Abstract

Electric-field poling of silica glass provides the prospect of efficient second-order nonlinear interactions in optical fibers. Recent advances in quasi-phase-matched second-harmonic generation in electric-field poled silica fibers are reviewed.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  2. R. H. Stolen and H. W. K. Tom, “Self-organized harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 585 (1987).
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  3. N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “Extension of holography to multiwavelength fields,” JETP Lett. 45, 716 (1987).
  4. M. C. Farries, P. St. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, and D. N. Payne, “Second harmonic generation in an optical fiber by self-written χ(2) grating,” Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
    [Crossref]
  5. V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  6. E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Problem of the photoinduced second harmonic generation,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 575 (1989); “Photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 247 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, C. Krautschik, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Test of photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 381 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second harmonic generation: observation of charge separation due to the photovoltaic effect,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 3, 83 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  7. F. Ouellette, K. Hill, and D. C. Johnson, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical fibers by hydrogen and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1086 (1989).
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  8. R. Kashyap, “Phase-matched periodic electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 313 (1989).
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  11. A. Kamal, D. A. Weinberger, and W. H. Weber, “Spatially resolved Raman study of self-organized χ(2) gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 613 (1990).
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  15. V. Dominic and J. Feinberg, “Growth rate of second-harmonic generation in glass,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1761 (1992).
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  18. R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearities in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
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  19. A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
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  20. P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities induced in lead silicate glass by electron-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 693 (1993).
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  21. R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  22. P. G. Kazansky, V. Pruneri, and P. St. J. Russell, “Blue-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in thermally poled optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 843 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  23. A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Electro-optic phase modulation in silica channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1141 (1994).
  24. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fiber electrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  25. X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurement of the linear electro-optic coefficient in poled amorphous silica,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1819 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  26. X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurements of linear electro-optic effect in temperature/electric-field poled optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2162 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  27. P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, L. Dong, and C. N. Pannell, “Pockels effect in thermally poled silica optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 31, 62 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  28. X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A poled electro-optic fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 227 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  29. T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  30. P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  31. P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “Vacuum poling: an improved technique for effective thermal poling of silica glass and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1345 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  32. P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “Erasure of thermally poled second-order nonlinearity in fused silica by electron implantation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1141 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  33. V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Electric-field thermally poled optical fibers for quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  34. K. Hayata and M. Koshiba, “Group-velocity-matched second-harmonic generation: an efficient scheme for femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in periodically domain-inverted β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2188 (1993).
    [Crossref]
  35. V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, “Highly efficient green-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling of picosecond pulses from an amplified mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  36. V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Frequency doubling of picosecond pulses in periodically poled D-shaped silica fiber,” Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interaction between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  39. M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, and A. Smithson, “Generation of permanent optically induced second-order nonlinearities in optical fibers by poling,” Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
    [Crossref]
  40. P. G. Kazansky and V. Pruneri, “Electrically stimulated light-induced second-harmonic generation in glass: evidence of coherent photoconductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2956 (1997).
    [Crossref]
  41. E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilevski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  42. Y. Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliot, and A. V. Smith, “Asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution from interfering photoionization processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2353 (1992).
    [Crossref]
  43. N. B. Baranova, A. N. Chudinov, A. A. Shulginov, and B. Ya. Zel'dovich, “Polarization dependence of the phase of interference between single- and two-photon ionization,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1346 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  44. J. C. Miller, R. N. Compton, M. G. Payne, and W. R. Garrett, “Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization and third harmonic generation in xenon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 114 (1980).
    [Crossref]
  45. S. M. Park, S. P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, “Coherent laser control of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of HCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991).
    [Crossref]
  46. C. Chen, Y. Y. Yin, and D. S. Elliot, “Interference between optical transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 507 (1990).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  47. R. J. Glauber, “Coherence and quantum detection,” in Quantum Optics, R. J. Glauber, ed., Vol. 62 of Proceedings of the E. Fermi International School in Physics (Academic, New York, 1969).

1997 (3)

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Electric-field thermally poled optical fibers for quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Frequency doubling of picosecond pulses in periodically poled D-shaped silica fiber,” Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky and V. Pruneri, “Electrically stimulated light-induced second-harmonic generation in glass: evidence of coherent photoconductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2956 (1997).
[Crossref]

1996 (2)

1995 (5)

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, V. Pruneri, and P. St. J. Russell, “Blue-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in thermally poled optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 843 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, L. Dong, and C. N. Pannell, “Pockels effect in thermally poled silica optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 31, 62 (1995).
[Crossref]

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, and B. Lesche, “Imaging the nonlinear grating in frequency-doubling fibers,” Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[Crossref]

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilevski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (7)

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[Crossref]

A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Electro-optic phase modulation in silica channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1141 (1994).

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fiber electrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurement of the linear electro-optic coefficient in poled amorphous silica,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurements of linear electro-optic effect in temperature/electric-field poled optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2162 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “Vacuum poling: an improved technique for effective thermal poling of silica glass and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

1993 (4)

1992 (4)

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Picosecond light-induced noncentrosymmetry in dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dominic and J. Feinberg, “Growth rate of second-harmonic generation in glass,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1761 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliot, and A. V. Smith, “Asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution from interfering photoionization processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2353 (1992).
[Crossref]

1991 (5)

1990 (3)

V. Mizrahi, Y. Hibino, and G. Stegeman, “Polarization study of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78, 283 (1990).
[Crossref]

A. Kamal, D. A. Weinberger, and W. H. Weber, “Spatially resolved Raman study of self-organized χ(2) gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 613 (1990).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Y. Yin, and D. S. Elliot, “Interference between optical transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 507 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1989 (3)

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Problem of the photoinduced second harmonic generation,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 575 (1989); “Photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 247 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, C. Krautschik, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Test of photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 381 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second harmonic generation: observation of charge separation due to the photovoltaic effect,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 3, 83 (1992).
[Crossref]

F. Ouellette, K. Hill, and D. C. Johnson, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical fibers by hydrogen and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

R. Kashyap, “Phase-matched periodic electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 313 (1989).
[Crossref]

1988 (2)

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, and A. Smithson, “Generation of permanent optically induced second-order nonlinearities in optical fibers by poling,” Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (3)

R. H. Stolen and H. W. K. Tom, “Self-organized harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 585 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “Extension of holography to multiwavelength fields,” JETP Lett. 45, 716 (1987).

M. C. Farries, P. St. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, and D. N. Payne, “Second harmonic generation in an optical fiber by self-written χ(2) grating,” Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[Crossref]

1986 (1)

1980 (1)

J. C. Miller, R. N. Compton, M. G. Payne, and W. R. Garrett, “Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization and third harmonic generation in xenon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 114 (1980).
[Crossref]

1971 (1)

1962 (1)

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interaction between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Anderson, D.

Armstrong, J. A.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interaction between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Baranova, N. B.

Bergot, M.-V.

Bloembergen, N.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interaction between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Brueck, S. R. J.

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A poled electro-optic fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 227 (1996).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurements of linear electro-optic effect in temperature/electric-field poled optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2162 (1994).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurement of the linear electro-optic coefficient in poled amorphous silica,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearities in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Buchanan, M.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilevski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Butterworth, S. D.

Charra, F.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Picosecond light-induced noncentrosymmetry in dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chen, C.

Y. Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliot, and A. V. Smith, “Asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution from interfering photoionization processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2353 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Y. Yin, and D. S. Elliot, “Interference between optical transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 507 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Chudinov, A. N.

Compton, R. N.

J. C. Miller, R. N. Compton, M. G. Payne, and W. R. Garrett, “Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization and third harmonic generation in xenon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 114 (1980).
[Crossref]

Corkum, P. B.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilevski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Devaux, F.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Picosecond light-induced noncentrosymmetry in dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dianov, E. M.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Problem of the photoinduced second harmonic generation,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 575 (1989); “Photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 247 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, C. Krautschik, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Test of photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 381 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second harmonic generation: observation of charge separation due to the photovoltaic effect,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 3, 83 (1992).
[Crossref]

DiGiovanni, D. J.

Digonnet, M. J. F.

A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Electro-optic phase modulation in silica channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1141 (1994).

Dominic, V.

Dong, L.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, L. Dong, and C. N. Pannell, “Pockels effect in thermally poled silica optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 31, 62 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “Vacuum poling: an improved technique for effective thermal poling of silica glass and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Ducuing, J.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interaction between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Dupont, E.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilevski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Elliot, D. S.

Y. Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliot, and A. V. Smith, “Asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution from interfering photoionization processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2353 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Y. Yin, and D. S. Elliot, “Interference between optical transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 507 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Farries, M. C.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, and A. Smithson, “Generation of permanent optically induced second-order nonlinearities in optical fibers by poling,” Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. C. Farries, P. St. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, and D. N. Payne, “Second harmonic generation in an optical fiber by self-written χ(2) grating,” Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Feinberg, J.

Fermann, M. E.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, and A. Smithson, “Generation of permanent optically induced second-order nonlinearities in optical fibers by poling,” Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. C. Farries, P. St. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, and D. N. Payne, “Second harmonic generation in an optical fiber by self-written χ(2) grating,” Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Fleming, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

Fujiwara, T.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

Garrett, W. R.

J. C. Miller, R. N. Compton, M. G. Payne, and W. R. Garrett, “Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization and third harmonic generation in xenon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 114 (1980).
[Crossref]

Glauber, R. J.

R. J. Glauber, “Coherence and quantum detection,” in Quantum Optics, R. J. Glauber, ed., Vol. 62 of Proceedings of the E. Fermi International School in Physics (Academic, New York, 1969).

Gloge, D.

Gordon, R. J.

S. M. Park, S. P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, “Coherent laser control of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of HCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991).
[Crossref]

Hanna, D. C.

Hayata, K.

K. Hayata and M. Koshiba, “Group-velocity-matched second-harmonic generation: an efficient scheme for femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in periodically domain-inverted β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2188 (1993).
[Crossref]

Hibino, Y.

V. Mizrahi, Y. Hibino, and G. Stegeman, “Polarization study of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78, 283 (1990).
[Crossref]

Hill, K.

F. Ouellette, K. Hill, and D. C. Johnson, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical fibers by hydrogen and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

Ishii, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[Crossref]

Johnson, D. C.

F. Ouellette, K. Hill, and D. C. Johnson, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical fibers by hydrogen and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kamal, A.

Kashyap, R.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. Kashyap, “Phase-matched periodic electric-field-induced second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 313 (1989).
[Crossref]

Kazansky, P. G.

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Frequency doubling of picosecond pulses in periodically poled D-shaped silica fiber,” Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky and V. Pruneri, “Electrically stimulated light-induced second-harmonic generation in glass: evidence of coherent photoconductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2956 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Electric-field thermally poled optical fibers for quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, L. Dong, and C. N. Pannell, “Pockels effect in thermally poled silica optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 31, 62 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, V. Pruneri, and P. St. J. Russell, “Blue-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in thermally poled optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 843 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “Vacuum poling: an improved technique for effective thermal poling of silica glass and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fiber electrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “Erasure of thermally poled second-order nonlinearity in fused silica by electron implantation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1141 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities induced in lead silicate glass by electron-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 693 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Problem of the photoinduced second harmonic generation,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 575 (1989); “Photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 247 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, C. Krautschik, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Test of photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 381 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second harmonic generation: observation of charge separation due to the photovoltaic effect,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 3, 83 (1992).
[Crossref]

Kino, G. S.

A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Electro-optic phase modulation in silica channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1141 (1994).

Koshiba, M.

K. Hayata and M. Koshiba, “Group-velocity-matched second-harmonic generation: an efficient scheme for femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in periodically domain-inverted β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2188 (1993).
[Crossref]

Krautchik, C.

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

Krol, D. M.

Laurell, F.

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, and B. Lesche, “Imaging the nonlinear grating in frequency-doubling fibers,” Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[Crossref]

Lawandy, N. M.

M. D. Selker and N. M. Lawandy, “Observation of seeded second-harmonic generation in bulk germanosilicate fiber preform,” Opt. Commun. 77, 339 (1991).

Lesche, B.

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, and B. Lesche, “Imaging the nonlinear grating in frequency-doubling fibers,” Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[Crossref]

Li, L.

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, and A. Smithson, “Generation of permanent optically induced second-order nonlinearities in optical fibers by poling,” Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
[Crossref]

L. Li and D. N. Payne, “Permanently-induced linear electro-optic effect in silica optical fibers,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuAA2-1.

Liu, A. C.

A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Electro-optic phase modulation in silica channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1141 (1994).

Liu, H. C.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilevski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Long, X.-C.

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A poled electro-optic fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 227 (1996).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurements of linear electro-optic effect in temperature/electric-field poled optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2162 (1994).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurement of the linear electro-optic coefficient in poled amorphous silica,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

Lu, S. P.

S. M. Park, S. P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, “Coherent laser control of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of HCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991).
[Crossref]

Margulis, W.

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, and B. Lesche, “Imaging the nonlinear grating in frequency-doubling fibers,” Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[Crossref]

U. Österberg and W. Margulis, “Dye laser pumped by Nd:YAG laser pulses frequency doubled in glass optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 11, 516 (1986).
[Crossref]

McKee, P. F.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[Crossref]

Miller, J. C.

J. C. Miller, R. N. Compton, M. G. Payne, and W. R. Garrett, “Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization and third harmonic generation in xenon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 114 (1980).
[Crossref]

Mito, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[Crossref]

Mizrahi, V.

D. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, and J. E. Sipe, “Model for second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers based on asymmetric photoelectron emission from defect sites,” Opt. Lett. 16, 796 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi, Y. Hibino, and G. Stegeman, “Polarization study of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78, 283 (1990).
[Crossref]

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

Morse, T. P.

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

Mukherjee, N.

Myers, R. A.

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A poled electro-optic fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 227 (1996).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurements of linear electro-optic effect in temperature/electric-field poled optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2162 (1994).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurement of the linear electro-optic coefficient in poled amorphous silica,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearities in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Nunzi, J. M.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Picosecond light-induced noncentrosymmetry in dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Okada, A.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[Crossref]

Osterberg, U.

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

Österberg, U.

Ouellette, F.

F. Ouellette, K. Hill, and D. C. Johnson, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical fibers by hydrogen and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

Pannell, C. N.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, L. Dong, and C. N. Pannell, “Pockels effect in thermally poled silica optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 31, 62 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fiber electrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994).
[Crossref]

Park, S. M.

S. M. Park, S. P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, “Coherent laser control of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of HCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991).
[Crossref]

Payne, D. N.

M. C. Farries, P. St. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, and D. N. Payne, “Second harmonic generation in an optical fiber by self-written χ(2) grating,” Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[Crossref]

L. Li and D. N. Payne, “Permanently-induced linear electro-optic effect in silica optical fibers,” in Integrated Guided Wave Optics, Vol. 4 of 1989 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1989), paper TuAA2-1.

Payne, M. G.

J. C. Miller, R. N. Compton, M. G. Payne, and W. R. Garrett, “Resonantly enhanced multiphoton ionization and third harmonic generation in xenon gas,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 45, 114 (1980).
[Crossref]

Pershan, P. S.

J. A. Armstrong, N. Bloembergen, J. Ducuing, and P. S. Pershan, “Interaction between light waves in a nonlinear dielectric,” Phys. Rev. 127, 1918 (1962).
[Crossref]

Pleibel, W.

Poole, S.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

Poyntz-Wright, L. J.

Pruneri, V.

P. G. Kazansky and V. Pruneri, “Electrically stimulated light-induced second-harmonic generation in glass: evidence of coherent photoconductivity,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 14, 2956 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Frequency doubling of picosecond pulses in periodically poled D-shaped silica fiber,” Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Electric-field thermally poled optical fibers for quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, “Highly efficient green-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling of picosecond pulses from an amplified mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, V. Pruneri, and P. St. J. Russell, “Blue-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in thermally poled optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 843 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Raimond, P.

F. Charra, F. Devaux, J. M. Nunzi, and P. Raimond, “Picosecond light-induced noncentrosymmetry in dye solution,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2440 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Rogers, D. C.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[Crossref]

Russell, P. St. J.

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, L. Dong, and C. N. Pannell, “Pockels effect in thermally poled silica optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 31, 62 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, V. Pruneri, and P. St. J. Russell, “Blue-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in thermally poled optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 843 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fiber electrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “Vacuum poling: an improved technique for effective thermal poling of silica glass and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “Erasure of thermally poled second-order nonlinearity in fused silica by electron implantation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1141 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities induced in lead silicate glass by electron-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 693 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

M.-V. Bergot, M. C. Farries, M. E. Fermann, L. Li, L. J. Poyntz-Wright, P. St. J. Russell, and A. Smithson, “Generation of permanent optically induced second-order nonlinearities in optical fibers by poling,” Opt. Lett. 13, 592 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. C. Farries, P. St. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, and D. N. Payne, “Second harmonic generation in an optical fiber by self-written χ(2) grating,” Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[Crossref]

Sasaki, K.

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[Crossref]

Sceats, M.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

Selker, M. D.

M. D. Selker and N. M. Lawandy, “Observation of seeded second-harmonic generation in bulk germanosilicate fiber preform,” Opt. Commun. 77, 339 (1991).

Shulginov, A. A.

Sipe, J. E.

D. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, and J. E. Sipe, “Model for second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers based on asymmetric photoelectron emission from defect sites,” Opt. Lett. 16, 796 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

Smith, A. V.

Y. Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliot, and A. V. Smith, “Asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution from interfering photoionization processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2353 (1992).
[Crossref]

Smithson, A.

Stegeman, G.

V. Mizrahi, Y. Hibino, and G. Stegeman, “Polarization study of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78, 283 (1990).
[Crossref]

Stegeman, G. E.

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

Stepanov, D. Yu.

E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Problem of the photoinduced second harmonic generation,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 19, 575 (1989); “Photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 247 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, C. Krautschik, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Test of photovoltaic model of photoinduced second harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 1, 381 (1991); E. M. Dianov, P. G. Kazansky, D. S. Starodubov, and D. Yu. Stepanov, “Photoinduced second harmonic generation: observation of charge separation due to the photovoltaic effect,” Sov. Lightwave Commun. 3, 83 (1992).
[Crossref]

Stolen, R. H.

Tom, H. W. K.

Veldhuis, G. J.

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[Crossref]

Wasilevski, Z. R.

E. Dupont, P. B. Corkum, H. C. Liu, M. Buchanan, and Z. R. Wasilevski, “Phase-controlled currents in semiconductors,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3596 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Weber, W. H.

Weinberger, D. A.

Wong, D.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

Yin, Y. Y.

Y. Y. Yin, C. Chen, D. S. Elliot, and A. V. Smith, “Asymmetric photoelectron angular distribution from interfering photoionization processes,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 2353 (1992).
[Crossref]

C. Chen, Y. Y. Yin, and D. S. Elliot, “Interference between optical transitions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 507 (1990).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Zeldovich, B. Ya.

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “Extension of holography to multiwavelength fields,” JETP Lett. 45, 716 (1987).

Zel'dovich, B. Ya.

Zhao, Y.

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. Lett. (5)

V. Mizrahi, U. Osterberg, C. Krautchik, G. E. Stegeman, J. E. Sipe, and T. P. Morse, “Direct test of a model of efficient second-harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 53, 557 (1988).
[Crossref]

F. Ouellette, K. Hill, and D. C. Johnson, “Enhancement of second-harmonic generation in optical fibers by hydrogen and heat treatment,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 1086 (1989).
[Crossref]

A. Okada, K. Ishii, K. Mito, and K. Sasaki, “Second-harmonic generation in novel corona poled glass waveguides,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 60, 2853 (1992).
[Crossref]

R. Kashyap, G. J. Veldhuis, D. C. Rogers, and P. F. McKee, “Phase-matched second-harmonic generation by periodic poling of fused silica,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 1332 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. Hayata and M. Koshiba, “Group-velocity-matched second-harmonic generation: an efficient scheme for femtosecond ultraviolet pulse generation in periodically domain-inverted β-BaB2O4,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 2188 (1993).
[Crossref]

Electron. Lett. (7)

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Frequency doubling of picosecond pulses in periodically poled D-shaped silica fiber,” Electron. Lett. 33, 318 (1997).
[Crossref]

T. Fujiwara, D. Wong, Y. Zhao, S. Fleming, S. Poole, and M. Sceats, “Electro-optic modulation in germanosilicate fiber with UV-excited poling,” Electron. Lett. 31, 573 (1995).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “Vacuum poling: an improved technique for effective thermal poling of silica glass and germanosilicate optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1345 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, and C. N. Pannell, “Optical fiber electrets: observation of electro-acousto-optic transduction,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1436 (1994).
[Crossref]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurements of linear electro-optic effect in temperature/electric-field poled optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 30, 2162 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, P. St. J. Russell, L. Dong, and C. N. Pannell, “Pockels effect in thermally poled silica optical fibers,” Electron. Lett. 31, 62 (1995).
[Crossref]

M. C. Farries, P. St. J. Russell, M. E. Fermann, and D. N. Payne, “Second harmonic generation in an optical fiber by self-written χ(2) grating,” Electron. Lett. 23, 322 (1987).
[Crossref]

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. (2)

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “A poled electro-optic fiber,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 8, 227 (1996).
[Crossref]

V. Pruneri and P. G. Kazansky, “Electric-field thermally poled optical fibers for quasi-phase-matched second harmonic generation,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 9, 185 (1997).
[Crossref]

J. Chem. Phys. (1)

S. M. Park, S. P. Lu, and R. J. Gordon, “Coherent laser control of the resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization of HCl,” J. Chem. Phys. 94, 8622 (1991).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

JETP Lett. (1)

N. B. Baranova and B. Ya. Zeldovich, “Extension of holography to multiwavelength fields,” JETP Lett. 45, 716 (1987).

Nature (London) (1)

W. Margulis, F. Laurell, and B. Lesche, “Imaging the nonlinear grating in frequency-doubling fibers,” Nature (London) 378, 699 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (2)

V. Mizrahi, Y. Hibino, and G. Stegeman, “Polarization study of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers,” Opt. Commun. 78, 283 (1990).
[Crossref]

M. D. Selker and N. M. Lawandy, “Observation of seeded second-harmonic generation in bulk germanosilicate fiber preform,” Opt. Commun. 77, 339 (1991).

Opt. Lett. (16)

D. Anderson, V. Mizrahi, and J. E. Sipe, “Model for second-harmonic generation in glass optical fibers based on asymmetric photoelectron emission from defect sites,” Opt. Lett. 16, 796 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Kamal, D. A. Weinberger, and W. H. Weber, “Spatially resolved Raman study of self-organized χ(2) gratings in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 15, 613 (1990).
[Crossref]

R. A. Myers, N. Mukherjee, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Large second-order nonlinearities in poled fused silica,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1732 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Dominic and J. Feinberg, “Growth rate of second-harmonic generation in glass,” Opt. Lett. 17, 1761 (1992).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. M. Krol, D. J. DiGiovanni, W. Pleibel, and R. H. Stolen, “Observation of resonant enhancement of photoinduced second-harmonic generation in Tm-doped aluminosilicate glass fibers,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1220 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

U. Österberg and W. Margulis, “Dye laser pumped by Nd:YAG laser pulses frequency doubled in glass optical fiber,” Opt. Lett. 11, 516 (1986).
[Crossref]

R. H. Stolen and H. W. K. Tom, “Self-organized harmonic generation in optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 12, 585 (1987).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

X.-C. Long, R. A. Myers, and S. R. J. Brueck, “Measurement of the linear electro-optic coefficient in poled amorphous silica,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1819 (1994).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, V. Pruneri, and P. St. J. Russell, “Blue-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling in thermally poled optical fibers,” Opt. Lett. 20, 843 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. C. Liu, M. J. F. Digonnet, and G. S. Kino, “Electro-optic phase modulation in silica channel waveguide,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1141 (1994).

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities induced in lead silicate glass by electron-beam irradiation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 693 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. G. Kazansky, A. Kamal, and P. St. J. Russell, “Erasure of thermally poled second-order nonlinearity in fused silica by electron implantation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1141 (1993).
[Crossref]

P. G. Kazansky, L. Dong, and P. St. J. Russell, “High second-order nonlinearities in poled silicate fibers,” Opt. Lett. 19, 701 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

V. Pruneri, S. D. Butterworth, and D. C. Hanna, “Highly efficient green-light generation by quasi-phase-matched frequency doubling of picosecond pulses from an amplified mode-locked Nd:YLF laser,” Opt. Lett. 21, 390 (1996).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

First-order quasi-phase matching. The nonlinear coefficient d is modulated over a period equal to twice the coherence length (lc) by periodic alternation of poled and unpoled sections. The step growth for the SH intensity is quasi-quadratic (solid curve). The NPM case is also shown.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

QPM grating period (a) as a function of fundamental wavelength for different core radii and (b) as a function of core radius for different wavelengths in a silica fiber. The modes are fundamental (LP01) at both ω and 2ω. The NA of the fiber is 0.17, which provides cutoff wavelengths (filled circles) of 1.15, 1.33, and 1.51 µm for core radii of 2.6, 3, and 3.4 µm, respectively.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

QPM grating period as a function of the fundamental wavelength for three interactions in a silica fiber. The NA of the fiber is 0.17, and the core radius is 3 µm.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

GVM and acceptance bandwidth for QPM SHG as functions of the fundamental wavelength in a silica fiber with a NA of 0.17.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Aluminum pattern (25-µm period and 1.8 cm long) on the plane face of the D-shaped fiber. The transverse metal lines are connected through longitudinal metal lines located at the boundaries of the fiber.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Quasi-phase-matching curve: SH power against fundamental wavelength.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Cross section of a germanium-doped silica fiber with internal electrodes. The fiber had a 0.32 NA, a 3-µm core diameter, a 165-µm outer diameter, a 50-µm hole diameter, and 9-µm interhole spacing. Metal wires of 25-µm diameter were inserted into the fiber over lengths varying from 5 to 500 mm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

SH power versus fundamental wavelength in a fiber thermally poled through internal electrodes.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Time dependence of a SH signal in a fiber with an external SH seeding of 40-µW average power (filled triangles). The seeding was launched at t=0. The SH growth was monitored by blocking of the SH seeding. Also shown is time dependence of SH signal in a fiber with applied voltage of 5 kV (open triangles). The voltage was switched on at t=0. The length of the fiber is 25 cm, and the superposition of the electrodes is 20 cm. The average pump power is 12 mW.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Time dependence of a SH signal in a fiber when an applied voltage of 5 kV was repeatedly switched on and off. The instants when the voltage was on and off are shown by arrows.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Dependence of (a) the maximum SH signal and (b) the time necessary for reaching half of this maximum on applied voltage when the voltage is switched on and off, respectively.

Equations (13)

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Λ=Λ(λ, a, NA)=λ2[neff2ω(λ, a, NA)-neffω(λ, a, NA)]
P2ω=8ω2deff2neff(2ω)neff2(ω)0c03Pω2AOVL1Δβ2sin2ΔβL2ρ,
GVM=GVM(ω, a, NA)=1Vg(ω, a, NA)-1Vg(2ω, a, NA).
P|a2EωEω+a1E2ω|2=|a2|2Iω2+|a1|2I2ω+2 Re(a1*a2EωEωE2ω*),
σ|a2|2Iω2+|a1|2I2ω,
jcoh2 Re(a1*a2EωEωE2ω*).
jcohcos 2πz/Λ,Λ=λ/2(n2ω-nω),
P|a2EωEω+b2E0E2ω|2=|a2|2Iω2+|b2|2I2ωE02+2 Re(a2b2*E0EωEωE2ω*),
σ=σ0+σcoh,
σ0|a2|2Iω2+|b2|2I2ωE02
σcoh2 Re(a2b2*E0EωEωE2ω*)cos 2πz/Λ
dEc/dt=-Ec/τ,τ=/σ,
Ecσcoh/σ0E0[1-exp(-t/τ0)]exp(-t/τ0)+E0 exp(-t/τ0)=Eccoh+Ec0,

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