Abstract

Short (>300-ps) pulses of stimulated emission were found from powders of NdAl3(BO3)4, NdSc3(BO3)4, and Nd:Sr5(PO4)3F laser crystals during 532- and 805-nm excitation. Study of stimulated emission in the mixture of two powders has shown that the different components influence each other. That implies a collective behavior of emitting particles. The main features of experimentally observed stimulated emission are described with a simple model accounting for 4 F3/2 excited-state concentration and emission energy density. The threshold of stimulated emission in powders is shown to be inversely proportional to the small-signal amplification along the photon path in the pumped volume.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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  1. V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium-lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
    [CrossRef]
  2. V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 773–777 (1990).
    [CrossRef]
  3. N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  4. N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
    [CrossRef]
  5. C. Gouedard, D. Husson, C. Sautert, F. Auzel, and A. Migus, “Generation of spatially incoherent short pulses in laser-pumped neodymium stoichometric crystals and powders,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 10, 2358–2363 (1993).
    [CrossRef]
  6. D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent backstattering of light from amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739–1742 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  7. G. Huber, “Miniature neodymium lasers,” in Current Topics in Materials Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 1–45.
  8. N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  9. W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, “Spectral and temporal measurements of laser action of Rhodamine 640 dye in strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1922–1924 (1994).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  10. R. M. Balachandran, D. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, “Photonic textile fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 114–115.
  11. M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 117, 430–437 (1995).
    [CrossRef]
  12. V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835–840 (1968).
  13. J.-P. Mein, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913–917 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  14. V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Mein, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of neodymium ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GVO crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.
  15. X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
    [CrossRef]
  16. G. Huber and H. G. Danielmeyer, “NdP5O14 and NdAl3(BO3)4 lasers at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. 18, 77–80 (1979).
    [CrossRef]
  17. X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Flash-lamp-pumped neodymium doped strontium flurapatite lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 150–152.
  18. H.-D. Hattendorf, Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades des Fachbereich Physik (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany1979).
  19. J.-P. Mein, “Neodym-Lanthan-Scandium-Borat ein neus Material für miniaturisierte Festkörperlaser,” Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades des Fachbereich Physik (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1994).
  20. R. M. Balachandran and N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
    [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  21. L. V. Tarasov, Laser Physics (Mir, Moscow, 1983), p. 357.

1995 (3)

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent backstattering of light from amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739–1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 117, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Balachandran and N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1994 (4)

J.-P. Mein, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913–917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

W. L. Sha, C.-H. Liu, and R. R. Alfano, “Spectral and temporal measurements of laser action of Rhodamine 640 dye in strongly scattering media,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1922–1924 (1994).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

1993 (1)

1991 (2)

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

1990 (1)

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 773–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

1986 (1)

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium-lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

1979 (1)

G. Huber and H. G. Danielmeyer, “NdP5O14 and NdAl3(BO3)4 lasers at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. 18, 77–80 (1979).
[CrossRef]

1968 (1)

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835–840 (1968).

Alfano, R. R.

Auzel, F.

Balachandran, R. M.

R. M. Balachandran and N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Balachandran, D. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, “Photonic textile fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 114–115.

Bass, M.

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Flash-lamp-pumped neodymium doped strontium flurapatite lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 150–152.

Belan, V. R.

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 773–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

Briskina, Ch. M.

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 773–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium-lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Caulfield, H. J.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 117, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Chai, B. H. T.

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Flash-lamp-pumped neodymium doped strontium flurapatite lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 150–152.

Danielmeyer, H. G.

G. Huber and H. G. Danielmeyer, “NdP5O14 and NdAl3(BO3)4 lasers at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. 18, 77–80 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Dimitrova, O. V.

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Gomes, A. S. L.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Gouedard, C.

Hattendorf, H.-D.

H.-D. Hattendorf, Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades des Fachbereich Physik (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany1979).

Hong, P.

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Huber, G.

J.-P. Mein, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913–917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

G. Huber and H. G. Danielmeyer, “NdP5O14 and NdAl3(BO3)4 lasers at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. 18, 77–80 (1979).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Mein, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of neodymium ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GVO crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

G. Huber, “Miniature neodymium lasers,” in Current Topics in Materials Science, E. Kaldis, ed. (North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1980), pp. 1–45.

Husson, D.

Jensen, T.

J.-P. Mein, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913–917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Mein, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of neodymium ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GVO crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Lagendijk, A.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent backstattering of light from amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739–1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Lavrov, A. V.

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

Lawandy, N. M.

R. M. Balachandran and N. M. Lawandy, “Interface reflection effects in photonic paint,” Opt. Lett. 20, 1271–1273 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

R. M. Balachandran, D. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, “Photonic textile fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 114–115.

Lefaucheur, J.

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Letokhov, V. S.

V. S. Letokhov, “Generation of light by a scattering medium with negative resonance absorption,” Sov. Phys. JETP 26, 835–840 (1968).

Liu, C.-H.

Loutts, G. B.

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Markushev, V. M.

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 773–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium-lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Mein, J.-P.

J.-P. Mein, T. Jensen, and G. Huber, “Spectroscopic properties and efficient diode-pumped laser operation of neodymium-doped lanthanum scandium borate,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 30, 913–917 (1994).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Mein, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of neodymium ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GVO crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

J.-P. Mein, “Neodym-Lanthan-Scandium-Borat ein neus Material für miniaturisierte Festkörperlaser,” Dissertation zur Erlangung des Doktorgrades des Fachbereich Physik (Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany, 1994).

Migus, A.

Noginov, M. A.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 117, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Mein, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of neodymium ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GVO crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Noginova, N. E.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 117, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Ostroumov, V.

V. Ostroumov, T. Jensen, J.-P. Mein, G. Huber, and M. A. Noginov, “Concentration quenching and upconversion of neodymium ions in LaSc3(BO3)4 and GVO crystals,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, Vol. 24 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 206–208.

Pacheco, D.

R. M. Balachandran, D. Pacheco, and N. M. Lawandy, “Photonic textile fibers,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 114–115.

Sautert, C.

Sauvain, E.

N. M. Lawandy, R. M. Balachandran, A. S. L. Gomes, and E. Sauvain, “Laser action in strongly scattering medium,” Nature (London) 368, 436–438 (1994).
[CrossRef]

Sha, W. L.

Tarasov, L. V.

L. V. Tarasov, Laser Physics (Mir, Moscow, 1983), p. 357.

Ter-Gabriélyan, N. É.

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 773–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

van Albada, M. P.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent backstattering of light from amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739–1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Venkateswarlu, P.

M. A. Noginov, H. J. Caulfield, N. E. Noginova, and P. Venkateswarlu, “Line narrowing in the dye solution with scattering centers,” Opt. Commun. 117, 430–437 (1995).
[CrossRef]

Wiersma, D. S.

D. S. Wiersma, M. P. van Albada, and A. Lagendijk, “Coherent backstattering of light from amplifying random media,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 75, 1739–1742 (1995).
[CrossRef] [PubMed]

Zhang, X. X.

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

X. X. Zhang, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Flash-lamp-pumped neodymium doped strontium flurapatite lasers,” in Advanced Solid-State Lasers, B. H. T. Chai and S. A. Payne, eds., Vol. 24 of OSA Proceedings Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), pp. 150–152.

Zolin, V. F.

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission spectra of powders of double sodium and lanthanum tetramolybdate,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 32–33 (1991).
[CrossRef]

N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, V. M. Markushev, V. R. Belan, Ch. M. Briskina, O. V. Dimitrova, V. F. Zolin, and A. V. Lavrov, “Stimulated radiation emitted by lithium neodymium tetraphosphate LiNd(PO3)4 and neodymium pentaphosphate NdP5O14 powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 21, 840–842 (1991).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, N. É. Ter-Gabriélyan, Ch. M. Briskina, V. R. Belan, and V. F. Zolin, “Stimulated emission kinetics of neodymium powder lasers,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 20, 773–777 (1990).
[CrossRef]

V. M. Markushev, V. F. Zolin, and Ch. M. Briskina, “Luminescence and stimulated emission of neodymium in sodium-lanthanum molybdate powders,” Sov. J. Quantum Electron. 16, 281–283 (1986).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. (1)

G. Huber and H. G. Danielmeyer, “NdP5O14 and NdAl3(BO3)4 lasers at 1.3 µm,” Appl. Phys. 18, 77–80 (1979).
[CrossRef]

Appl. Phys. Lett. (1)

X. X. Zhang, P. Hong, G. B. Loutts, J. Lefaucheur, M. Bass, and B. H. T. Chai, “Efficient laser performance of Nd3+:Sr5(PO4)3F at 1.059 and 1.328 µm,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 64, 3205–3207 (1994).
[CrossRef]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (1)

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Figures (11)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Typical distribution of powder particles by their sizes.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

a, Emission spectrum of NdAl3(BO3)4 powder below the threshold (≈30 mJ/cm3); b, emission spectrum of NdAl3(BO3)4 powder above the threshold (≈240 mJ/cm2), γ = 1063.1 nm; c, emission spectrum of NdSc3(BO3)4 powder below the threshold (≈50 mJ/cm2); d, emission spectrum of NdSc3(BO3)4 powder above the threshold (≈700 mJ/cm2), λ = 1061.5 nm.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Pulses of stimulated emission from NdAl3(BO3)4 powder: 1, near the threshold (200 mJ/cm2); 2, at x = 1.6 times threshold energy; 3, x = 1.9; 4, x = 3.9.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

Experimental dependencies of the 4 F3/2 emission in NdAl3(BO3)4 on the pump energy: a, stimulated emission at λ = 1063.1 nm; b, luminescence at λ = 1054.4 nm registered in the maximum of kinetics (t = 0); c, luminescence signal at λ = 1054.4 nm integrated over the decay time.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Pump pulse (λ = 532 nm): a, stimulated emission at the 4F3/24I11/2 transition (λ = 1063.1 nm); b, luminescence at the 4F3/24I9/2 transition (λ = 916 nm), c, luminescence in NdAl3(BO3)4 powder. Pump energy ≈300 mJ/cm2.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Nd3+ energy-level diagram: excitation and relaxation processes in Nd3+. 1, Pumping; 2, multiphonon relaxation populating the metastable level 4 F3/2; 3, radiation and multiphonon relaxation of the level 4 F3/2; 4, stimulated emission at the transition 4F3/24I9/2; 5, cross relaxation.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

a, Stimulated emission in NdAl3(BO3)4 powder at the pumping density ≈400 mJ/cm2; b, spontaneous emission below the threshold at the pumping density ≈55 mJ/cm2. λpump = 532 nm.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Luminescence kinetics in NdAl3(BO3)4 at λ = 1054.4 nm: a, low pumping density (<0.1 J/cm2); b, high pumping density (1.8 J/cm2). The shortening of the effective decay time at high pumping density implies energy transfer upconversion in the crystal.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Image of stimulated emission from the mixture of ≈1/6 NdAl3(BO3)4 and ≈5/6 NdSc3(BO3)4 as it appears on the screen of a streak camera connected to a monochromator.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Dynamics of stimulated emission (a, c, e) and 4 F3/2 excited-state concentration (b, d, f) in NdAl3(BO3)4 calculated according to Eqs. (2). Pumping density: a, b, 1000 mJ/cm2; c, d, 400 mJ/cm2; and 200 f, e, mJ/cm2 (the threshold). Dashed curves, pump pulse.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Calculated input–output dependency for stimulated emission and dependency of 4 F3/2 excited-state concentration on pumping density in NdAl3(BO3)4. Input and output emission is calculated in terms of deposited and emitted energy/cm3. 4 F3/2 concentration (close to the maximum 4 F3/2 concentration) is picked up soon after the pumping and the stimulated emission are off. In the calculations τ1 = 20 µs, τ2 = 10 ps, kabs = 15 cm-1, and σem = 1 × 10-18 cm2.

Tables (2)

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Table 1 Spectroscopic Data on NdAl3(BO3)4, NdxLa1-xSc3(BO3)4, and Nd:S-FAP Laser Crystalsa

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Table 2 Thresholds of the Stimulated Emission in the Powders and Single Crystals of NdAl3(BO3)4, NdxLa1-xSc3(BO3)4, and Nd:S-FAP Laser Crystals

Equations (3)

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=S1S0I0I1η,
dndt=K(t)Nσabshνpump-nτ1-βnN-Ehνemcσemn,
dEdt=-Eτ2+nτ1hνem+Ecσemn.

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