Abstract

We describe the operating characteristics of optically pumped concentric-circle-grating surface-emitting semiconductor lasers. The circular grating defines the laser resonant cavity and provides for a symmetric surface-emitted beam. We present detailed experimental studies of the influence of epitaxial semiconductor material and grating design on lasing characteristics. We emphasize the effect of grating parameters on the lasing and damage thresholds and on the shape, polarization, diffraction, and spectral purity of emitted radiation.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  2. T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  3. C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  5. M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  7. R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from an annular grating on a planar optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3423–3425 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from concentric-circle grating, surface-emitting planar waveguides: the volume current method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3077–3079 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Highly directional surface emission from concentric-circle gratings on planar optical waveguides: the field expansion method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 84–94 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  10. T. Erdogan and D. G. Hall, “Circularly symmetric distributed feedback laser: coupled mode treatment of TE vector fields,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 612–623 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  11. M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266–267 (1972).
    [CrossRef]
  13. J. J. Wynne, “Generation of the rotationally symmetric TE01 and TM01 modes from a wavelength-tunable laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 125–127 (1974).
    [CrossRef]
  14. M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-Order TE01 operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 743–745 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  15. R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Free-space azimuthal paraxial wave equation: the azimuthal Bessel–Gauss beam solution,” Opt. Lett. 20, 427–429 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. D. Hall, “Vector beam solutions of Maxwell’s wave equation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 9–11 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  17. T. Erdogan, “Circularly symmetric, distributed-feedback structures for surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1992).
  18. W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides—II: Blazing effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 494–499 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. V. Perez, C. Gomez-Reino, and J. M. Cuadrado, “Diffraction patterns and zone plates produced by thin linear axicons,” Opt. Acta 33, 1161–1176 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  20. Q. S. Ru, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “An interferometric method for making equispaced circular gratings,” Opt. Commun. 67, 195–188 (1988).
    [CrossRef]
  21. WGCALC is a program for the analysis of complex waveguide structures involving gratings. It calculates guided, radiation, and evanescent modes. The software was developed at The Institute of Optics by Robert Emmons.
  22. R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  23. H. Kogelnik, “Theory of optical waveguides,” in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), p. 83.
  24. H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (3)

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Highly directional surface emission from concentric-circle gratings on planar optical waveguides: the field expansion method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 84–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

D. Hall, “Vector beam solutions of Maxwell’s wave equation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 9–11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Free-space azimuthal paraxial wave equation: the azimuthal Bessel–Gauss beam solution,” Opt. Lett. 20, 427–429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from concentric-circle grating, surface-emitting planar waveguides: the volume current method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3077–3079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (2)

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from an annular grating on a planar optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1992 (4)

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan and D. G. Hall, “Circularly symmetric distributed feedback laser: coupled mode treatment of TE vector fields,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 612–623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

Q. S. Ru, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “An interferometric method for making equispaced circular gratings,” Opt. Commun. 67, 195–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

M. V. Perez, C. Gomez-Reino, and J. M. Cuadrado, “Diffraction patterns and zone plates produced by thin linear axicons,” Opt. Acta 33, 1161–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-Order TE01 operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides—II: Blazing effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 494–499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1974 (1)

J. J. Wynne, “Generation of the rotationally symmetric TE01 and TM01 modes from a wavelength-tunable laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 125–127 (1974).
[CrossRef]

1972 (2)

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266–267 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, E. H.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Barber, R.

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Blaauw, C.

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Burnham, R. D.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides—II: Blazing effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 494–499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Chatenoud, F.

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cody, J.

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Craig, R. G. A.

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cuadrado, J. M.

M. V. Perez, C. Gomez-Reino, and J. M. Cuadrado, “Diffraction patterns and zone plates produced by thin linear axicons,” Opt. Acta 33, 1161–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Dennis, C. L.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Dion, M.

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Erdogan, T.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan and D. G. Hall, “Circularly symmetric distributed feedback laser: coupled mode treatment of TE vector fields,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 612–623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, “Circularly symmetric, distributed-feedback structures for surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1992).

Fallahi, M.

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Forouhar, S.

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Garmire, E.

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-Order TE01 operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Glinski, J.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gomez-Reino, C.

M. V. Perez, C. Gomez-Reino, and J. M. Cuadrado, “Diffraction patterns and zone plates produced by thin linear axicons,” Opt. Acta 33, 1161–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Hall, D.

Hall, D. G.

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Highly directional surface emission from concentric-circle gratings on planar optical waveguides: the field expansion method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 84–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from concentric-circle grating, surface-emitting planar waveguides: the volume current method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3077–3079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Free-space azimuthal paraxial wave equation: the azimuthal Bessel–Gauss beam solution,” Opt. Lett. 20, 427–429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from an annular grating on a planar optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan and D. G. Hall, “Circularly symmetric distributed feedback laser: coupled mode treatment of TE vector fields,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 612–623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

Q. S. Ru, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “An interferometric method for making equispaced circular gratings,” Opt. Commun. 67, 195–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Jordan, R. H.

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Highly directional surface emission from concentric-circle gratings on planar optical waveguides: the field expansion method,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 84–94 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from concentric-circle grating, surface-emitting planar waveguides: the volume current method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3077–3079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Free-space azimuthal paraxial wave equation: the azimuthal Bessel–Gauss beam solution,” Opt. Lett. 20, 427–429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from an annular grating on a planar optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

King, O.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Knight, D. G.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Knight, G.

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

H. Kogelnik, “Theory of optical waveguides,” in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), p. 83.

Lang, R. J.

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Larsson, A.

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Maciejko, R.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Makino, T.

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Marhic, M. E.

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-Order TE01 operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Maritan, C.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Najafi, S. I.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Ohyama, N.

Q. S. Ru, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “An interferometric method for making equispaced circular gratings,” Opt. Commun. 67, 195–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Perez, M. V.

M. V. Perez, C. Gomez-Reino, and J. M. Cuadrado, “Diffraction patterns and zone plates produced by thin linear axicons,” Opt. Acta 33, 1161–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Pohl, D.

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266–267 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Porkolab, G. A.

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Rooks, M. J.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Ru, Q. S.

Q. S. Ru, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “An interferometric method for making equispaced circular gratings,” Opt. Commun. 67, 195–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Scifres, D. R.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides—II: Blazing effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 494–499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Shank, C. V.

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

Streifer, W.

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides—II: Blazing effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 494–499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Svilans, M.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Templeton, I.

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Thompson, J.

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Tiberio, R. C.

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Tsujiuchi, J.

Q. S. Ru, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “An interferometric method for making equispaced circular gratings,” Opt. Commun. 67, 195–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Wicks, G. W.

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wolf, E. D.

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C.

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Wu, C. M.

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Wynne, J. J.

J. J. Wynne, “Generation of the rotationally symmetric TE01 and TM01 modes from a wavelength-tunable laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 125–127 (1974).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (6)

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, E. H. Anderson, and M. J. Rooks, “Circularly-symmetric operation of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1921–1923 (1992).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan, O. King, G. W. Wicks, D. G. Hall, C. L. Dennis, and M. J. Rooks, “Spatial modes of a concentric-circle grating surface-emitting, AlGaAs/GaAs quantum-well semiconductor laser,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 1773–1775 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from an annular grating on a planar optical waveguide,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3423–3425 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Radiation from concentric-circle grating, surface-emitting planar waveguides: the volume current method,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3077–3079 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Pohl, “Operation of a ruby laser in the purely transverse electric mode TE01,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 20, 266–267 (1972).
[CrossRef]

M. E. Marhic and E. Garmire, “Low-Order TE01 operation of a CO2 laser for transmission through circular metallic waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 743–745 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Electron. Lett. (2)

M. Fallahi, M. Dion, F. Chatenoud, I. Templeton, and R. Barber, “High power emission from strained DQW circulargrating surface-emitting DBR lasers,” Electron. Lett. 29, 2117–2118 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, T. Makino, J. Glinski, C. Maritan, and C. Blaauw, “Optically pumped surface-emitting DFB GaInAsP/InP lasers with circular grating,” Electron. Lett. 27, 1819–1820 (1991).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (4)

J. J. Wynne, “Generation of the rotationally symmetric TE01 and TM01 modes from a wavelength-tunable laser,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-10, 125–127 (1974).
[CrossRef]

T. Erdogan and D. G. Hall, “Circularly symmetric distributed feedback laser: coupled mode treatment of TE vector fields,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 28, 612–623 (1992).
[CrossRef]

M. Fallahi, F. Chatenoud, M. Dion, I. Templeton, R. Barber, and J. Thompson, “Circular-grating surface-emitting distributed Bragg reflector lasers on an InGaAs–GaAs structure of 0.98-µm applications,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 1, 382–386 (1995).
[CrossRef]

W. Streifer, R. D. Burnham, and D. R. Scifres, “Analysis of grating-coupled radiation in GaAs:GaAlAs lasers and waveguides—II: Blazing effects,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-12, 494–499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (1)

C. M. Wu, M. Svilans, M. Fallahi, I. Templeton, T. Makino, J. Glinski, R. Maciejko, S. I. Najafi, C. Blaauw, C. Maritan, and D. G. Knight, “Electrically pumped circular-grating distributed-Bragg-reflector lasers,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 4, 960–963 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (1)

H. Kogelnik and C. V. Shank, “Coupled-wave theory of distributed feedback lasers,” J. Appl. Phys. 43, 2327–2335 (1972).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (1)

J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B (1)

R. C. Tiberio, G. A. Porkolab, M. J. Rooks, E. D. Wolf, R. J. Lang, A. Larsson, S. Forouhar, J. Cody, G. W. Wicks, T. Erdogan, O. King, and D. G. Hall, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. B 9, 2842–2845 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 (1)

C. Wu, T. Makino, M. Fallahi, R. G. A. Craig, G. Knight, I. Templeton, and C. Blaauw, “Novel circular grating surface-emitting laser with emission from center,” Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 1 33, L427–L429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Acta (1)

M. V. Perez, C. Gomez-Reino, and J. M. Cuadrado, “Diffraction patterns and zone plates produced by thin linear axicons,” Opt. Acta 33, 1161–1176 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (1)

Q. S. Ru, N. Ohyama, T. Honda, and J. Tsujiuchi, “An interferometric method for making equispaced circular gratings,” Opt. Commun. 67, 195–188 (1988).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (2)

R. H. Jordan and D. G. Hall, “Free-space azimuthal paraxial wave equation: the azimuthal Bessel–Gauss beam solution,” Opt. Lett. 20, 427–429 (1994).
[CrossRef]

D. Hall, “Vector beam solutions of Maxwell’s wave equation,” Opt. Lett. 21, 9–11 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Other (3)

T. Erdogan, “Circularly symmetric, distributed-feedback structures for surface-emitting semiconductor lasers,” Ph.D. dissertation (University of Rochester, Rochester, N.Y., 1992).

WGCALC is a program for the analysis of complex waveguide structures involving gratings. It calculates guided, radiation, and evanescent modes. The software was developed at The Institute of Optics by Robert Emmons.

H. Kogelnik, “Theory of optical waveguides,” in Guided-Wave Optoelectronics, T. Tamir, ed. (Springer-Verlag, New York, 1990), p. 83.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Far-field patterns of the optically pumped CCGSE DFB laser at (a) 400-mW optical pump power (just below circularly symmetric threshold) and (b) 500 mW (circularly symmetric operation). The pump beam pumped an area 80 µm in diameter.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Circular DFB laser far-field radiation patterns for a range of linear polarizer angles. This laser emits an azimuthally polarized, tightly confined circular beam when it is pumped continuously with a 500-mW, 514.5 nm, 80-µm-diameter argon-ion laser beam.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Circular DFB laser surface-emitted power versus pump-power density for circular gratings with 0.245-, 0.250-, and 0.255-µm periods. A star marks the power density that corresponds to emission of a circular beam. The last data point in each series immediately precedes permanent grating damage.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Circularly symmetric far-field radiation patterns for circular DFB lasers with grating period Λ of (c) 0.245, (d) 0.250, and (e) 0.255 µm. (a), (b) Near-field images of two lasers. The illuminated area covers a small fraction of grating diameter for (a) Λ=0.250 µm, whereas light is spread over the entire grating diameter for (b) Λ=0.255 µm.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Circular DFB laser spectra scanned during circularly symmetric operation of lasers with grating periods 0.245, 0.250, and 0.255 µm (1 Å = 0.1 nm).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Polarized far-field radiation patterns for a 0.250-µm grating. No pump power produced a circularly symmetric beam, although these patterns possess azimuthal symmetry and are azimuthally polarized.

Equations (1)

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κ=nf2-Neff22NeffωcΔhheff,

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