Abstract

The time-integrated spatial coherence of neonlike germanium x-ray laser radiation has been studied with a new dispersing coherence diagnostic. Angle-dependent spatial coherence data are recorded by sampling the diverging beam at each lasing wavelength in several directions simultaneously. Measurements of the spatial coherence, and hence effective source sizes, relevant to the output beams from double-slab targets for the J=21 spectral lines at wavelengths 28.6, 23.6, and 23.2 nm and for the J=01 line at 19.6 nm show differences, which indicate different conditions in the plasma volume amplifying these emissions. Targets are pumped by subnanosecond pulse drivers, with and without a prepulse, but 19.6 nm emission is detected only in the prepulsed case. The differences are discussed in terms of the time evolution of the spectral lines.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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    [CrossRef]

1997 (1)

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

1996 (4)

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1995 (4)

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51(6), 4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Daido, R. Kodama, K. Murai, G. Yuan, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Significant improvement of the efficiency and brightness of the J=0–1 19.6 nm line of the germanium laser by use of double-pulsepumping,” Opt. Lett. 20, 61–63 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminatinga Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of a small divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguidingwith a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3219 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

R. A. London, “Development of coherent x-ray lasers,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2707–2713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, P. Charalambous, M. T. Browne, P. J. Smith, G. E. Slark, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “Sub-optical imaging with the Vulcan x-ray laser and germanium radiation,” Opt. Lett. 15, 661–663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-raylasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (5)

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

1984 (1)

Al Hadithi, Y.

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Amendt, P.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Azuma, H.

Barbee, T. W.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Barbee , Jr., T. W.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminatinga Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Behjat, A.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Browne, M. T.

Burge, R. E.

Cairns, G. F.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Carillon, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Carter, M. R.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Cauble, R.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminatinga Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Celliers, P.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminatinga Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Charalambous, P.

Chen, H. Z.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Da Silva, L. B.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminatinga Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Daido, H.

Danson, C.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

DaSilva, L. B.

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-raylasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Decker, C.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Demir, A.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Dhez, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Dwivedi, L.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Feit, M. D.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fill, E.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51(6), 4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Fukuda, Y.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Healey, S.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Healey, S. B.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Healy, S. B.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Henke, B. L.

Holden, M.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Holden, P. B.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Honda, T.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iwasaki, H.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Jacoby, J.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jaegle, P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Jamelot, G.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kalantar, D.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Kanabe, T.

Kato, Y.

H. Daido, R. Kodama, K. Murai, G. Yuan, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Significant improvement of the efficiency and brightness of the J=0–1 19.6 nm line of the germanium laser by use of double-pulsepumping,” Opt. Lett. 20, 61–63 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of a small divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguidingwith a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3219 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Key, M. H.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Kidd, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kim, N. S.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Klisnick, A.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Koch, J. A.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kodama, I.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Kodama, R.

H. Daido, R. Kodama, K. Murai, G. Yuan, M. Takagi, and Y. Kato, “Significant improvement of the efficiency and brightness of the J=0–1 19.6 nm line of the germanium laser by use of double-pulsepumping,” Opt. Lett. 20, 61–63 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of a small divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguidingwith a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3219 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Krishnan, J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kurkcuoglu, M.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Kwok, S. L.

Lamb, M. J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Lewis, C. L. S.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of a small divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguidingwith a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3219 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, P. Charalambous, M. T. Browne, P. J. Smith, G. E. Slark, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “Sub-optical imaging with the Vulcan x-ray laser and germanium radiation,” Opt. Lett. 15, 661–663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, Y.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51(6), 4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Libby, S. B.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Lin, J.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

London, R. A.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. A. London, “Development of coherent x-ray lasers,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2707–2713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacGowan, B. J.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-raylasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of a small divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguidingwith a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3219 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

MacPhee, A. G.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Matthews, D. L.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

McCabe, S. P.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

Miura, E.

Moreno, J. C.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminatinga Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-raylasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Mrowka, S.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Murai, K.

Nakai, S.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Neely, D.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of a small divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguidingwith a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3219 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. E. Burge, P. Charalambous, M. T. Browne, P. J. Smith, G. E. Slark, C. L. S. Lewis, and D. Neely, “Sub-optical imaging with the Vulcan x-ray laser and germanium radiation,” Opt. Lett. 15, 661–663 (1993).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Niibe, M.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Nilsen, J.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-raylasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Norreys, P.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Norreys, P. N.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Nugent, K. A.

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Ohomoibhi, J. O.

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O'Neill, D.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

O'Neill, D. M.

K. Murai, H. Shiraga, G. Yuan, H. Daido, H. Azuma, E. Miura, R. Kodama, M. Takagi, T. Kanabe, H. Takabe, Y. Kato, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Lasing properties of J=0–1 and J=2–1 lines of the neon-like germanium x-ray laser,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2287–2297 (1994).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Osterheid, A. L.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Pert, G. J.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Plowes, J.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Plowes, J. A.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Pretzler, G.

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51(6), 4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ramsden, S. A.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Raucourt, J. P.

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Scofield, J. A.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Shinohara, K.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Shiraga, H.

Slark, G.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Slark, G. E.

Smith, C. G.

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Smith, P. J.

Smith, R.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Stone, G. F.

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Strauss, M.

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Takabe, H.

Takagi, M.

Tallents, G. J.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K. A.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Trebes, J. E.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Tsukamoto, T.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Uejio, J. Y.

Uhomoibhi, J.

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Walling, R. S.

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wan, A. S.

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Celliers, F. Weber, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., R. Cauble, A. S. Wan, and J. C. Moreno, “Fringe formation and coherence of a soft x-ray laser beam illuminatinga Mach–Zehnder interferometer,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1907–1909 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Wark, J. S.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Warwick, P. J.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Weber, F.

Wolfrum, E.

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

Yamada, H. T.

Yoshinobu, T.

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Young, G. C.

Yuan, G.

Zhang, J.

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, A. MacPhee, D. Neely, M. Holden, J. Krishnan, G. J. Tallents, M. H. Key, P. N. Norreys, C. G. Smith, J. Zhang, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. Plowes, and S. A. Ramsden, “Preliminary studies of radiation coupling between remote soft x-raylaser amplifiers,” Appl. Phys. B 58, 51–56 (1994).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (2)

J. X-ray Sci. Technol. (1)

K. A. Tanaka, Y. Kato, S. Nakai, K. Shinohara, T. Honda, I. Kodama, H. Iwasaki, T. Yoshinobu, T. Tsukamoto, M. Niibe, Y. Fukuda, D. Neely, A. MacPhee, and G. Slark, “Sub-nanometer in-line soft x-ray holography using the germanium laserin the 20 nm wavelength region,” J. X-ray Sci. Technol. 5, 105–120 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Commun. (4)

R. Kodama, D. Neely, L. Dwivedi, M. H. Key, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. O'Neill, P. Norreys, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, G. J. Tallents, J. Uhomoibhi, and J. Zhang, “Time-resolved measurements of the angular distribution of lasing at23.6 nm in Ne-like germanium,” Opt. Commun. 90, 95–98 (1992).
[CrossRef]

A. Behjat, J. Lin, G. J. Tallents, A. Demir, M. Kurkcuoglu, C. L. S. Lewis, A. G. MacPhee, S. P. McCabe, P. J. Warwick, D. Neely, E. Wolfrum, S. B. Healy, and G. J. Pert, “The effects of multi-pulse irradiation on X-ray laser media,” Opt. Commun. 135, 49–54 (1997).
[CrossRef]

G. F. Cairns, C. L. S. Lewis, M. J. Lamb, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, P. Norreys, M. H. Key, S. B. Healey, P. B. Holden, G. J. Pert, J. A. Plowes, G. J. Tallents, and A. Demir, “Using low and high prepulses to enhance the J=0–1transition at 19.6 nm in the Ne-like germanium XUV laser,” Opt. Commun. 123, 777–789 (1996).
[CrossRef]

C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, D. M. O'Neill, J. O. Ohomoibhi, M. H. Key, Y. Al Hadithi, and G. J. Tallents, “An injector-amplifier double target geometry for Ne-like Ge x-ray laserschemes,” Opt. Commun. 91, 71–76 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Eng. (1)

A. S. Wan, J. C. Moreno, B. J. MacGowan, S. B. Libby, J. A. Koch, J. Nilsen, A. L. Osterheid, J. A. Scofield, J. E. Trebes, and R. S. Walling, “Characterization of germanium stripe X-ray lasers,” Opt. Eng. 33, 2434–2441 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Opt. Lett. (3)

Phys. Fluids B (1)

R. A. London, “Development of coherent x-ray lasers,” Phys. Fluids B 5, 2707–2713 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (4)

J. Zhang, P. J. Warwick, E. Wolfrum, M. H. Key, C. Danson, A. Demir, S. Healey, D. Kalantar, N. S. Kim, C. L. S. Lewis, J. Lin, A. G. MacPhee, D. Neely, J. Nilsen, G. J. Pert, R. Smith, G. J. Tallents, and J. S. Wark, “Saturated output of a Ne-like Ge x-ray laser at 19.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. A 54(6), R4653–6 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Amendt, M. Strauss, and R. A. London, “Plasma fluctuations and x-ray laser transverse coherence,” Phys. Rev. A 53, R23–26 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. Nilsen, B. J. MacGowan, L. B. DaSilva, and J. C. Moreno, “Prepulse technique for producing low-Z Ne-like x-raylasers,” Phys. Rev. A 48, 4682–4685 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Y. Li, G. Pretzler, and E. Fill, “Spatial position of prepulse induced J=0–1, 3p–3s lasing in low-Z neonlike ions,” Phys. Rev. A 51(6), 4341–4344 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (3)

R. Kodama, D. Neely, Y. Kato, H. Daido, K. Murai, G. Yuan, A. MacPhee, and C. L. S. Lewis, “Generation of a small divergence soft x-ray laser by plasma waveguidingwith a curved target,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3215–3219 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

J. E. Trebes, K. A. Nugent, S. Mrowka, R. A. London, T. W. Barbee, M. R. Carter, J. A. Koch, B. J. MacGowan, D. L. Matthews, L. B. Da Silva, G. F. Stone, and M. D. Feit, “Measurement of the spatial coherence of a soft x-ray laser,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 588–591 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

A. Carillon, H. Z. Chen, P. Dhez, L. Dwivedi, J. Jacoby, P. Jaegle, G. Jamelot, J. Zhang, M. H. Key, A. Kidd, A. Klisnick, R. Kodama, J. Krishnan, C. L. S. Lewis, D. Neely, P. Norreys, D. O'Neill, G. J. Pert, S. A. Ramsden, J. P. Raucourt, G. J. Tallents, and J. Uhomoibhi, “Saturated and near diffraction-limited operation of an XUV laser at23.6 nm,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 2917–2920 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rev. Sci. Instrum. (1)

K. A. Nugent and J. E. Trebes, “Coherence measurement technique for short wavelength light sources,” Rev. Sci. Instrum. 63, 2146–2151 (1992).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

R. Cauble, L. B. Da Silva, T. W. Barbee, Jr., P. Celliers, C. Decker, R. A. London, J. C. Moreno, J. E. Trebes, and A. S. Wan, “Simultaneous measurement of the local gain and electron density inx-ray lasers,” Science 273, 1093–1096 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Other (3)

J. W. Goodman, Statistical Optics (Wiley, New York, 1984), Chap. 5.

M. V. Klein and T. E. Furtak, Optics, 2nd ed. (Wiley, New York, 1986), Chap. 7.

Y. Kato, M. Yamanaka, H. Daido, H. Shiraga, H. Azuma, K. Murai, G. Yuan, E. Miura, T. Kanabe, M. Takagi, S. Nakai, C. L. S. Lewis, D. M. O'Neill, D. Neely, M. Niibi, N. Tsukamoto, and Y. Fukuda, “Coherence and double-passamplification in Ge soft x-ray laser,” in X-Ray Lasers1992, E. E. Fill, ed., Conference Series Vol. 125 (Institute of Physics, Bristol, UK, 1992), pp. 9–16.

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Figures (6)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Dispersed Ge XRL emission, without prepulse, recorded with new diagnostic. The diffraction direction is vertical (and is cropped just beyond the third order); the Young's slit interference direction is horizontal. The slit separations left to right are 100, 75, 100, 150, and 200 µm (partly obscured). Young's slit interference fringes are centered about diffraction orders from the wavelengths 23.6–23.2 nm, which are completely separated in the third diffraction order, and 28.6 nm.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Schematic diagram of target chamber with double-slab Ge target. The target symmetry axis is marked. Target-to-diagnostic distance is 0.500 m, diagnostic-to-film distance 0.956 m. The diagnostic has four slit pairs in the XRL beam: position 1, farthest from the target symmetry axis (100 µm separation); position 2 (150 µm); position 3 (100 µm); and position 4 (200 µm).

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Different visibilities for the 19.6-, 23.6–23.2- and 28.6-nm lines following prepulse between the interference fringes centered about the first diffraction orders for the slit pairs in position 2 (150-µm separation).

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental intensity curves (full lines) showing Young's fringes for 19.6-nm radiation in the first-order diffraction for slit positions 1–4 [(a)–(d), respectively]. Calculated intensities from truncated Gaussian source model are also shown (dotted curves): σ=20 µm for each calculated curve.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Experimental angular intensities for 19.6-, 23.6–23.2-, and 28.6-nm spectral lines derived with the diagnostic. Angular separation between slit pairs is 3.2 mrad.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Model calculations showing the dependence of interference fringe visibility on the model width parameter σ. Calculations are for 23.6-nm wavelength and three slit separations: 100, 150, and 200 µm.

Tables (1)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Angular Variations of Fringe Visibilities and Model σ Values

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

V(Δx, Δy)=|μ(Δx, Δy)|,
I(x)=I0 exp(-x2/2σ2),-σx3σ,
E(P)=Ena(P)τ(ηx)exp-i π2ηx2dηx,
Ac=--|μ(Δx, Δy)|2dΔxdΔy.
ac=-|μ(Δx)|2dΔx=20V2(Δx)dΔx.
Ac=(λd)2As.

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