Abstract

The mechanism of optical second-harmonic generation (SHG) in thin solid oriented and nonoriented films of bacteriorhodopsin (bR) is studied. The role of the random spatial inhomogeneity of the quadratic susceptibility in the mechanism of diffuse and depolarized SHG in thin solid bR films is discussed. A hyper-Rayleigh scattering formalism is used for the description of SHG in these films. Electroinduced and photoinduced effects in SHG are detected, and the saturated concentrations of the electroinduced and the photoinduced spectral forms of this type of bR film are estimated. Nondestructive SHG readout of bR-based optical memories is suggested.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  5. O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).
  6. O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  7. P. A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation and polarization effects in polydiacetylene Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 132, 1–10 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  8. O. A. Aktsipetrov, O. V. Braginskii, and D. A. Esikov, “Nonlinear optics of gyrotropic media—SHG in rare-earth iron garnets,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 320–325 (1990).
  9. W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, and R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane of Halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
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    [CrossRef]
  12. O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).
  13. O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).
  14. Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  15. J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Second harmonic generation in purple membrane–poly(vinyl alcohol) films: probing the dipolar characteristics of the bacteriorhodopsin chromophore in bR570 and M412,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314–3320 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  16. O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
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  21. J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
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  24. E. P. Lukashev, E. Vozary, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Electric field promotion of the bacteriorhodopsin bR570 to bR412 photoconversion in films of Halobacterium halobium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 258–266 (1980).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

1993 (1)

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1990 (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, O. V. Braginskii, and D. A. Esikov, “Nonlinear optics of gyrotropic media—SHG in rare-earth iron garnets,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 320–325 (1990).

1989 (2)

Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Second harmonic generation in purple membrane–poly(vinyl alcohol) films: probing the dipolar characteristics of the bacteriorhodopsin chromophore in bR570 and M412,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314–3320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).

1986 (2)

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, I. M. Baranova, and Yu. A. Il’inskii, “Surface contribution to the generation of reflected second harmonic for centrosymmetric semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 167–172 (1986).

1985 (2)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).

P. A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation and polarization effects in polydiacetylene Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 132, 1–10 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1981 (2)

J. F. MacGilp, “Optical characterization of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1–106 (1981).
[CrossRef]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation from a monolayer of centrosymmetric molecules adsorbed on silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 180–182 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1980 (1)

E. P. Lukashev, E. Vozary, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Electric field promotion of the bacteriorhodopsin bR570 to bR412 photoconversion in films of Halobacterium halobium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 258–266 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1979 (2)

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, and R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane of Halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Borisevich, E. P. Lukashev, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Bacteriorhodopsin (bR570) bathochromic band shift in an external electric field,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 546, 171–174 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Akhmediev, N. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).

Aktsipetrov, O. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, O. V. Braginskii, and D. A. Esikov, “Nonlinear optics of gyrotropic media—SHG in rare-earth iron garnets,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 320–325 (1990).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, I. M. Baranova, and Yu. A. Il’inskii, “Surface contribution to the generation of reflected second harmonic for centrosymmetric semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 167–172 (1986).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).

Baranova, I. M.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, I. M. Baranova, and Yu. A. Il’inskii, “Surface contribution to the generation of reflected second harmonic for centrosymmetric semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 167–172 (1986).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).

Bogomolni, R. A.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, and R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane of Halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Borisevich, G. P.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

G. P. Borisevich, E. P. Lukashev, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Bacteriorhodopsin (bR570) bathochromic band shift in an external electric field,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 546, 171–174 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Bouevitch, O.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Braginskii, O. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, O. V. Braginskii, and D. A. Esikov, “Nonlinear optics of gyrotropic media—SHG in rare-earth iron garnets,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 320–325 (1990).

Chamorovsky, S. K.

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chekulaeva, L. N.

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Chen, C. K.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation from a monolayer of centrosymmetric molecules adsorbed on silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 180–182 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Chen, Z.

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Second harmonic generation in purple membrane–poly(vinyl alcohol) films: probing the dipolar characteristics of the bacteriorhodopsin chromophore in bR570 and M412,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314–3320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Chollet, P. A.

P. A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation and polarization effects in polydiacetylene Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 132, 1–10 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Esikov, D. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, O. V. Braginskii, and D. A. Esikov, “Nonlinear optics of gyrotropic media—SHG in rare-earth iron garnets,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 320–325 (1990).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).

Fedyanin, A. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

Heinz, T. F.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation from a monolayer of centrosymmetric molecules adsorbed on silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 180–182 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Huang, J.

Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Second harmonic generation in purple membrane–poly(vinyl alcohol) films: probing the dipolar characteristics of the bacteriorhodopsin chromophore in bR570 and M412,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314–3320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Il’inskii, Yu. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, I. M. Baranova, and Yu. A. Il’inskii, “Surface contribution to the generation of reflected second harmonic for centrosymmetric semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 167–172 (1986).

Kajzar, F.

P. A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation and polarization effects in polydiacetylene Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 132, 1–10 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Kononenko, A. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Lukashev, E. Vozary, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Electric field promotion of the bacteriorhodopsin bR570 to bR412 photoconversion in films of Halobacterium halobium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 258–266 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Borisevich, E. P. Lukashev, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Bacteriorhodopsin (bR570) bathochromic band shift in an external electric field,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 546, 171–174 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, A.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Second harmonic generation in purple membrane–poly(vinyl alcohol) films: probing the dipolar characteristics of the bacteriorhodopsin chromophore in bR570 and M412,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314–3320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Loew, L. M.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lozier, R. H.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, and R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane of Halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lukashev, E. P.

E. P. Lukashev, E. Vozary, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Electric field promotion of the bacteriorhodopsin bR570 to bR412 photoconversion in films of Halobacterium halobium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 258–266 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Borisevich, E. P. Lukashev, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Bacteriorhodopsin (bR570) bathochromic band shift in an external electric field,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 546, 171–174 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Lukashev, E. V.

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

MacGilp, J. F.

J. F. MacGilp, “Optical characterization of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1–106 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maximychev, A. V.

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Messier, J.

P. A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation and polarization effects in polydiacetylene Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 132, 1–10 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Mishina, E. D.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).

Moss, D. J.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Murzina, T. V.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

Novak, V. R.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).

Pinevsky, I.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rasing, Th.

Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Richard, D.

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation from a monolayer of centrosymmetric molecules adsorbed on silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 180–182 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Rubin, A. B.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Lukashev, E. Vozary, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Electric field promotion of the bacteriorhodopsin bR570 to bR412 photoconversion in films of Halobacterium halobium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 258–266 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. P. Borisevich, E. P. Lukashev, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Bacteriorhodopsin (bR570) bathochromic band shift in an external electric field,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 546, 171–174 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Shen, Y. R.

Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation from a monolayer of centrosymmetric molecules adsorbed on silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 180–182 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Shutov, D. A.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).

Sipe, J. E.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Stehlin, T.

Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Stoeckenius, W.

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, and R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane of Halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Timashev, S. F.

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

van Driel, H. M.

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vozary, E.

E. P. Lukashev, E. Vozary, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Electric field promotion of the bacteriorhodopsin bR570 to bR412 photoconversion in films of Halobacterium halobium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 258–266 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Vsevolodov, N. N.

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).

Wuskell, J. P.

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biochim. Biophys. Acta (4)

W. Stoeckenius, R. H. Lozier, and R. A. Bogomolni, “Bacteriorhodopsin and the purple membrane of Halobacteria,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 505, 215–278 (1979).
[CrossRef]

G. P. Borisevich, E. P. Lukashev, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Bacteriorhodopsin (bR570) bathochromic band shift in an external electric field,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 546, 171–174 (1979).
[CrossRef]

A. A. Kononenko, E. V. Lukashev, A. V. Maximychev, S. K. Chamorovsky, A. B. Rubin, S. F. Timashev, and L. N. Chekulaeva, “Oriented purple-membrane films as a probe for studies of the mechanism of bacteriorhodopsin functioning. I. The vectorial character of the external electric-field effect on the dark state and the photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 850, 162–169 (1986).
[CrossRef]

E. P. Lukashev, E. Vozary, A. A. Kononenko, and A. B. Rubin, “Electric field promotion of the bacteriorhodopsin bR570 to bR412 photoconversion in films of Halobacterium halobium,” Biochim. Biophys. Acta 592, 258–266 (1980).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Biophys. J. (1)

O. Bouevitch, A. Lewis, I. Pinevsky, J. P. Wuskell, and L. M. Loew, “Probing membrane potential with nonlinear optics,” Biophys. J. 65, 672–679 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chem. Phys. Lett. (1)

T. F. Heinz, C. K. Chen, D. Richard, and Y. R. Shen, “Optical second harmonic generation from a monolayer of centrosymmetric molecules adsorbed on silver,” Chem. Phys. Lett. 83, 180–182 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Dokl. Akad. Nauk (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, G. P. Borisevich, A. A. Kononenko, T. V. Murzina, A. B. Rubin, and A. A. Fedyanin, “Influence of electrostatic field on the second harmonic generation in bacteriorhodopsin films,” Dokl. Akad. Nauk 337, 675–679 (1994).

J. Phys. Chem. (1)

J. Huang, Z. Chen, and A. Lewis, “Second harmonic generation in purple membrane–poly(vinyl alcohol) films: probing the dipolar characteristics of the bacteriorhodopsin chromophore in bR570 and M412,” J. Phys. Chem. 93, 3314–3320 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, O. V. Braginskii, and D. A. Esikov, “Nonlinear optics of gyrotropic media—SHG in rare-earth iron garnets,” Kvantovaya Elektron. (Moscow) 17, 320–325 (1990).

Phys. Rev. A (1)

Th. Rasing, J. Huang, A. Lewis, T. Stehlin, and Y. R. Shen, “In situ determination of induced dipole moments of pure and membrane-bound retinal chromophores,” Phys. Rev. A 40, 1684–1687 (1989);
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. B (1)

J. E. Sipe, D. J. Moss, and H. M. van Driel, “Phenomenological theory of optical second- and third-harmonic generation from cubic centrosymmetric crystals,” Phys. Rev. B 35, 1129–1141 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Prog. Surf. Sci. (1)

J. F. MacGilp, “Optical characterization of semiconductor surfaces and interfaces,” Prog. Surf. Sci. 49, 1–106 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Sov. Phys. Dokl. (1)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, N. N. Vsevolodov, D. A. Esikov, and D. A. Shutov, “Photochromism in nonlinear optics: photocontrolled second harmonic generation by bacteriorhodopsin molecules,” Sov. Phys. Dokl. 32, 219–220 (1987).

Sov. Phys. JETP (2)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, N. N. Akhmediev, I. M. Baranova, E. D. Mishina, and V. R. Novak, “Structure of Langmuir–Blodgett films by second harmonic generation,” Sov. Phys. JETP 62, 524–530 (1985).

O. A. Aktsipetrov, I. M. Baranova, and Yu. A. Il’inskii, “Surface contribution to the generation of reflected second harmonic for centrosymmetric semiconductors,” Sov. Phys. JETP 64, 167–172 (1986).

Thin Solid Films (2)

O. A. Aktsipetrov, E. D. Mishina, T. V. Murzina, N. N. Akhmediev, and V. R. Novak, “The photoinduced anisotropy of second harmonic generation in monolayered Langmuir–Blodgett films,” Thin Solid Films 256, 176–181 (1995).
[CrossRef]

P. A. Chollet, F. Kajzar, and J. Messier, “Electric field induced optical second harmonic generation and polarization effects in polydiacetylene Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers,” Thin Solid Films 132, 1–10 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Other (7)

G. Roberts, ed., Langmuir–Blodgett Films (Plenum, London, 1990), p. 411.

T. F. Heinz, “Second-order nonlinear optical effects at surfaces and interfaces,” in Nonlinear Surface Electromagnetic Phenomena, H.-E. Ponath and G. I. Stegeman, eds. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1991), pp. 355–416.

K. Bryl, G. Varo, and R. Drabent, “Photocycle of bacteriorhodopsin immobilized in poly(vinyl alcohol) film,”FEBS Lett. 285, 66–70 (1991); R. R. Birge, “Nature of the primary photochemical events in rhodopsin and bacteriorhodopsin,”Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1016, 293–327 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. Varo, “Dried oriented purple membrane samples,” Acta Biol. Acad. Sci. Hung. 32, 301–310 (1981).

D. Oesterhelt and W. Stoeckenius, Methods Enzymol. 31, 667–678 (1974).

S. Keilich, “Second harmonic light scattering by dense isotropic media,” Acta Phys. Pol. 33, 89–104 (1968); “Higher-order elastic scattering of laser light,” Acta Phys. Pol. 33, 141–143 (1968).

P. K. Schmidt and G. W. Rayfield, “Hyper-Rayleigh light scattering from an aqueous suspension of purple membrane,” Appl. Opt. 33, 4286–4292 (1994); K. Claus and A. Persoons, “Hyper-Rayleigh scattering in solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 66, 2980–2983 (1991).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dependence of the SH intensity on the fundamental transmission intensity. Upper inset: schematic of the dc-electric-field application to the bR film. Lower inset: dependence of the SH intensity on the azimuthal angle.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Dependence of the SH reflection intensity from a nonoriented bR film for s-in, s-out polarization combination geometry on the polar angle θ. Zero polar angle coincides with the specular direction; positive values correspond to polar angles towards the film normal. Inset: sketch of the scattering indicatrix measurement.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Dependence of the SH transmission intensity on the thickness of nonoriented bR films. The solid line is the fit by the linear function. Inset, SHG polarization diagram: the dependence of the SH intensity on the analyzer angle α for fixed polarization of the fundamental wave (zero angle corresponds to the parallel polarizations of the fundamental and SH waves).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Dependences of the SH transmission intensity on bias for oriented (filled circles) and nonoriented (open circles) films. Solid and dashed curves are the fits. Upper inset: schematic of the mutual orientation of the static dipole moment of bR molecule μ and the external dc-electric field E. Lower inset: graph of the fit from Eq. (2) for the normalized concentration of bR630E form within the elementary solid angle.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Dependences of SH intensity on cw intensity Wi: 488.0 nm (squares), 514.5 nm (open circles), and 647.1 nm (filled circles).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Dependence of the SH transmission intensity on bias in the absence of the cw illumination (circles) and as the saturating cw radiation of intensity Wsat = 150 mW/cm2 (647.1 nm) is switched on at U = 2.8 V (diamonds).

Equations (5)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

I2ω=KmNmβzzz2(m)Iω2=KN0mnmβzzz2(m)Iω2,
dn630/dΩ=a/(4π{1+exp[α(E0-E cos θ)]}),
n630(U)=a/(2αU){C(αU0)-C[α(U0-U)]},
I2ω(U)=Kβ5702[1-(1-ξ2)n630(U)]Iω2,
n630(U)=an0/{1+exp[α(U0-U)]}+a(1-n0)/{1+exp[α(U0+U)]},

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