Abstract

We study theoretically the dependence of the photorefractive response ofa periodically poled ferroelectric on the spatial frequency of light fringes, on the period of the domain inversion, and on its mark-to-space ratio. The photovoltaic effect, the drift of photoelectrons under an applied field, and their diffusion are considered as charge-transport mechanisms. Strong suppression of the photorefractive properties at low spatial frequencies (reduction of optical damage) together with retention of these properties in a region of short-fringe spacing are shown. We also found that the periodicity of the domain structure can produce a new kind of photorefractive parametric wave coupling. This coupling is characterized by a large gain factor for the waves propagating at angles that depend on the domain-inversion period. Finally, we discuss promising photorefractive experiments in periodically poled lithium niobate.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an externalfield for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).
  2. W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, “Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).
  3. J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).
  4. L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. R. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodicallypoled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).
  5. S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).
  6. Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).
  7. H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, and G. Ardvisson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).
  8. V. Pruneri, R. Koch, P. G. Kazansky, W. A. Clarkson, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “49 mW of cw blue light generated by first-order quasi-phase-matchedfrequency doubling of a diode-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2375–2377 (1995).
  9. V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “532 nm pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poledlithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2126–2128 (1995).
  10. V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).
  11. M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, and M. M. Fejer, “Photorefractive effect in periodically poled ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett. 21, 857–859 (1996).
  12. A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive processin LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).
  13. B. I. Sturman and V. M. Fridkin, The Photovoltaicand Photorefractive Effects in Noncentrosymmetric Materials (Gordon& Breach, Philadelphia, 1992).
  14. B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).
  15. P. Günter and J.-P. Huignard, eds., PhotorefractiveMaterials and Their Applications I, Vol. 61 of Topics in Applied Physics(Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1988).
  16. B. I. Sturman, S. G. Odoulov, and M. Yu. Goul'kov, “Parametric four-wave processes in photorefractive crystals,” Phys. Rep. 275, 197–254 (1996).
  17. N. N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odoulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).
  18. T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).
  19. T. R. Volk, M. Wöhlecke, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical damage resistant impurities in LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1681–1687 (1994).

1996

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, and G. Ardvisson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

B. I. Sturman, S. G. Odoulov, and M. Yu. Goul'kov, “Parametric four-wave processes in photorefractive crystals,” Phys. Rep. 275, 197–254 (1996).

M. Taya, M. C. Bashaw, and M. M. Fejer, “Photorefractive effect in periodically poled ferroelectrics,” Opt. Lett. 21, 857–859 (1996).

1995

L. E. Myers, R. C. Eckardt, M. M. Fejer, R. L. Byer, W. R. Bosenberg, and J. R. Pierce, “Quasi-phase-matched optical parametric oscillators in bulk periodicallypoled LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2102–2116 (1995).

V. Pruneri, R. Koch, P. G. Kazansky, W. A. Clarkson, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “49 mW of cw blue light generated by first-order quasi-phase-matchedfrequency doubling of a diode-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2375–2377 (1995).

V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “532 nm pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poledlithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2126–2128 (1995).

V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

1994

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, “Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).

T. R. Volk, M. Wöhlecke, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical damage resistant impurities in LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1681–1687 (1994).

1993

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an externalfield for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).

1990

T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).

1979

N. N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odoulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

1974

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive processin LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).

Aguilar, Maria

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

Agullo-Lopez, F.

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

Ardvisson, G.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, and G. Ardvisson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).

Barr, J. R. M.

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).

Bashaw, M. C.

Bosenberg, W. R.

Burns, W. K.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, “Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).

Byer, R. L.

Chen, Q.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).

Clarkson, W. A.

Eckardt, R. C.

Fejer, M. M.

Ge, C. Z.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Glass, A. M.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive processin LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).

Goldberg, L.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, “Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).

Goul'kov, M. Yu.

B. I. Sturman, S. G. Odoulov, and M. Yu. Goul'kov, “Parametric four-wave processes in photorefractive crystals,” Phys. Rep. 275, 197–254 (1996).

Hanna, D. C.

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).

V. Pruneri, R. Koch, P. G. Kazansky, W. A. Clarkson, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “49 mW of cw blue light generated by first-order quasi-phase-matchedfrequency doubling of a diode-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2375–2377 (1995).

V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “532 nm pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poledlithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2126–2128 (1995).

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).

Henriksson, P.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, and G. Ardvisson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).

Hong, J. F.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Karlsson, H.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, and G. Ardvisson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).

Kazansky, P. G.

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).

V. Pruneri, R. Koch, P. G. Kazansky, W. A. Clarkson, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “49 mW of cw blue light generated by first-order quasi-phase-matchedfrequency doubling of a diode-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2375–2377 (1995).

Koch, R.

Krasnikov, V. V.

T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).

Kukhtarev, N. N.

N. N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odoulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

Laurell, F.

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, and G. Ardvisson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).

Markov, V. B.

N. N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odoulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

McElhanon, W.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, “Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).

Ming, N. B.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Myers, L. E.

Nada, N.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an externalfield for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).

Negran, T. J.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive processin LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).

Odoulov, S. G.

B. I. Sturman, S. G. Odoulov, and M. Yu. Goul'kov, “Parametric four-wave processes in photorefractive crystals,” Phys. Rep. 275, 197–254 (1996).

N. N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odoulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

Pierce, J. R.

Pruneri, V.

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).

V. Pruneri, R. Koch, P. G. Kazansky, W. A. Clarkson, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “49 mW of cw blue light generated by first-order quasi-phase-matchedfrequency doubling of a diode-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2375–2377 (1995).

V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “532 nm pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poledlithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2126–2128 (1995).

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).

Pryalkin, V. I.

T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).

Risk, W. P.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).

Rubinina, N. M.

T. R. Volk, M. Wöhlecke, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical damage resistant impurities in LiNbO3,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1681–1687 (1994).

T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).

Russell, P. St.

V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).

Russell, P. St. J.

V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “532 nm pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poledlithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2126–2128 (1995).

V. Pruneri, R. Koch, P. G. Kazansky, W. A. Clarkson, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “49 mW of cw blue light generated by first-order quasi-phase-matchedfrequency doubling of a diode-pumped 946 nm Nd:YAG laser,” Opt. Lett. 20, 2375–2377 (1995).

Saitoh, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an externalfield for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).

Shu, H.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Soskin, M. S.

N. N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odoulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

Sturman, B. I.

B. I. Sturman, S. G. Odoulov, and M. Yu. Goul'kov, “Parametric four-wave processes in photorefractive crystals,” Phys. Rep. 275, 197–254 (1996).

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

Taya, M.

Volk, T. J.

T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).

Volk, T. R.

Volkov, V. V.

T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).

von der Linde, D.

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive processin LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).

Wang, H. F.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Watanabe, K.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an externalfield for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).

Webjörn, J.

V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).

V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “532 nm pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poledlithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2126–2128 (1995).

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).

Wöhlecke, M.

Yamada, M.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an externalfield for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).

Zhang, Z. Y.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Zhu, S. N.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Zhu, Y. Y.

S. N. Zhu, Y. Y. Zhu, Z. Y. Zhang, H. Shu, H. F. Wang, J. F. Hong, C. Z. Ge, and N. B. Ming, “LiTaO3crystal periodically poled by applying an external pulsed field,” J. Appl. Phys. 77, 5481–5483 (1995).

Appl. Phys. Lett.

M. Yamada, N. Nada, M. Saitoh, and K. Watanabe, “First-order quasi-phase matched LiNbO3 waveguide periodically poled by applying an externalfield for efficient blue second-harmonic generation,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 62, 435–436 (1993).

A. M. Glass, D. von der Linde, and T. J. Negran, “High-voltage bulk photovoltaic effect and the photorefractive processin LiNbO3,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 25, 233–235 (1974).

B. I. Sturman, Maria Aguilar, F. Agullo-Lopez, V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, and D. C. Hanna, “Mechanism of self-organized light-induced scattering in periodicallypoled lithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 69, 1349–1351 (1996).

V. Pruneri, J. Webjörn, P. St. J. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “532 nm pumped optical parametric oscillator in bulk periodically poledlithium niobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2126–2128 (1995).

V. Pruneri, P. G. Kazansky, J. Webjörn, P. St. Russell, and D. C. Hanna, “Self-organized light-induced scattering in periodically poled lithiumniobate,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 1957–1959 (1995).

Electron. Lett.

Q. Chen and W. P. Risk, “Periodic poling of KTiOPO4using an applied electric field,” Electron. Lett. 30, 1516–1517 (1994).

H. Karlsson, F. Laurell, P. Henriksson, and G. Ardvisson, “Frequency doubling in periodically poled RbTiOAsO4,” Electron. Lett. 32, 556–557 (1996).

J. Webjörn, V. Pruneri, P. St. Russell, J. R. M. Barr, and D. C. Hanna, “Quasi-phase-matched blue light generation in bulk lithium niobate, electrically poled via periodic liquid electrods,” Electron. Lett. 30, 894–895 (1994).

Ferroelectrics

N. N. Kukhtarev, V. B. Markov, S. G. Odoulov, and M. S. Soskin, “Holographic storage in electrooptic crystals,” Ferroelectrics 22, 949–960 (1979).

T. J. Volk, V. V. Volkov, V. V. Krasnikov, V. I. Pryalkin, and N. M. Rubinina, “Optical and nonlinear-optical investigations in Mg- and Zn-doped LiNbO3,” Ferroelectrics 109, 345–350 (1990).

IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett.

W. K. Burns, W. McElhanon, and L. Goldberg, “Second harmonic generation in field poled, quasi-phase-matched, bulk LiNbO3,” IEEE Photonics Technol. Lett. 6, 252–254 (1994).

J. Appl. Phys.

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