Abstract

We measure and model parametric gain and oscillation for two crystals arranged for walkoff compensation. We show how the orientation of the crystals determines the relative sign of the nonlinear mixing coefficient in the two crystals. This sign dramatically influences small signal gain and oscillator performance, and we show how to determine the correct crystal orientation from parametric-gain measurements. The performance of two-crystal oscillators is examined with particular attention to beam tilts, conversion efficiency, and beam quality. We find reduced efficiency and increased oscillation threshold when the coefficients have opposite signs in a two-crystal ring oscillator. Sign reversal seems to have little influence on spectral purity or far-field beam profiles when the oscillator is seeded.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Degenerate parametric processes in three-wave interactions in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 32–34 (1976).
  2. V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Suppression of degenerate parametric processes limiting frequency-doubling efficiency of crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1163–1167 (1976).
  3. V. D. Volosov and A. G. Kalintsev, “Optimum optical second-harmonic generation in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 373–375 (1976).
  4. V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Phase effects in a double-pass frequency doubler,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 5, 5–7 (1979).
  5. R. B. Andreev, K. V. Vetrov, V. D. Volosov, and A. G. Kalintsev, “Three-wave parametric processes in multicrystal nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Spectrosc. 65, 90–93 (1988).
  6. B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Yu. E. Kapitskii, and A. N. Chudinov, “Interference between second harmonics generated in two different KTP crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1120–1121 (1990).
  7. M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).
  8. L. K. Samanta, T. Yanagawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Technique for enhanced second harmonic output power,” Opt. Commun. 76, 250–252 (1990).
  9. W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).
  10. J. Zondy, M. Abed, and S. Khodja, “Twin-crystal walk-off-compensated type-II second-harmonic generation: single-pass and cavity-enhanced experiments in KTiOPO4,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2368–2379 (1994).
  11. J.-J. Zondy, “Experimental investigation of single and twin AgGaSe2 crystals for cw 10.2 μm SHG,” Opt. Commun. 119, 320–326 (1995).
  12. M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).
  13. S. E. Harris, “Method to lock an optical parametric oscillator to an atomic transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 335–337 (1969).
  14. A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, 1976).
  15. R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992).
  16. Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).
  17. F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973).
  18. V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).
  19. D. J. Armstrong, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and A. V. Smith, “Absolute measurement of the effective nonlinearities of KTP and BBO crystals by optical parametric amplification,” Appl. Opt. 35, 2032–2040 (1996).
  20. T. D. Raymond, W. J. Alford, A. V. Smith, and M. S. Bowers, “Frequency shifts in injection-seeded optical parametric oscillators with phase mismatch,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1520–1522 (1994).
  21. A. V. Smith, W. J. Alford, T. D. Raymond, and M. S. Bowers, “Comparison of a numerical model with measured performance of a seeded, nanosecond KTP optical parametric oscillator,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2253–2267 (1995).
  22. A. V. Smith and M. S. Bowers, “Phase distortions in sum- and difference-frequency mixing in crystals,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 49–57 (1995).

1996 (1)

1995 (3)

1994 (2)

1993 (1)

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).

1990 (3)

L. K. Samanta, T. Yanagawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Technique for enhanced second harmonic output power,” Opt. Commun. 76, 250–252 (1990).

M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Yu. E. Kapitskii, and A. N. Chudinov, “Interference between second harmonics generated in two different KTP crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1120–1121 (1990).

1989 (1)

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

1988 (1)

R. B. Andreev, K. V. Vetrov, V. D. Volosov, and A. G. Kalintsev, “Three-wave parametric processes in multicrystal nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Spectrosc. 65, 90–93 (1988).

1979 (1)

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Phase effects in a double-pass frequency doubler,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 5, 5–7 (1979).

1976 (3)

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Degenerate parametric processes in three-wave interactions in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 32–34 (1976).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Suppression of degenerate parametric processes limiting frequency-doubling efficiency of crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1163–1167 (1976).

V. D. Volosov and A. G. Kalintsev, “Optimum optical second-harmonic generation in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 373–375 (1976).

1969 (1)

S. E. Harris, “Method to lock an optical parametric oscillator to an atomic transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 335–337 (1969).

Abed, M.

Alford, W. J.

Andreev, R. B.

R. B. Andreev, K. V. Vetrov, V. D. Volosov, and A. G. Kalintsev, “Three-wave parametric processes in multicrystal nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Spectrosc. 65, 90–93 (1988).

Armstrong, D. J.

Bosenberg, W. R.

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

Bowers, M. S.

Chudinov, A. N.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Yu. E. Kapitskii, and A. N. Chudinov, “Interference between second harmonics generated in two different KTP crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1120–1121 (1990).

Ebbers, C. A.

M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).

Eimerl, D.

M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).

Harris, S. E.

S. E. Harris, “Method to lock an optical parametric oscillator to an atomic transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 335–337 (1969).

Hayasaka, K.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).

Imajo, H.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).

Kalintsev, A. G.

R. B. Andreev, K. V. Vetrov, V. D. Volosov, and A. G. Kalintsev, “Three-wave parametric processes in multicrystal nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Spectrosc. 65, 90–93 (1988).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Phase effects in a double-pass frequency doubler,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 5, 5–7 (1979).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Degenerate parametric processes in three-wave interactions in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 32–34 (1976).

V. D. Volosov and A. G. Kalintsev, “Optimum optical second-harmonic generation in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 373–375 (1976).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Suppression of degenerate parametric processes limiting frequency-doubling efficiency of crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1163–1167 (1976).

Kapitskii, Yu. E.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Yu. E. Kapitskii, and A. N. Chudinov, “Interference between second harmonics generated in two different KTP crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1120–1121 (1990).

Khodja, S.

Krylov, V. N.

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Phase effects in a double-pass frequency doubler,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 5, 5–7 (1979).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Degenerate parametric processes in three-wave interactions in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 32–34 (1976).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Suppression of degenerate parametric processes limiting frequency-doubling efficiency of crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1163–1167 (1976).

Norton, M. A.

M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).

Pelouch, W. S.

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

Petty, C. S.

M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).

Raymond, T. D.

Samanta, L. K.

L. K. Samanta, T. Yanagawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Technique for enhanced second harmonic output power,” Opt. Commun. 76, 250–252 (1990).

Smith, A. V.

Tang, C. L.

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

Urabe, S.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).

Velsko, S. P.

M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).

Vetrov, K. V.

R. B. Andreev, K. V. Vetrov, V. D. Volosov, and A. G. Kalintsev, “Three-wave parametric processes in multicrystal nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Spectrosc. 65, 90–93 (1988).

Volosov, V. D.

R. B. Andreev, K. V. Vetrov, V. D. Volosov, and A. G. Kalintsev, “Three-wave parametric processes in multicrystal nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Spectrosc. 65, 90–93 (1988).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Phase effects in a double-pass frequency doubler,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 5, 5–7 (1979).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Degenerate parametric processes in three-wave interactions in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 32–34 (1976).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Suppression of degenerate parametric processes limiting frequency-doubling efficiency of crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1163–1167 (1976).

V. D. Volosov and A. G. Kalintsev, “Optimum optical second-harmonic generation in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 373–375 (1976).

Watanabe, M.

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).

Yamamoto, Y.

L. K. Samanta, T. Yanagawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Technique for enhanced second harmonic output power,” Opt. Commun. 76, 250–252 (1990).

Yanagawa, T.

L. K. Samanta, T. Yanagawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Technique for enhanced second harmonic output power,” Opt. Commun. 76, 250–252 (1990).

Zel’dovich, B. Ya.

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Yu. E. Kapitskii, and A. N. Chudinov, “Interference between second harmonics generated in two different KTP crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1120–1121 (1990).

Zondy, J.

Zondy, J.-J.

J.-J. Zondy, “Experimental investigation of single and twin AgGaSe2 crystals for cw 10.2 μm SHG,” Opt. Commun. 119, 320–326 (1995).

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (2)

W. R. Bosenberg, W. S. Pelouch, and C. L. Tang, “High-efficiency and narrow-linewidth operation of a two-crystal β-BaB2O4 optical parametric oscillator,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 55, 1952–1954 (1989).

S. E. Harris, “Method to lock an optical parametric oscillator to an atomic transition,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 14, 335–337 (1969).

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (3)

Opt. Commun. (3)

J.-J. Zondy, “Experimental investigation of single and twin AgGaSe2 crystals for cw 10.2 μm SHG,” Opt. Commun. 119, 320–326 (1995).

M. Watanabe, K. Hayasaka, H. Imajo, and S. Urabe, “Continuous-wave sum-frequency generation near 194 nm with a collinear double enhancement cavity,” Opt. Commun. 97, 225–227 (1993).

L. K. Samanta, T. Yanagawa, and Y. Yamamoto, “Technique for enhanced second harmonic output power,” Opt. Commun. 76, 250–252 (1990).

Opt. Lett. (1)

Opt. Spectrosc. (1)

R. B. Andreev, K. V. Vetrov, V. D. Volosov, and A. G. Kalintsev, “Three-wave parametric processes in multicrystal nonlinear frequency converters,” Opt. Spectrosc. 65, 90–93 (1988).

Proc. SPIE (1)

M. A. Norton, D. Eimerl, C. A. Ebbers, S. P. Velsko, and C. S. Petty, “KD*P frequency doubler for high average power applications,” Proc. SPIE 1223, 75–83 (1990).

Sov. J. Quantum Electron. (2)

B. Ya. Zel’dovich, Yu. E. Kapitskii, and A. N. Chudinov, “Interference between second harmonics generated in two different KTP crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 1120–1121 (1990).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Suppression of degenerate parametric processes limiting frequency-doubling efficiency of crystals,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 6, 1163–1167 (1976).

Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. (3)

V. D. Volosov and A. G. Kalintsev, “Optimum optical second-harmonic generation in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 373–375 (1976).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Phase effects in a double-pass frequency doubler,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 5, 5–7 (1979).

V. D. Volosov, A. G. Kalintsev, and V. N. Krylov, “Degenerate parametric processes in three-wave interactions in tandem crystals,” Sov. Tech. Phys. Lett. 2, 32–34 (1976).

Other (5)

A. Yariv, Introduction to Optical Electronics (Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York, 1976).

R. W. Boyd, Nonlinear Optics (Academic, Boston, Mass., 1992).

Y. R. Shen, The Principles of Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984).

F. Zernike and J. E. Midwinter, Applied Nonlinear Optics (Wiley, New York, 1973).

V. G. Dmitriev, G. G. Gurzadyan, and D. N. Nikogosyan, Handbook of Nonlinear Optical Crystals (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1991).

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