Abstract

A detailed study of the relaxation self-enhancement (RSE) of the holographic gratings in amorphous As2S3 films is presented. The changes of the diffraction efficiency have been measured as functions of the aging time and the recording light intensity. The role of the internal mechanical stress of the films in the self-enhancement phenomenon has been discussed. It is shown that the RSE has a vectorial character owing to the uniaxial periodically distributed stress relaxation. A model based on the photoinduced stress relaxation and viscous flow of amorphous film is proposed to explain the experiments qualitatively. It is further shown that the stress-induced optical anisotropy of the films is responsible for the RSE.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  2. K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59&60, 925 (1983).
    [CrossRef]
  3. I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  4. J. Teteris and G. Skujina, J. Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 619 (1991) (in Russian).
    [CrossRef]
  5. K. Tanaka and Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  6. S. R. Elliott, Physics of Amorphous Materials, 2nd ed. (Longman, London, 1990).
  7. J. S. Phillips, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35&36, 1157 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  8. B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  9. J. Teteris and I. Manika, Latvian J. Phys. Tech. Sciences 2, 3 (1995).and, 2, 3 (1995).
  10. R. G. Brandes, F. P. Laming, and A. P. Pearson, Appl. Opt. 9, 1712 (1970).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  12. O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  13. M. D. Mikhailov, E. A. Karpova, Z. Cimpl, and F. Kosek, Phys. Status Solidi A 117, 467 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  14. F. Kosek, Z. Cimpl, J. Tulka, and J. Chlebny, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 401 (1987).
    [CrossRef]
  15. M. Trunov and A. Anchugin, Let. J. Tech. Phys. 18, 37 (1992).
  16. C. C. Chiu, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 5684 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  17. K. Tanaka, Thin Solid Films 66, 271 (1980).
    [CrossRef]
  18. H. Hamanaka, K. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, and S. Iizuma, Solid State Commun. 19, 499 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  19. H. Fritzsche, Phys. Rev. B 52, 15 854 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  20. A. A. Askadski, Deformation of Polymers(Khimija, Moscow, 1973).
  21. G. W. Scherer, Relaxation in Glass and Composites (Wiley, New York, 1986).
  22. G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 75 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  23. V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 133 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
    [CrossRef]
  25. P. C. Anderson and A. K. Varshneya, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 125 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  26. A. Vancu, L. Ghita, C. Ghita, and R. Grigorovici, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77&78, 1211 (1985).
    [CrossRef]
  27. H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
    [CrossRef]

1995 (4)

J. Teteris and I. Manika, Latvian J. Phys. Tech. Sciences 2, 3 (1995).and, 2, 3 (1995).

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Fritzsche, Phys. Rev. B 52, 15 854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (2)

P. C. Anderson and A. K. Varshneya, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 125 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

1993 (1)

C. C. Chiu, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 5684 (1993).
[CrossRef]

1991 (2)

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

J. Teteris and G. Skujina, J. Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 619 (1991) (in Russian).
[CrossRef]

1990 (2)

M. D. Mikhailov, E. A. Karpova, Z. Cimpl, and F. Kosek, Phys. Status Solidi A 117, 467 (1990).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1989 (1)

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1987 (2)

F. Kosek, Z. Cimpl, J. Tulka, and J. Chlebny, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1985 (1)

A. Vancu, L. Ghita, C. Ghita, and R. Grigorovici, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77&78, 1211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

1983 (1)

K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59&60, 925 (1983).
[CrossRef]

1980 (2)

J. S. Phillips, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35&36, 1157 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, Thin Solid Films 66, 271 (1980).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

K. Tanaka and Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (1)

H. Hamanaka, K. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, and S. Iizuma, Solid State Commun. 19, 499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

1970 (1)

1969 (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Agarwal, S. C.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Anderson, P. C.

P. C. Anderson and A. K. Varshneya, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 125 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Brandes, R. G.

Chiu, C. C.

C. C. Chiu, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 5684 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Chlebny, J.

F. Kosek, Z. Cimpl, J. Tulka, and J. Chlebny, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Cimpl, Z.

M. D. Mikhailov, E. A. Karpova, Z. Cimpl, and F. Kosek, Phys. Status Solidi A 117, 467 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Kosek, Z. Cimpl, J. Tulka, and J. Chlebny, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Fritzsche, H.

H. Fritzsche, Phys. Rev. B 52, 15 854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ghita, C.

A. Vancu, L. Ghita, C. Ghita, and R. Grigorovici, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77&78, 1211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Ghita, L.

A. Vancu, L. Ghita, C. Ghita, and R. Grigorovici, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77&78, 1211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Grigorovici, R.

A. Vancu, L. Ghita, C. Ghita, and R. Grigorovici, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77&78, 1211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Hamanaka, H.

H. Hamanaka, K. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, and S. Iizuma, Solid State Commun. 19, 499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Hisakuni, H.

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Iizuma, S.

H. Hamanaka, K. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, and S. Iizuma, Solid State Commun. 19, 499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Karpova, E. A.

M. D. Mikhailov, E. A. Karpova, Z. Cimpl, and F. Kosek, Phys. Status Solidi A 117, 467 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Kogelnik, H.

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

Kosek, F.

M. D. Mikhailov, E. A. Karpova, Z. Cimpl, and F. Kosek, Phys. Status Solidi A 117, 467 (1990).
[CrossRef]

F. Kosek, Z. Cimpl, J. Tulka, and J. Chlebny, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Kumar, B.

B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Laming, F. P.

Lyubin, V. M.

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Manika, I.

J. Teteris and I. Manika, Latvian J. Phys. Tech. Sciences 2, 3 (1995).and, 2, 3 (1995).

I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Matsuda, A.

H. Hamanaka, K. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, and S. Iizuma, Solid State Commun. 19, 499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mikhailov, M. D.

M. D. Mikhailov, E. A. Karpova, Z. Cimpl, and F. Kosek, Phys. Status Solidi A 117, 467 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Mönkkönen, P.

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ohtsuka, Y.

K. Tanaka and Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Ozols, A.

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Paesler, M. A.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pearson, A. P.

Pfeiffer, G.

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Phillips, J. S.

J. S. Phillips, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35&36, 1157 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Reinfelde, M.

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Riihola, P.

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Salminen, O.

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Scherer, G. W.

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Skujina, G.

J. Teteris and G. Skujina, J. Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 619 (1991) (in Russian).
[CrossRef]

Tanaka, K.

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59&60, 925 (1983).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, Thin Solid Films 66, 271 (1980).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132 (1978).
[CrossRef]

H. Hamanaka, K. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, and S. Iizuma, Solid State Commun. 19, 499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Teteris, J.

J. Teteris and I. Manika, Latvian J. Phys. Tech. Sciences 2, 3 (1995).and, 2, 3 (1995).

J. Teteris and G. Skujina, J. Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 619 (1991) (in Russian).
[CrossRef]

I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Tikhomirov, V. K.

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

Tulka, J.

F. Kosek, Z. Cimpl, J. Tulka, and J. Chlebny, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

Vancu, A.

A. Vancu, L. Ghita, C. Ghita, and R. Grigorovici, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77&78, 1211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

Varshneya, A. K.

P. C. Anderson and A. K. Varshneya, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 125 (1994).
[CrossRef]

White, K.

B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Bell Syst. Tech. J. (1)

H. Kogelnik, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 48, 2909 (1969).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Phys. (3)

A. Ozols, O. Salminen, and M. Reinfelde, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 3326 (1994).
[CrossRef]

O. Salminen, A. Ozols, P. Riihola, and P. Mönkkönen, J. Appl. Phys. 78, 718 (1995).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka and Y. Ohtsuka, J. Appl. Phys. 49, 6132 (1978).
[CrossRef]

J. Appl. Spectrosc. (1)

J. Teteris and G. Skujina, J. Appl. Spectrosc. 55, 619 (1991) (in Russian).
[CrossRef]

J. Mater. Sci. (1)

C. C. Chiu, J. Mater. Sci. 28, 5684 (1993).
[CrossRef]

J. Non-Cryst. Solids (9)

F. Kosek, Z. Cimpl, J. Tulka, and J. Chlebny, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 401 (1987).
[CrossRef]

P. C. Anderson and A. K. Varshneya, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 168, 125 (1994).
[CrossRef]

A. Vancu, L. Ghita, C. Ghita, and R. Grigorovici, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77&78, 1211 (1985).
[CrossRef]

G. W. Scherer, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 123, 75 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Lyubin and V. K. Tikhomirov, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 114, 133 (1989).
[CrossRef]

G. Pfeiffer, M. A. Paesler, and S. C. Agarwal, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 130, 111 (1991).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 59&60, 925 (1983).
[CrossRef]

I. Manika and J. Teteris, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 90, 505 (1987).
[CrossRef]

J. S. Phillips, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 35&36, 1157 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Latvian J. Phys. Tech. Sciences (1)

J. Teteris and I. Manika, Latvian J. Phys. Tech. Sciences 2, 3 (1995).and, 2, 3 (1995).

Phys. Rev. B (1)

H. Fritzsche, Phys. Rev. B 52, 15 854 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Status Solidi A (1)

M. D. Mikhailov, E. A. Karpova, Z. Cimpl, and F. Kosek, Phys. Status Solidi A 117, 467 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Science (1)

H. Hisakuni and K. Tanaka, Science 270, 974 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Solid State Commun. (1)

H. Hamanaka, K. Tanaka, A. Matsuda, and S. Iizuma, Solid State Commun. 19, 499 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Thin Solid Films (2)

B. Kumar and K. White, Thin Solid Films 135, L13 (1986).
[CrossRef]

K. Tanaka, Thin Solid Films 66, 271 (1980).
[CrossRef]

Other (4)

A. A. Askadski, Deformation of Polymers(Khimija, Moscow, 1973).

G. W. Scherer, Relaxation in Glass and Composites (Wiley, New York, 1986).

M. Trunov and A. Anchugin, Let. J. Tech. Phys. 18, 37 (1992).

S. R. Elliott, Physics of Amorphous Materials, 2nd ed. (Longman, London, 1990).

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Figures (8)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Experimental setup for the holographic recording and measurement of the RSE: M, mirror; S, shutter; BS, beam splitter; and PD, photodiode.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Changes of the diffraction efficiency during the recording (R) and the RSE processes in a-As2S3 films. (A) As-evaporated film with the following recording light intensities: a, 0.71 mW/cm2; b, 2.2 mW/cm2; c, 17 mW/cm2; d, 80 mW/cm2; and e, 160 mW/cm2. (B) After thermal annealing at 373 K. (C) After thermal annealing at 463 K.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

RSE saturation factor ηs/η0 as a function of the recording light intensity.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Increase of diffraction efficiency in the RSE of the as-evaporated As2S3 films. The readout laser beam had s (curve a) and p polarizations (curve b). Curve c shows the change of the HG optical anisotropy. The intensity of the recording light was 2.2 mW/cm2 and the initial diffraction efficiencies were η0=η=0.5%. K8 glass substrates were used.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Model of the mechanical stress distribution in amorphous As2S3 film (a) before and (b) after the HG recording.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Changes of the diffraction efficiency during the heating with the rate of 1 K/min and cooling following it for the s (curve a) and p polarizations (curve b) of the readout light. The optical anisotropy is presented by curve c. As2S3 films on LiF substrates were used.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Changes of the diffraction efficiency (s polarization) in a-As2S3 films on fused-quartz substrates during heating at the rate of 1 K/min and subsequent cooling.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

RSE for as-evaporated As2S3 film in the coordinates ln(-ln{[ηs-η (t)]/(ηs-η0)}) and ln t.

Equations (13)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

η(t)=IdI0,
ξ(t)=η(t)η0,
σ=const ΔT(αf-αs),
δσδx=2 ΔσΛ,
σ(t)=σ0 exp-tτrn+σ,
K(t)=K0 exp-tτrn,
η(t)=η0+(ηs-η0){1-exp[-(kt)n]},
ln-lnηs-η(t)ηs-η0=n ln k+n ln t.
γ(T)=γ0 expΔEkBT,
τr=const. γ(T),
η=sin2πdΔnλ cos θ
η=(ıˆ·jˆ)2 sin2πdΔnλ cos θ
C0=ne-noσ,

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