M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, A. S. Manka, C. M. Bowden, and J. W. Haus, “Pulse propagation near highly reflective surfaces: application to photonic band-gap structures and the question of superluminal tunneling times,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 726–734 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. R. Brown and O. B. McMahon, “Large electromagnetic stop bands in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2138–2140 (1995).

[CrossRef]

S. M. Moniri-Ardakani and E. N. Glytsis, “Application of the transmission line matrix method to the analysis of slab and channel optical waveguides,” Appl. Opt. 34, 2704–2711 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, S. A. Boothroyd, and L. Chan, “Photonic band structure calculations using a two-dimensional electromagnetic simulator,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 285–293 (1994).

[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipocs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwait, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and J. C. Garrison, “Two theorems for the group velocity in dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3890–3894 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. B. Pendry and A. MacKinnon, “Calculation of photon dispersion relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2772–2775 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonics bound states in periodic dielectric materials,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13772–13774 (1991).

[CrossRef]

S. John and J. Wang, “Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic band gap: photon bound states and dressed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418–2421 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646–2649 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ze Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650–2653 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Broad-band microwave measurements with transient radiation from optoelectronically pulsed antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615–621 (1990).

[CrossRef]

G. Kurizki and A. Z. Genack, “Suppression of molecular interactions in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269–2271 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2063 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. D. Crisp, “Concept of group velocity in resonant pulse propagation,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 2104–2108 (1971).

[CrossRef]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Broad-band microwave measurements with transient radiation from optoelectronically pulsed antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615–621 (1990).

[CrossRef]

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and J. C. Garrison, “Two theorems for the group velocity in dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3890–3894 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, S. A. Boothroyd, and L. Chan, “Photonic band structure calculations using a two-dimensional electromagnetic simulator,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 285–293 (1994).

[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, A. S. Manka, C. M. Bowden, and J. W. Haus, “Pulse propagation near highly reflective surfaces: application to photonic band-gap structures and the question of superluminal tunneling times,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 726–734 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonics bound states in periodic dielectric materials,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13772–13774 (1991).

[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown and O. B. McMahon, “Large electromagnetic stop bands in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2138–2140 (1995).

[CrossRef]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, S. A. Boothroyd, and L. Chan, “Photonic band structure calculations using a two-dimensional electromagnetic simulator,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 285–293 (1994).

[CrossRef]

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and J. C. Garrison, “Two theorems for the group velocity in dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3890–3894 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwait, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. D. Crisp, “Concept of group velocity in resonant pulse propagation,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 2104–2108 (1971).

[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, A. S. Manka, C. M. Bowden, and J. W. Haus, “Pulse propagation near highly reflective surfaces: application to photonic band-gap structures and the question of superluminal tunneling times,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 726–734 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and J. C. Garrison, “Two theorems for the group velocity in dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3890–3894 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Kurizki and A. Z. Genack, “Suppression of molecular interactions in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269–2271 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Broad-band microwave measurements with transient radiation from optoelectronically pulsed antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615–621 (1990).

[CrossRef]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, A. S. Manka, C. M. Bowden, and J. W. Haus, “Pulse propagation near highly reflective surfaces: application to photonic band-gap structures and the question of superluminal tunneling times,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 726–734 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonics bound states in periodic dielectric materials,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13772–13774 (1991).

[CrossRef]

S. John and J. Wang, “Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic band gap: photon bound states and dressed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418–2421 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Broad-band microwave measurements with transient radiation from optoelectronically pulsed antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615–621 (1990).

[CrossRef]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipocs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Kurizki and A. Z. Genack, “Suppression of molecular interactions in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269–2271 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwait, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646–2649 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646–2649 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. B. Pendry and A. MacKinnon, “Calculation of photon dispersion relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2772–2775 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, A. S. Manka, C. M. Bowden, and J. W. Haus, “Pulse propagation near highly reflective surfaces: application to photonic band-gap structures and the question of superluminal tunneling times,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 726–734 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

E. R. Brown and O. B. McMahon, “Large electromagnetic stop bands in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2138–2140 (1995).

[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonics bound states in periodic dielectric materials,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13772–13774 (1991).

[CrossRef]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Broad-band microwave measurements with transient radiation from optoelectronically pulsed antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615–621 (1990).

[CrossRef]

J. B. Pendry and A. MacKinnon, “Calculation of photon dispersion relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2772–2775 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonics bound states in periodic dielectric materials,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13772–13774 (1991).

[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, S. A. Boothroyd, and L. Chan, “Photonic band structure calculations using a two-dimensional electromagnetic simulator,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 285–293 (1994).

[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ze Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650–2653 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, A. S. Manka, C. M. Bowden, and J. W. Haus, “Pulse propagation near highly reflective surfaces: application to photonic band-gap structures and the question of superluminal tunneling times,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 726–734 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipocs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwait, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipocs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipocs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. John and J. Wang, “Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic band gap: photon bound states and dressed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418–2421 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2063 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ze Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650–2653 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. R. Brown and O. B. McMahon, “Large electromagnetic stop bands in metallodielectric photonic crystals,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2138–2140 (1995).

[CrossRef]

G. Arjavalingam, Y. Pastol, J.-M. Halbout, and G. V. Kopcsay, “Broad-band microwave measurements with transient radiation from optoelectronically pulsed antennas,” IEEE Trans. Microwave Theory Tech. 38, 615–621 (1990).

[CrossRef]

W. M. Robertson, S. A. Boothroyd, and L. Chan, “Photonic band structure calculations using a two-dimensional electromagnetic simulator,” J. Mod. Opt. 41, 285–293 (1994).

[CrossRef]

C. G. B. Garrett and D. E. McCumber, “Propagation of a Gaussian light pulse through an anomalous dispersion medium,” Phys. Rev. A 1, 305–313 (1970).

[CrossRef]

M. D. Crisp, “Concept of group velocity in resonant pulse propagation,” Phys. Rev. A 4, 2104–2108 (1971).

[CrossRef]

E. L. Bolda, R. Y. Chiao, and J. C. Garrison, “Two theorems for the group velocity in dispersive media,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 3890–3894 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

M. Scalora, J. P. Dowling, A. S. Manka, C. M. Bowden, and J. W. Haus, “Pulse propagation near highly reflective surfaces: application to photonic band-gap structures and the question of superluminal tunneling times,” Phys. Rev. A 52, 726–734 (1995).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Photonics bound states in periodic dielectric materials,” Phys. Rev. B 44, 13772–13774 (1991).

[CrossRef]

S. John and J. Wang, “Quantum electrodynamics near a photonic band gap: photon bound states and dressed atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2418–2421 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

G. Kurizki and A. Z. Genack, “Suppression of molecular interactions in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2269–2271 (1988).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Leung and Y. F. Liu, “Full vector wave calculation of photonic band structures in face-centered-cubic dielectric media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2646–2649 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ze Zhang and S. Satpathy, “Electromagnetic wave propagation in periodic structures: Bloch wave solution of Maxwell’s equations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 2650–2653 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

K. M. Ho, C. T. Chan, and C. M. Soukoulis, “Existence of a photonic gap in periodic dielectric structures,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 65, 3152–3155 (1990).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

J. B. Pendry and A. MacKinnon, “Calculation of photon dispersion relations,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 2772–2775 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

A. M. Steinberg, P. G. Kwait, and R. Y. Chiao, “Measurement of the single-photon tunneling time,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 708–711 (1993).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

Ch. Spielmann, R. Szipocs, A. Stingl, and F. Krausz, “Tunneling of optical pulses through photonic band gaps,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2308–2311 (1994).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

W. M. Robertson, G. Arjavalingam, R. D. Meade, K. D. Brommer, A. M. Rappe, and J. D. Joannopoulos, “Measurement of photonic band structure in two-dimensional dielectric arrays,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2023–2026 (1992).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

E. Yablonovitch, “Inhibited spontaneous emission in solid-state physics and electronics,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 2059–2063 (1987).

[CrossRef]
[PubMed]

S. Chu and S. Wong, “Linear pulse propagation in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 738–741 (1982). See also A. Katz and R. R. Alfano, “Comment, pulse propagation in an absorbing medium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1292 (1982); and “Reply,” S. Chu and S. Wong, Phys. Rev. Lett. PRLTAO 49, 1293 (1982).

[CrossRef]

J. D. Jackson, Classical Electrodynamics (Wiley, New York, 1975), p. 302.

J. Brown, “Faster than the speed of light,” New Scientist, April 1995, pp. 26–30.

W. J. R. Hoefer and P. P. M. So, The Electromagnetic Wave Simulator (Wiley, New York, 1991). This book comes with a PC version of the TLM simulator suitable for exploring many of the features detailed in this paper.

W. J. R. Hoefer, “The Transmission Line Matrix (TLM) Method,” in Numerical Techniques for Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Passive Structures, T. Itoh, ed. (Wiley, New York, 1989), pp. 496–591.

S. A. Boothroyd, L. Chan, and W. M. Robertson, “Visualizing coherent light with an electromagnetic wave simulator,” IEEE Trans. Educ. 39, 29–39 (1996).

A. Sommerfeld, “Uber die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in Dispergierenden Medien,” Ann. Physik 44, 177–201 (1914).

A. Sommerfeld, “Ein einwand gegen die Relativtheorie der Elektrodynamik und seine Beseitigung,” Physik Z. 8, 841–860 (1907).

L. Brillouin, “Uber die Fortpflanzung des Lichtes in Dispergierenden Medien,” Ann. Physik 44, 203–240 (1914).

L. Brillouin, Wave Propagation and Group Velocity (Academic, New York, 1960), pp. 17–42.