Nonradiative decay of excited molecules near a metal surface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499–504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

A. M. Glass, P. F. Liao, J. G. Bergman, and D. H. Olson, “Interaction of metal particles with adsorbed dye molecules: absorption and luminescence,” Opt. Lett. 5, 368–370 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979

1975

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole transition near a partially reflecting surface,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448–1452 (1975).
[CrossRef]

1974

Bergman, J. G.

Brillante, A.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, and D. Möbius, “Nonradiative decay of excited molecules near a metal surface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499–504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Chance, R. R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole transition near a partially reflecting surface,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448–1452 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Eagen, C. F.

Ford, G. W.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Glass, A. M.

Hall, D. G.

K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, “Enhancement and inhibition of electromagnetic radiation in plane-layered media. I. Plane-wave-spectrum approach to modeling classical effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1150–1160 (1997).

K. G. Sullivan, O. King, C. Sigg, and D. G. Hall, “Directional, enhanced fluorescence from molecules near a periodic surface,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2447–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Waveguide mode enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 10, 414–416 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Haroche, S.

See, for example, S. Haroche and D. Kleppner, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Today 42(1), 24–30 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Holland, W. R.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Waveguide mode enhancement of molecular fluorescence,” Opt. Lett. 10, 414–416 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Kaminow, I. P.

King, O.

Kleppner, D.

See, for example, S. Haroche and D. Kleppner, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Today 42(1), 24–30 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Liao, P. F.

Mammel, W. L.

Möbius, D.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, and D. Möbius, “Nonradiative decay of excited molecules near a metal surface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499–504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Olson, D. H.

Pockrand, I.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, and D. Möbius, “Nonradiative decay of excited molecules near a metal surface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499–504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Prock, A.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole transition near a partially reflecting surface,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448–1452 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sigg, C.

Silbey, R.

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole transition near a partially reflecting surface,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448–1452 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Sullivan, K. G.

K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, “Enhancement and inhibition of electromagnetic radiation in plane-layered media. I. Plane-wave-spectrum approach to modeling classical effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1150–1160 (1997).

K. G. Sullivan, O. King, C. Sigg, and D. G. Hall, “Directional, enhanced fluorescence from molecules near a periodic surface,” Appl. Opt. 33, 2447–2454 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Weber, H. P.

Weber, W. H.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

W. H. Weber and C. F. Eagen, “Energy transfer from an excited dye molecule to the surface plasmons of an adjacent metal,” Opt. Lett. 4, 236–238 (1979).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Opt.

Chem. Phys. Lett.

I. Pockrand, A. Brillante, and D. Möbius, “Nonradiative decay of excited molecules near a metal surface,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 69, 499–504 (1980).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B

K. G. Sullivan and D. G. Hall, “Enhancement and inhibition of electromagnetic radiation in plane-layered media. I. Plane-wave-spectrum approach to modeling classical effects,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 14, 1150–1160 (1997).

Opt. Lett.

Phys. Rep.

G. W. Ford and W. H. Weber, “Electromagnetic interactions of molecules with metal surfaces,” Phys. Rep. 113, 195–287 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A

R. R. Chance, A. Prock, and R. Silbey, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole transition near a partially reflecting surface,” Phys. Rev. A 12, 1448–1452 (1975).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett.

W. R. Holland and D. G. Hall, “Frequency shifts of an electric-dipole resonance near a conducting surface,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 52, 1041–1044 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Today

See, for example, S. Haroche and D. Kleppner, “Cavity quantum electrodynamics,” Phys. Today 42(1), 24–30 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Other

R. K. Chang and T. E. Furtak, eds., Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (Plenum, New York, 1982).

As discussed in Ref. 13, the use of Fresnel coefficients is not rigorously correct when the dielectric film thickness of a metal-clad waveguide is much smaller than the wavelength of light. For this case a nonlocal model must be employed to describe reflection from a metal. By restricting the integration regime in the calculation of an effective radiative-damping rate, the use of a nonlocal model is not required because the use of Fresnel coefficients produces the same field spectra for the range of normalized transverse wave numbers examined.

See, for example, H. Kogelnik, “Theory of dielectric waveguides,” in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988), Chap. 2.

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Figures (7)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Reference system and EF system. With an identical excitation-detection system, the enhancement α is defined such that α=I/Iref.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Enhancement versus LiF film thickness from Ref. 3. The dashed curve is drawn as a guide to the eye.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Enhancement versus LiF film thickness from Ref. 10. Improved experimental results for the metal-clad waveguide (solid curve is a polynomial fit to the data) and the air–dye–LiF–glass structure (dashed line is a linear fit to the data).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Normalized radiative-damping rate versus LiF-film thickness for a dipole on the surface of the Ag–LiF–air structure. The damping rate is plotted for the VED case, the HED case, and an isotropic distribution of dipoles.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Power spectrum for the VED case versus the normalized transverse wave number. The VED power spectrum is plotted for the free-space case and varying values of the LiF-film thickness.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Fluorescence factor Ff versus LiF film thickness for a dipole on the surface of the waveguide. (a) Effective radiative-damping rate is plotted for the VED, the HED, and the isotropic distribution of dipole cases. (b) TE and TM contributions that sum to form the HED effective radiative-damping rate are plotted separately.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Calculated enhancement (solid curve) versus LiF-film thickness. The polynomial fit from the experimental data of Ref. 10 (dashed curve) is provided for comparison.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Normalized Damping Rates for a Dipole Source on Top of a Dielectric Half-Spacea

Equations (7)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

bˆ=23bˆHED+13bˆVED.
bˆVED=32Re0umaxdu u31-u2×[1+ρ12TM exp(2ik1xxS)],
bˆHED=34Re0umaxdu u1-u2{(1-u2)×[1-ρ12TM exp(2ik1xxS)]+[1+ρ12TE exp(2ik1xxS)]}.
P=VJ·EdV,
P= dPduduRe(Γ)(b/b0),
α=FmFaFf.
Fa=(bˆEF/bˆref)λ=λa,

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