Abstract

We present an experimental study of the Ba 8snl double-Rydberg states, using two-photon core-electron excitation from selectively prepared high-l 6snl Rydberg states (n=1215 and l=67). The 8snl resonances recorded in the vicinity of the 6s8s two-photon ionic transition exhibit mixing with the neighboring 5f7/2,5/2nl double-Rydberg series. The increasing strength of this configuration mixing as l decreases is due to the multipole terms of the ee Coulomb interaction expansion in the final excited state that results from polarization of the inner 8s core electron by the presence of the outer nl electron. The interpretation of the complex 8snl =6+5fnl structures is carried out through the parametrical multichannel quantum defect theory and a Lu–Fano plot analysis.

© 1997 Optical Society of America

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  1. P. Camus, “Correlation effects in double Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Scr. T51, 20–27 (1994), and references therein.
    [CrossRef]
  2. R. van Leeuwen, W. Ubachs, P. Camus, and W. Hogervorst, “Electron correlation in three-body Coulomb states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R17–R20 (1996).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  3. U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Positional correlation in laser-excited three-body Coulomb systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 274–277 (1990).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  4. W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  5. P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  6. R. R. Freeman and D. Kleppner, “Core polarization and quantum defects in high-angular-momentum statesof alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1614–1619 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  7. W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, and R. Hill, “Doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
    [CrossRef]
  8. R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Autoionization of high-l Ba 6p1/2nl states,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2846–2853 (1988).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  9. P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “Dielectroniccorrelation in high angular momentum double-Rydberg atoms,” in Tenicols'91, Font-Romeu, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Hong Kong, 1992), pp. 431–434.
  10. L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  11. P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
    [CrossRef]
  12. U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Dipole structure of planetary atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 21–24 (1992).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  13. P. Camus and S. Cohen, “Effective core polarizabilities in Ba high-l Nsnl double Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1234–1245 (1995); erratum, 52, 2486 (1995).
  14. T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  15. P. Camus, S. Cohen, L. Pruvost, and A. Bolovinos, “Multipole structure in asymmetrical double Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R9–R11 (1993).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  16. R. P. Wood and C. H. Greene, “Asymmetric two-electron excitations in atomic strontium and barium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1029–1040 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  17. P. Camus, C. R. Mahon, and L. Pruvost, “Ba 6snl→7snl and 10snl double-Rydbergspectra and stray electric field effects,” J. Phys. B 26, 221–231 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  18. S. Cohen, P. Camus, and A. Bolovinos, “Resonant double multiphoton ionization via planetary states,” J. Phys. B 26, 3783–3794 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  19. M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleepner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1976).
    [CrossRef]
  20. S. A. Bhatti, C. L. Cromer, and W. E. Cooke, “Analysis of the Rydberg character of the 5d7d 1D2 state of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 161–165 (1981).
    [CrossRef]
  21. A. Giusti-Suzor and U. Fano, “Alternative parameters of channel interactions. I. Symmetry analysisof the two-channel coupling,” J. Phys. B 17, 215–229 (1984).
    [CrossRef]
  22. W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Multichannel quantum-defect theory and an equivalent N-levelsystem,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2725–2738 (1985).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  23. R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Observation of Ba+ np1/2 and ngj Rydberg series,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1467–1472 (1989).
    [CrossRef]
  24. W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Closed-form expression for two-photon core excitation of Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3529–3530 (1986).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  25. S. Cohen and P. Camus, “Polarization quantum defect energy dependence of high-ldouble Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 29, 4323–4331 (1996).
    [CrossRef]

1996 (2)

R. van Leeuwen, W. Ubachs, P. Camus, and W. Hogervorst, “Electron correlation in three-body Coulomb states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R17–R20 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cohen and P. Camus, “Polarization quantum defect energy dependence of high-ldouble Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 29, 4323–4331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

1995 (1)

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

1994 (3)

R. P. Wood and C. H. Greene, “Asymmetric two-electron excitations in atomic strontium and barium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1029–1040 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, “Correlation effects in double Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Scr. T51, 20–27 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

1993 (3)

P. Camus, C. R. Mahon, and L. Pruvost, “Ba 6snl→7snl and 10snl double-Rydbergspectra and stray electric field effects,” J. Phys. B 26, 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Cohen, P. Camus, and A. Bolovinos, “Resonant double multiphoton ionization via planetary states,” J. Phys. B 26, 3783–3794 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, S. Cohen, L. Pruvost, and A. Bolovinos, “Multipole structure in asymmetrical double Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R9–R11 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1992 (2)

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Dipole structure of planetary atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 21–24 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1991 (1)

L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Positional correlation in laser-excited three-body Coulomb systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 274–277 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1989 (2)

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Observation of Ba+ np1/2 and ngj Rydberg series,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1467–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

1988 (1)

R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Autoionization of high-l Ba 6p1/2nl states,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2846–2853 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1986 (1)

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Closed-form expression for two-photon core excitation of Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3529–3530 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1985 (1)

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Multichannel quantum-defect theory and an equivalent N-levelsystem,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2725–2738 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1984 (1)

A. Giusti-Suzor and U. Fano, “Alternative parameters of channel interactions. I. Symmetry analysisof the two-channel coupling,” J. Phys. B 17, 215–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

1981 (1)

S. A. Bhatti, C. L. Cromer, and W. E. Cooke, “Analysis of the Rydberg character of the 5d7d 1D2 state of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 161–165 (1981).
[CrossRef]

1978 (1)

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, and R. Hill, “Doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

1976 (2)

R. R. Freeman and D. Kleppner, “Core polarization and quantum defects in high-angular-momentum statesof alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1614–1619 (1976).
[CrossRef]

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleepner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Bhatti, S. A.

S. A. Bhatti, C. L. Cromer, and W. E. Cooke, “Analysis of the Rydberg character of the 5d7d 1D2 state of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 161–165 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Bolovinos, A.

S. Cohen, P. Camus, and A. Bolovinos, “Resonant double multiphoton ionization via planetary states,” J. Phys. B 26, 3783–3794 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, S. Cohen, L. Pruvost, and A. Bolovinos, “Multipole structure in asymmetrical double Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R9–R11 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Boulmer, J.

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Broude, C.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Camus, P.

R. van Leeuwen, W. Ubachs, P. Camus, and W. Hogervorst, “Electron correlation in three-body Coulomb states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R17–R20 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cohen and P. Camus, “Polarization quantum defect energy dependence of high-ldouble Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 29, 4323–4331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, “Correlation effects in double Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Scr. T51, 20–27 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, S. Cohen, L. Pruvost, and A. Bolovinos, “Multipole structure in asymmetrical double Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R9–R11 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Camus, C. R. Mahon, and L. Pruvost, “Ba 6snl→7snl and 10snl double-Rydbergspectra and stray electric field effects,” J. Phys. B 26, 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Cohen, P. Camus, and A. Bolovinos, “Resonant double multiphoton ionization via planetary states,” J. Phys. B 26, 3783–3794 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Chen, D. Y.

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Cohen, S.

S. Cohen and P. Camus, “Polarization quantum defect energy dependence of high-ldouble Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 29, 4323–4331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, S. Cohen, L. Pruvost, and A. Bolovinos, “Multipole structure in asymmetrical double Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R9–R11 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. Cohen, P. Camus, and A. Bolovinos, “Resonant double multiphoton ionization via planetary states,” J. Phys. B 26, 3783–3794 (1993).
[CrossRef]

Cooke, W. E.

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Closed-form expression for two-photon core excitation of Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3529–3530 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Multichannel quantum-defect theory and an equivalent N-levelsystem,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2725–2738 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Bhatti, C. L. Cromer, and W. E. Cooke, “Analysis of the Rydberg character of the 5d7d 1D2 state of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 161–165 (1981).
[CrossRef]

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, and R. Hill, “Doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Cromer, C. L.

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Closed-form expression for two-photon core excitation of Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3529–3530 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Multichannel quantum-defect theory and an equivalent N-levelsystem,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2725–2738 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

S. A. Bhatti, C. L. Cromer, and W. E. Cooke, “Analysis of the Rydberg character of the 5d7d 1D2 state of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 161–165 (1981).
[CrossRef]

Edelstein, S. A.

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, and R. Hill, “Doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Eichmann, U.

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Dipole structure of planetary atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 21–24 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Positional correlation in laser-excited three-body Coulomb systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 274–277 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Fano, U.

A. Giusti-Suzor and U. Fano, “Alternative parameters of channel interactions. I. Symmetry analysisof the two-channel coupling,” J. Phys. B 17, 215–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Freeman, R. R.

R. R. Freeman and D. Kleppner, “Core polarization and quantum defects in high-angular-momentum statesof alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1614–1619 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Gallagher, T. F.

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Observation of Ba+ np1/2 and ngj Rydberg series,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1467–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Autoionization of high-l Ba 6p1/2nl states,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2846–2853 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, and R. Hill, “Doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Giusti-Suzor, A.

A. Giusti-Suzor and U. Fano, “Alternative parameters of channel interactions. I. Symmetry analysisof the two-channel coupling,” J. Phys. B 17, 215–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Greene, C. H.

R. P. Wood and C. H. Greene, “Asymmetric two-electron excitations in atomic strontium and barium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1029–1040 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Grieser, M.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Habs, D.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Hill, R.

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, and R. Hill, “Doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

Hogervorst, W.

R. van Leeuwen, W. Ubachs, P. Camus, and W. Hogervorst, “Electron correlation in three-body Coulomb states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R17–R20 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Huang, W.

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Jones, R. R.

R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Observation of Ba+ np1/2 and ngj Rydberg series,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 6, 1467–1472 (1989).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Autoionization of high-l Ba 6p1/2nl states,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2846–2853 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Kash, M. M.

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleepner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kleepner, D.

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleepner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Kleppner, D.

R. R. Freeman and D. Kleppner, “Core polarization and quantum defects in high-angular-momentum statesof alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1614–1619 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Lange, V.

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Dipole structure of planetary atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 21–24 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Positional correlation in laser-excited three-body Coulomb systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 274–277 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lecomte, J.-M.

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Li, L. Q.

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Littman, M. G.

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleepner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1976).
[CrossRef]

Mahon, C. R.

P. Camus, C. R. Mahon, and L. Pruvost, “Ba 6snl→7snl and 10snl double-Rydbergspectra and stray electric field effects,” J. Phys. B 26, 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Pillet, P.

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Pruvost, L.

P. Camus, C. R. Mahon, and L. Pruvost, “Ba 6snl→7snl and 10snl double-Rydbergspectra and stray electric field effects,” J. Phys. B 26, 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, S. Cohen, L. Pruvost, and A. Bolovinos, “Multipole structure in asymmetrical double Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R9–R11 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Rüter, T.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Sandner, W.

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Dipole structure of planetary atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 21–24 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Positional correlation in laser-excited three-body Coulomb systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 274–277 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Schramm, U.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schüssler, T.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Schwalm, D.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ubachs, W.

R. van Leeuwen, W. Ubachs, P. Camus, and W. Hogervorst, “Electron correlation in three-body Coulomb states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R17–R20 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

van Leeuwen, R.

R. van Leeuwen, W. Ubachs, P. Camus, and W. Hogervorst, “Electron correlation in three-body Coulomb states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R17–R20 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Wolf, A.

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wood, R. P.

R. P. Wood and C. H. Greene, “Asymmetric two-electron excitations in atomic strontium and barium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1029–1040 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Xu, C. B.

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xu, X. Y.

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Xue, M.

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Zimmerman, M. L.

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleepner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1976).
[CrossRef]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (1)

J. Phys. (France) II (1)

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “High l double-Rydberg states 7d5/2nl of barium,” J. Phys. (France) II 2, 715–725 (1992).
[CrossRef]

J. Phys. B (5)

L. Pruvost, P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, and P. Pillet, “High angular momentum 6pnl and 6dnl doubly excited Rydberg states of barium,” J. Phys. B 24, 4723–4741 (1991).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, C. R. Mahon, and L. Pruvost, “Ba 6snl→7snl and 10snl double-Rydbergspectra and stray electric field effects,” J. Phys. B 26, 221–231 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Cohen, P. Camus, and A. Bolovinos, “Resonant double multiphoton ionization via planetary states,” J. Phys. B 26, 3783–3794 (1993).
[CrossRef]

S. Cohen and P. Camus, “Polarization quantum defect energy dependence of high-ldouble Rydberg states,” J. Phys. B 29, 4323–4331 (1996).
[CrossRef]

A. Giusti-Suzor and U. Fano, “Alternative parameters of channel interactions. I. Symmetry analysisof the two-channel coupling,” J. Phys. B 17, 215–229 (1984).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Rev. A (10)

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Multichannel quantum-defect theory and an equivalent N-levelsystem,” Phys. Rev. A 32, 2725–2738 (1985).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

P. Camus, S. Cohen, L. Pruvost, and A. Bolovinos, “Multipole structure in asymmetrical double Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 48, R9–R11 (1993).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

R. P. Wood and C. H. Greene, “Asymmetric two-electron excitations in atomic strontium and barium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, 1029–1040 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. E. Cooke and C. L. Cromer, “Closed-form expression for two-photon core excitation of Rydberg states,” Phys. Rev. A 33, 3529–3530 (1986).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. L. Zimmerman, M. G. Littman, M. M. Kash, and D. Kleepner, “Stark structure of the Rydberg states of alkali-metal atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 20, 2251–2275 (1976).
[CrossRef]

S. A. Bhatti, C. L. Cromer, and W. E. Cooke, “Analysis of the Rydberg character of the 5d7d 1D2 state of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 24, 161–165 (1981).
[CrossRef]

R. van Leeuwen, W. Ubachs, P. Camus, and W. Hogervorst, “Electron correlation in three-body Coulomb states of barium,” Phys. Rev. A 54, R17–R20 (1996).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

W. Huang, X. Y. Xu, C. B. Xu, M. Xue, L. Q. Li, and D. Y. Chen, “Observation of strong electronic correlation for highly excited doubleRydberg states of ytterbium,” Phys. Rev. A 49, R653–R656 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Freeman and D. Kleppner, “Core polarization and quantum defects in high-angular-momentum statesof alkali atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 14, 1614–1619 (1976).
[CrossRef]

R. R. Jones and T. F. Gallagher, “Autoionization of high-l Ba 6p1/2nl states,” Phys. Rev. A 38, 2846–2853 (1988).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Phys. Rev. Lett. (5)

W. E. Cooke, T. F. Gallagher, S. A. Edelstein, and R. Hill, “Doubly excited autoionizing Rydberg states of Sr,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 40, 178–181 (1978).
[CrossRef]

P. Camus, T. F. Gallagher, J.-M. Lecomte, P. Pillet, L. Pruvost, and J. Boulmer, “Observation of an electronic correlation for double-Rydberg statesof barium,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 62, 2365–2368 (1989).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Positional correlation in laser-excited three-body Coulomb systems,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 274–277 (1990).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

U. Eichmann, V. Lange, and W. Sandner, “Dipole structure of planetary atoms,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 68, 21–24 (1992).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

T. Schüssler, U. Schramm, T. Rüter, C. Broude, M. Grieser, D. Habs, D. Schwalm, and A. Wolf, “Laser-stimulated recombination spectroscopy for the study of long-rangeinteractions in highly charged Rydberg ions,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 802–805 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Phys. Scr. (1)

P. Camus, “Correlation effects in double Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Scr. T51, 20–27 (1994), and references therein.
[CrossRef]

Other (2)

P. Camus and S. Cohen, “Effective core polarizabilities in Ba high-l Nsnl double Rydberg atoms,” Phys. Rev. A 45, 1234–1245 (1995); erratum, 52, 2486 (1995).

P. Camus, J.-M. Lecomte, C. R. Mahon, P. Pillet, and L. Pruvost, “Dielectroniccorrelation in high angular momentum double-Rydberg atoms,” in Tenicols'91, Font-Romeu, M. Ducloy, E. Giacobino, and G. Camy, eds. (World Scientific, Hong Kong, 1992), pp. 431–434.

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Energy-level diagram of the observed 8sn=1217l=6 autoionizing ADR states (bold lines). Mixing with open channels is indicated by dashed arrows; solid arrows indicate interaction with the 5fnl series.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Classical radial inner turning points of the n=13, l=612 orbitals compared with the outer turning points for the Ba+ 8s and 5f core states.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Observed ADR 8snl two-photon excitation spectra from the 6snl=6 Rydberg state: (a) n=12, (b) n=13, (c) n=14, (d) n=15. (e) Some of the 4-cm-1 free-spectral-range Fabry–Perot fringes. The four spectra are presented on an absolute energy scale to show resonance lines that are due to the same upper level [the vertical dashed line through spectra (b), (c), and (d)]. The resonance intensity [spectrum (d)] shows the characteristic isolated core excitation modulation: a central lobe centered on the position of the Ba+ 6s8s parasitic two-photon ionic transition with a secondary lobe on each side. From a selected 6snl=6 Rydberg state we observe the n -1 to n+2 members of the 8snl=6 series. Because of an 0.5 quantum-defect difference between the 6snl and the 8snl states, the n and the n+1 resonances are under the principal lobe. For a given 8snl spectrum the two first zeros, one on either side of the central lobe, correspond to the positions of the Ba+ 8s ionic transitions in the contiguous 8sn±1l spectra [the vertical solid line through spectra (c) and (d)]. Calculated positions of the 8snl members are indicated below spectrum (c). The positions of the higher members of the 5f5/2nl and 5f7/2nl series are indicated below spectra (b) and (d), respectively. The spectra surrounded by the boxed rule are repeated in Fig. 4 on a larger scale to show more details.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Slow-scan two-photon excitation spectra in the vicinity of the 8sn=13l ADR from the 6snl=6 Rydberg state: (a) n=12, (b) n=13, (c) n=14. It can be seen clearly that the series line profile shown within the boxed rule in Fig. 3 is in fact a double-peaked structure that is just resolved at our instrumental laser resolution. The two peaks are interpreted as members of two 5f5/2nl series with different l values. The last four digits of the measured level wave numbers are indicated on spectrum (a) for the lower series and on spectrum (b) for the upper series. Trace (d) shows the 4-cm-1 free-spectral-range fringes. The wave numbers of the 99 370-cm-1 lines are listed in Table 2.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Slow-scan two-photon excitation spectra from the 6sn=13l Rydberg state with (a) l=6 and (b) l=7. These two spectra are presented to show that the l=7 modulated profile [at 99389.21 cm-1 in spectrum (b)], which corresponds to mixing with higher 5f5/2nl series members, is different in energy from the broad blue wing [at 99384.70 cm-1 in spectrum (a)] of the same perturbed series recorded for l=6. In Ref. 15 these two profiles were considered identical and were attributed to Stark l mixing in our initial 6snl Rydberg populating procedure for low-l values (for further comments see Section 2).

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Two-photon excitation spectra 6sn=12l8sn=12l recorded from an initially selected 6sn=12k Stark state with k varying from 7 to 11. Spectra refer to the 6s8s two-photon Ba+ transition at σ3=29 012.6 cm-1 for the third laser, and the Fabry–Perot fringe spacing is 4 cm-1. On each k spectrum an arrow indicates the calculated position of the corresponding unperturbed 8sn=12l=k resonance determined from a polarization quantum-defect formula including the dipole and the quadrupole terms and our previously fitted polarizabilities.13

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Two-photon excitation spectra of the 8snl=6 high members from the 6sn=15l=6 Rydberg state. The n=17 member is the same as that in spectrum (d) of Fig. 3. The n=18 member is blended by the strong Ba+ 5d3/25g two-photon resonance. The spectrum is here quite noisy because of the fast and unusually long scan-recording conditions. The inset shows the measured μ8s quantum defects versus n.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Five-channel phase-shifted MQDT model used to analyze the states with E>I5f5/2.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

(a) Experimental and fitted Lu–Fano plots of the energy levels observed for E>I5f5/2. (b) μi() quantum-defect functions, (c) their derivatives -μi/ versus ν8s, showing the positions (ν8s13.4 and ν8s13.9) and the widths of the two fitted Lorentzian profiles. One of the Lorentzians is located close to the 7djng (ν8s13.38) K=13/2 perturber predicted by the R-matrix calculation of Ref. 16; the other is blue shifted with respect to the calculated 5gjnd (ν8s13.49) K=11/2 perturber by 35 cm-1.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Comparison between observed and calculated spectra: (a) experimental data15 [part of spectrum (c) of Fig. 3], (b) parametric MQDT (this work), (c) R-matrix+MQDT calculations.16

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Experimental Lu–Fano plot for the energy levels below the 5f5/2 limits. These levels correspond to observed spectra (a)–(c) in Fig. 4.

Tables (2)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Calculated Stark l Admixture (%) in Each Initial 6snl Rydberg State for a 1-V/cm Static Field

Tables Icon

Table 2 6s8s Excitation Spectra from 6snk with k=6

Equations (6)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

[R+T]a=0,
det[R+T]=0.
σ(E)d6s8s(2)ν33O2(n*; ν3){nO}(Z3(ρ))2,
O(n*; ν3)=2(n*ν3)1/2 sin[π(n*-ν3)]π(n*2-ν32),
μi()=Ai tan-1-0(i)Γi/2+Bi,i=1, 2,
Ri3=Ri3(1),i=1, 2

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