Abstract

We have performed a quantitative investigation into the capabilities and the limitations of two phase-measuring techniques: second-harmonic-generation frequency-resolved optical gating and direct optical spectral phase measurement. In particular, we have studied the reproducibility and the accuracy of these techniques in measuring the frequency-dependent phase of ultrashort pulses with varying amounts of cubic and quadratic phase. We find that both of these techniques are accurate to within 5% in measuring phase distortions in optical pulses.

© 1996 Optical Society of America

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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  12. A. Sullivan and W. E. White, “Phase control for production of high fidelity optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 20, 192 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  13. J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and R. N. Thurston, “Picosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase and amplitude manipulation,” Opt. Lett. 10, 609 (1985).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  14. Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 69 (1985).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  22. K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of 2nd-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref] [PubMed]
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    [Crossref]
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    [Crossref]
  27. K. W. DeLong, C. L. Ladera, and R. Trebino, “Ultrashort pulse measurement using noninstanteous nonlinearities: Raman effects in frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 486 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  28. C. L. Ladera, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Direct ultrashort pulse intensity and phase retrieval using frequency resolved optical gating and a computational neural network,” Opt. Lett. 21, 143 (1996).
    [Crossref]
  29. B. Koehler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Phase and intensity characterization of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 483 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  30. K. W. DeLong and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  31. K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. Grant, K. Lui, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904 (1995).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  32. K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral-phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 424.
  33. J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and the phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39 (1991).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  34. V. Wong and I. Walmsley, “Phase retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 178 (1995).
    [Crossref]
  35. B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
    [Crossref]
  36. C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Second harmonic beam analysis, a sensitive technique to determine the duration of single ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
    [Crossref]
  37. J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Tilted-pulse second-harmonic beam analysis for femtosecond to subnanosecond laser pulse-duration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 79 (1984).
    [Crossref]
  38. R. Wyatt and E. E. Marinero, “Versatile single-shot background-free pulse duration measurement technique for pulses of subnanosecond to picosecond duration,” Appl. Phys. 25, 297 (1981).
    [Crossref]
  39. J. Piasecki, B. Colombeau, M. Vampouille, C. Froehly, and J. A. Arnaud, “Nouvelle methode de mesure de la reponse impulsionnelle des fibres optiques,” Appl. Opt. 19, 3749 (1980).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]
  40. F. Reynaud, F. Salin, and A. Barthelemy, “Measurement of phase shifts introduced by nonlinear phenomena on subpicosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 275 (1989).
    [Crossref] [PubMed]

1996 (1)

1995 (8)

B. Koehler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Phase and intensity characterization of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 483 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. DeLong and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. Grant, K. Lui, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. P. Christov, “Ultrashort optical waveform measurements using frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 743 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Temporal characterization of the Stanford mid-IR FEL micropulses by FROG,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, “Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical gating measurements of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. DeLong, C. L. Ladera, and R. Trebino, “Ultrashort pulse measurement using noninstanteous nonlinearities: Raman effects in frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 486 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan and W. E. White, “Phase control for production of high fidelity optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 20, 192 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

1994 (7)

1993 (7)

1991 (3)

1989 (1)

1988 (1)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

1987 (2)

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion: application to fiber compensation in 1.3–1.6 micron region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[Crossref]

1985 (2)

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and R. N. Thurston, “Picosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase and amplitude manipulation,” Opt. Lett. 10, 609 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 69 (1985).
[Crossref]

1984 (1)

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Tilted-pulse second-harmonic beam analysis for femtosecond to subnanosecond laser pulse-duration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 79 (1984).
[Crossref]

1981 (1)

R. Wyatt and E. E. Marinero, “Versatile single-shot background-free pulse duration measurement technique for pulses of subnanosecond to picosecond duration,” Appl. Phys. 25, 297 (1981).
[Crossref]

1980 (1)

1979 (1)

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Second harmonic beam analysis, a sensitive technique to determine the duration of single ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[Crossref]

1969 (1)

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[Crossref]

Allais, I.

Arnaud, J. A.

Bado, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Barthelemy, A.

Barty, C. P. J.

Blair, R. J.

Bonlie, J. D.

J. D. Bonlie, W. E. White, D. F. Price, and D. H. Reitze, “Chirped pulse amplification with flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, R. P. Trebino and I. A. Walmsley, eds., Proc. SPIE2116, 312 (1994).
[Crossref]

Chilla, J. L. A.

Christov, I. P.

Chu, K. C.

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. Grant, K. Lui, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral-phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 424.

Colombeau, B.

Combs, R. L.

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepard, “Compensation of higher order frequency dependent phase terms in chirped pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1345 (1993).
[Crossref]

Corradi, G.

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Tilted-pulse second-harmonic beam analysis for femtosecond to subnanosecond laser pulse-duration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 79 (1984).
[Crossref]

DeLong, K. W.

C. L. Ladera, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Direct ultrashort pulse intensity and phase retrieval using frequency resolved optical gating and a computational neural network,” Opt. Lett. 21, 143 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. P. Christov, “Ultrashort optical waveform measurements using frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 743 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. Koehler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Phase and intensity characterization of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 483 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. DeLong, C. L. Ladera, and R. Trebino, “Ultrashort pulse measurement using noninstanteous nonlinearities: Raman effects in frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 486 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, “Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical gating measurements of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Temporal characterization of the Stanford mid-IR FEL micropulses by FROG,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong and R. Trebino, “Improved ultrashort pulse-retrieval algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2429 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, “Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved optical gating traces for 3 common beam geometries,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of 2nd-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kane, A. J. Taylor, R. Trebino, and K. W. Delong, “Single shot measurement of the intensity and phase of a femtosecond uv laser pulse with frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, “Pulse retrieval in frequency-resolved optical gating based on the method of generalized projections,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Dienes, A.

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. Grant, K. Lui, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral-phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 424.

Ditmire, T.

Falcone, R. W.

Fittinghoff, D. N.

Franco, M. A.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Froehly, C.

Fujimoto, J. G.

Gordon, C. L.

Gordon, S.

Grant, R.

Grant, R. S.

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral-phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 424.

Hamster, H.

Heritage, J. P.

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. Grant, K. Lui, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and R. N. Thurston, “Picosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase and amplitude manipulation,” Opt. Lett. 10, 609 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral-phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 424.

Hunter, J.

Ippen, E. P.

Ishida, Y.

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 69 (1985).
[Crossref]

Janszky, J.

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Tilted-pulse second-harmonic beam analysis for femtosecond to subnanosecond laser pulse-duration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 79 (1984).
[Crossref]

Kaiser, W.

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Second harmonic beam analysis, a sensitive technique to determine the duration of single ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[Crossref]

Kane, D. J.

Kapteyn, H. C.

Kmetic, J. D.

Koehler, B.

Kohler, B.

Kolmeder, C.

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Second harmonic beam analysis, a sensitive technique to determine the duration of single ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[Crossref]

Ladera, C. L.

Lemoff, B. E.

Lui, K.

Macklin, J. J.

Maine, P.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

Marinero, E. E.

R. Wyatt and E. E. Marinero, “Versatile single-shot background-free pulse duration measurement technique for pulses of subnanosecond to picosecond duration,” Appl. Phys. 25, 297 (1981).
[Crossref]

Martinez, O. E.

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and the phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion: application to fiber compensation in 1.3–1.6 micron region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[Crossref]

Mazataud, E.

Migur, A.

Mourou, G.

C. Rouyer, E. Mazataud, I. Allais, A. Pierre, S. Seznec, C. Sauteret, G. Mourou, and A. Migur, “Generation of 50-TW femtosecond pulses in a Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass chain,” Opt. Lett. 18, 214 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

Murnane, M. M.

Mysyrowicz, A.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Naganuma, K.

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 69 (1985).
[Crossref]

Nathel, H.

Nibbering, E. T. J.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Patterson, F. G.

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepard, “Compensation of higher order frequency dependent phase terms in chirped pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1345 (1993).
[Crossref]

Paye, J.

Perry, M. D.

Pessot, M.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

Piasecki, J.

Pierre, A.

Prade, B. S.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Price, D. F.

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepard, “Compensation of higher order frequency dependent phase terms in chirped pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1345 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bonlie, W. E. White, D. F. Price, and D. H. Reitze, “Chirped pulse amplification with flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, R. P. Trebino and I. A. Walmsley, eds., Proc. SPIE2116, 312 (1994).
[Crossref]

Ramaswamy, M.

Reitze, D. H.

J. D. Bonlie, W. E. White, D. F. Price, and D. H. Reitze, “Chirped pulse amplification with flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, R. P. Trebino and I. A. Walmsley, eds., Proc. SPIE2116, 312 (1994).
[Crossref]

Reynaud, F.

Richman, B. A.

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Temporal characterization of the Stanford mid-IR FEL micropulses by FROG,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Rouyer, C.

Rundquist, A.

Salin, F.

Sauteret, C.

Schins, J. M.

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[Crossref]

Seznec, S.

Shepard, R. L.

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepard, “Compensation of higher order frequency dependent phase terms in chirped pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1345 (1993).
[Crossref]

Squier, J.

Strickland, D.

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

Sullivan, A.

Taft, G.

Taylor, A. J.

Thurston, R. N.

Treacy, E. B.

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[Crossref]

Trebino, R.

C. L. Ladera, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Direct ultrashort pulse intensity and phase retrieval using frequency resolved optical gating and a computational neural network,” Opt. Lett. 21, 143 (1996).
[Crossref]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. P. Christov, “Ultrashort optical waveform measurements using frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 743 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong, C. L. Ladera, and R. Trebino, “Ultrashort pulse measurement using noninstanteous nonlinearities: Raman effects in frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 486 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

B. Koehler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Phase and intensity characterization of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 483 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. DeLong and R. Trebino, “Simultaneous recovery of two ultrashort laser pulses from a single spectrogram,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 2463 (1995).
[Crossref]

D. N. Fittinghoff, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and C. L. Ladera, “Noise sensitivity in frequency-resolved optical gating measurements of ultrashort pulses,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 12, 1955 (1995).
[Crossref]

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Temporal characterization of the Stanford mid-IR FEL micropulses by FROG,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of 2nd-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, and D. J. Kane, “Comparison of ultrashort-pulse frequency-resolved optical gating traces for 3 common beam geometries,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 1595 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong and R. Trebino, “Improved ultrashort pulse-retrieval algorithm for frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 2429 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, “Pulse retrieval in frequency-resolved optical gating based on the method of generalized projections,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane, A. J. Taylor, R. Trebino, and K. W. Delong, “Single shot measurement of the intensity and phase of a femtosecond uv laser pulse with frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

R. Trebino and D. J. Kane, “Using phase retrieval to measure the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse—frequency-resolved optical gating,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 10, 1101 (1993).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[Crossref]

Vampouille, M.

Walmsley, I.

V. Wong and I. Walmsley, “Phase retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 178 (1995).
[Crossref]

Weiner, A. M.

White, W.

White, W. E.

A. Sullivan and W. E. White, “Phase control for production of high fidelity optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 20, 192 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. Grant, K. Lui, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. Delong, R. Trebino, J. Hunter, and W. E. White, “Frequency-resolved optical gating with the use of 2nd-harmonic generation,” J. Opt. Soc. Am. B 11, 2206 (1994).
[Crossref]

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepard, “Compensation of higher order frequency dependent phase terms in chirped pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1345 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bonlie, W. E. White, D. F. Price, and D. H. Reitze, “Chirped pulse amplification with flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, R. P. Trebino and I. A. Walmsley, eds., Proc. SPIE2116, 312 (1994).
[Crossref]

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral-phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 424.

Wilson, K.

Wilson, K. R.

Wong, V.

V. Wong and I. Walmsley, “Phase retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 178 (1995).
[Crossref]

Wyatt, R.

R. Wyatt and E. E. Marinero, “Versatile single-shot background-free pulse duration measurement technique for pulses of subnanosecond to picosecond duration,” Appl. Phys. 25, 297 (1981).
[Crossref]

Yajima, T.

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 69 (1985).
[Crossref]

Yakovlev, V. V.

Young, J. F.

Zinth, W.

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Second harmonic beam analysis, a sensitive technique to determine the duration of single ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[Crossref]

Appl. Opt. (1)

Appl. Phys. (1)

R. Wyatt and E. E. Marinero, “Versatile single-shot background-free pulse duration measurement technique for pulses of subnanosecond to picosecond duration,” Appl. Phys. 25, 297 (1981).
[Crossref]

Appl. Phys. B (1)

J. Janszky and G. Corradi, “Tilted-pulse second-harmonic beam analysis for femtosecond to subnanosecond laser pulse-duration measurements,” Appl. Phys. B 33, 79 (1984).
[Crossref]

IEEE J. Quantum Electron. (5)

P. Maine, D. Strickland, P. Bado, M. Pessot, and G. Mourou, “Generation of ultrahigh peak power pulses by chirped pulse amplification,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 24, 398 (1988).
[Crossref]

O. E. Martinez, “3000 times grating compressor with positive group velocity dispersion: application to fiber compensation in 1.3–1.6 micron region,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-23, 59 (1987).
[Crossref]

E. B. Treacy, “Optical pulse compression with diffraction gratings,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-5, 454 (1969).
[Crossref]

Y. Ishida, K. Naganuma, and T. Yajima, “Self-phase modulation in hybridly mode-locked cw dye lasers,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-21, 69 (1985).
[Crossref]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Characterization of arbitrary femtosecond pulses using frequency resolved optical gating,” IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 29, 571 (1993).
[Crossref]

J. Opt. Soc. Am. A (2)

J. Opt. Soc. Am. B (4)

Nucl. Instrum. Methods A (1)

B. A. Richman, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Temporal characterization of the Stanford mid-IR FEL micropulses by FROG,” Nucl. Instrum. Methods A 358, 268 (1995).
[Crossref]

Opt. Commun. (3)

B. S. Prade, J. M. Schins, E. T. J. Nibbering, M. A. Franco, and A. Mysyrowicz, “A simple method for the determination of the intensity and phase of ultrashort optical pulses,” Opt. Commun. 113, 79 (1994).
[Crossref]

C. Kolmeder, W. Zinth, and W. Kaiser, “Second harmonic beam analysis, a sensitive technique to determine the duration of single ultrashort laser pulses,” Opt. Commun. 30, 453 (1979).
[Crossref]

M. Pessot, P. Maine, and G. Mourou, “1000 times expansion/compression of optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Commun. 62, 419 (1987).
[Crossref]

Opt. Lett. (19)

K. W. Delong, D. N. Fittinghoff, R. Trebino, B. Kohler, and K. Wilson, “Pulse retrieval in frequency-resolved optical gating based on the method of generalized projections,” Opt. Lett. 19, 2152 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane, A. J. Taylor, R. Trebino, and K. W. Delong, “Single shot measurement of the intensity and phase of a femtosecond uv laser pulse with frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1061 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

D. J. Kane and R. Trebino, “Single-shot measurement of the intensity and phase of an arbitrary ultrashort pulse by using frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 18, 823 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. Paye, M. Ramaswamy, J. G. Fujimoto, and E. P. Ippen, “Measurement of the amplitude and phase of ultrashort light pulses from spectrally resolved autocorrelation,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1946 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

W. E. White, F. G. Patterson, R. L. Combs, D. F. Price, and R. L. Shepard, “Compensation of higher order frequency dependent phase terms in chirped pulse amplification systems,” Opt. Lett. 18, 1345 (1993).
[Crossref]

A. Sullivan and W. E. White, “Phase control for production of high fidelity optical pulses for chirped pulse amplification,” Opt. Lett. 20, 192 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. P. Heritage, A. M. Weiner, and R. N. Thurston, “Picosecond pulse shaping by spectral phase and amplitude manipulation,” Opt. Lett. 10, 609 (1985).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

A. Sullivan, H. Hamster, H. C. Kapteyn, S. Gordon, W. White, H. Nathel, R. J. Blair, and R. W. Falcone, “Multiterawatt, 100-fs laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1406 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. D. Kmetic, J. J. Macklin, and J. F. Young, “0.5-TW, 125-fs Ti:sapphire laser,” Opt. Lett. 16, 1001 (1991).
[Crossref]

T. Ditmire and M. D. Perry, “Terawatt Cr:LiSAF laser system,” Opt. Lett. 18, 426 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. Rouyer, E. Mazataud, I. Allais, A. Pierre, S. Seznec, C. Sauteret, G. Mourou, and A. Migur, “Generation of 50-TW femtosecond pulses in a Ti:sapphire/Nd:glass chain,” Opt. Lett. 18, 214 (1993).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. P. J. Barty, C. L. Gordon, and B. E. Lemoff, “Multiterawatt 30-fs Ti:sapphire laser system,” Opt. Lett. 19, 1442 (1994).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

J. L. A. Chilla and O. E. Martinez, “Direct determination of the amplitude and the phase of femtosecond light pulses,” Opt. Lett. 16, 39 (1991).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

F. Reynaud, F. Salin, and A. Barthelemy, “Measurement of phase shifts introduced by nonlinear phenomena on subpicosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 14, 275 (1989).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

K. W. DeLong, C. L. Ladera, and R. Trebino, “Ultrashort pulse measurement using noninstanteous nonlinearities: Raman effects in frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 486 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

C. L. Ladera, K. W. DeLong, D. N. Fittinghoff, and R. Trebino, “Direct ultrashort pulse intensity and phase retrieval using frequency resolved optical gating and a computational neural network,” Opt. Lett. 21, 143 (1996).
[Crossref]

B. Koehler, V. V. Yakovlev, K. R. Wilson, J. Squier, K. W. DeLong, and R. Trebino, “Phase and intensity characterization of femtosecond pulses from a chirped-pulse amplifier by frequency-resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 483 (1995).
[Crossref]

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. Grant, K. Lui, A. Dienes, W. E. White, and A. Sullivan, “Direct measurement of the spectral phase of femtosecond pulses,” Opt. Lett. 20, 904 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

G. Taft, A. Rundquist, M. M. Murnane, H. C. Kapteyn, K. W. DeLong, R. Trebino, and I. P. Christov, “Ultrashort optical waveform measurements using frequency resolved optical gating,” Opt. Lett. 20, 743 (1995).
[Crossref] [PubMed]

Other (3)

K. C. Chu, J. P. Heritage, R. S. Grant, A. Dienes, A. Sullivan, and W. E. White, “Direct spectral-phase measurement of femtosecond optical pulses by using multiple-slit interference,” in Conference on Lasers and Electro-Optics, Vol. 15 of 1995 OSA Technical Digest Series (Optical Society of America, Washington, D.C., 1995), p. 424.

V. Wong and I. Walmsley, “Phase retrieval in time-resolved spectral phase measurement,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses II, C. P. Barty and F. W. Wise, eds., Proc. SPIE2377, 178 (1995).
[Crossref]

J. D. Bonlie, W. E. White, D. F. Price, and D. H. Reitze, “Chirped pulse amplification with flashlamp-pumped Ti:sapphire amplifiers,” in Generation, Amplification, and Measurement of Ultrashort Laser Pulses, R. P. Trebino and I. A. Walmsley, eds., Proc. SPIE2116, 312 (1994).
[Crossref]

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Figures (20)

Fig. 1
Fig. 1

Diagram of the modified pulse stretcher with the air-spaced doublet lens. The arrows indicate the adjustments necessary for phase tuning.

Fig. 2
Fig. 2

Diagram of a scanning FROG device showing second-harmonic generation as the gating technique. Other gating techniques may be used.

Fig. 3
Fig. 3

Diagram of the DOSPM setup. A mask in the Fourier plane transmits two narrow frequency bands whose temporal interference may be used to determine their relative phase. The individual slits have a width of δω and a separation of Δω.

Fig. 4
Fig. 4

(a) Three consecutive FROG-retrieved spectra of a 100-fs, 800-nm pulse showing the reproducibility of FROG. (b) FROG-retrieved spectral phases for the data in (a). The laser pulse was adjusted for minimum residual phase as determined by cross correlation.

Fig. 5
Fig. 5

Phase data from FROG reproducibility study with compressor length detuned 400 µm from the optimum length. The presence of residual quadratic phase is clearly observed.

Fig. 6
Fig. 6

Wavelength-dependent phase from FROG reproducibility experiments. The stretcher lens is offset 1 mm transverse to introduce cubic phase.

Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Wavelength-dependent phase from DOSPM reproducibility experiments. The system is adjusted from minimum residual phase.

Fig. 8
Fig. 8

Wavelength-dependent phase from DOSPM reproducibility experiments. The compressor length is detuned 2 mm from the optimum length.

Fig. 9
Fig. 9

Wavelength-dependent phase from FROG accuracy experiment. The compressor length was varied about the optimum position to introduce varying quadratic phase.

Fig. 10
Fig. 10

Quadratic fit coefficient versus compressor length detuning from polynomial fit to spectral phase data in Fig. 9. The quadratic tuning parameter is 4.87 × 10−27 s2/mm, compared with the analytically computed value of 4.82 × 10−27 s2/mm. The sign of the quadratic phase was artificially corrected with knowledge of the experimental conditions.

Fig. 11
Fig. 11

Frequency-dependent phase in FROG accuracy experiment as a function of stretcher lens displacement. The cubic phase is clearly visible.

Fig. 12
Fig. 12

Plot of cubic phase coefficient versus stretcher lens displacement from a polynomial fit to the phase data from the FROG accuracy experiment in Fig. 11. The sign of the cubic phase was determined from cross-correlation measurements. A linear fit yields a cubic tuning parameter of -4.80 × 10−40 s3/mm, which is in good agreement with the value of -4.86 × 10−40 s3/mm obtained by spectral interferometry.

Fig. 13
Fig. 13

Spectral phase with fixed cubic phase and varying quadratic phase as determined by the FROG accuracy experiment.

Fig. 14
Fig. 14

Quadratic phase coefficient versus compressor length detuning for the data in Fig. 13 from the FROG accuracy experiment. The slope of a linear gives a tuning coefficient of 4.81 × 10−27 s2/mm, which is in excellent agreement with the analytically computed value of 4.82 × 10−27 s2/mm.

Fig. 15
Fig. 15

Frequency-dependent phase as a function of compressor length detuning from the DOSPM accuracy experiment.

Fig. 16
Fig. 16

Quadratic phase coefficient versus compressor length detuning from a polynomial fit to the DOSPM accuracy data in Fig. 15. The slope of the linear fit yields a quadratic tuning parameter of 4.84 × 10−27 s2/mm, which is in excellent agreement with the analytically computed value of 4.82 × 10−27 s2/mm.

Fig. 17
Fig. 17

Spectral phase with varying transverse displacement of the second stretcher lens. The presence of residual cubic phase is easily observed.

Fig. 18
Fig. 18

Cubic coefficient versus lens displacements from the spectral phase data in Fig. 18. The slope of a linear fit yields a cubic tuning parameter of -4.39 × 10−40 s3/mm, which is in excellent agreement with the value of -4.40 × 10−40 s3/mm obtained from fitting to pulse cross correlations.

Fig. 19
Fig. 19

Spectral phase with fixed cubic phase and varying quadratic phase from DOSPM accuracy experiment.

Fig. 20
Fig. 20

Quadratic coefficient versus compressor detuning for data in Fig. 19. The slope of the linear fit yields a tuning parameter of 4.97 × 10−27 s2/mm, which is in good agreement with the analytically computed value of 4.82 × 10−27 s2/mm.

Tables (7)

Tables Icon

Table 1 Bandwidth of Spectral Data in Fig. 4(a) as from a Gaussian Fit and Quadratic and Cubic Polynomial Fit Coefficients for the FROG Reproducibility Phase Data in Fig. 4(b)a

Tables Icon

Table 2 Quadratic and Cubic Polynomial Fit Coefficients for the FROG Reproducibility Phase Data in Fig. 5a

Tables Icon

Table 3 Quadratic and Cubic Polynomial Fit Coefficients for the FROG Reproducibility Phase Data in Fig. 7a

Tables Icon

Table 4 Quadratic and Cubic Polynomial Fit Coefficients for the DOSPM Reproducibility Phase Data in Fig. 7a

Tables Icon

Table 5 Quadratic and Cubic Polynomial Fit Coefficients for the DOSPM Reproducibility Phase Data in Fig. 8a

Tables Icon

Table 6 Quadratic and Cubic Polynomial Fit Coefficients for the FROG Accuracy Phase Data in Fig. 14a

Tables Icon

Table 7 Quadratic and Cubic Polynomial Fit Coefficients for the DOSPM Accuracy Phase Data in Fig. 19a

Equations (15)

Equations on this page are rendered with MathJax. Learn more.

ϕ(ω)=ϕ0+ϕ1(ω-ω0)+ϕ2(ω-ω0)2+ϕ3(ω-ω0)3+ϕ4(ω-ω0)4+,
S(ω,t)=-Esig(t,τ)exp(-iωt)dt2,
Esig(t,τ)=[E(t)]2E*(t-τ).
Esig(t,τ)=E(t)|E(t-τ)|2.
Esig(t,τ)=E(t)E(t-τ).
-I(ω)I(ω¯-ω)dω=-S(ω¯,τ)dτ.
S(t)sin2(δωt/2)(δωt)2cos2Δωt+Δϕ2,
ϕ2L=4π2cω3d2cos-2 γ,
T=NΔt=1Δνλ2cΔλc,
(ΔνΔt)max=N2.88 ln R,
ϕ2max=2πNΩ2,
(ΔνΔt)max=N1.44 ln R,
dmin=λfnd cos γ,
141+exp-Δω2Δω02-exp-2Δω2Δω0×1-cos2Δωt+ϕ2,
121+exp(-τp2Δω2)cosΔωt+ϕ2,

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